Catherine A Billups

St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, United States

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Publications (111)680.72 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Predictive biomarkers are required to identify patients who may benefit from the use of BH3 mimetics such as ABT-263. This study investigated the efficacy of ABT-263 against a panel of patient-derived pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) xenografts and utilized cell and molecular approaches to identify biomarkers that predict in vivo ABT-263 sensitivity. Experimental Design: The in vivo efficacy of ABT-263 was tested against a panel of 31 patient-derived ALL xenografts comprised of MLL-, BCP- and T-ALL subtypes. Basal gene expression profiles of ALL xenografts were analyzed and confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR, protein expression and BH3 profiling. An in vitro co-culture assay with immortalized human mesenchymal cells was utilized to build a predictive model of in vivo ABT-263 sensitivity. Results: ABT-263 demonstrated impressive activity against pediatric ALL xenografts, with 19 of 31 achieving objective responses. Among BCL2 family members, in vivo ABT-263 sensitivity correlated best with low MCL1 mRNA expression levels. BH3 profiling revealed that resistance to ABT-263 correlated with mitochondrial priming by NOXA peptide, suggesting a functional role for MCL1 protein. Using an in vitro co-culture assay, a predictive model of in vivo ABT-263 sensitivity was built. Testing this model against 11 xenografts predicted in vivo ABT-263 responses with high sensitivity (50%) and specificity (100%). Conclusion: These results highlight the in vivo efficacy of ABT-263 against a broad range of pediatric ALL subtypes and shows that a combination of in vitro functional assays can be used to predict its in vivo efficacy.
    Clinical Cancer Research 06/2014; · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glembatumumab vedotin is an antibody-auristatin conjugate that targets cells expressing the transmembrane glycoprotein NMB (GPNMB, also known as osteoactivin). It has entered clinical evaluation for adult cancers that express GPNMB, including melanoma and breast cancer.
    Pediatric Blood & Cancer 06/2014; · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The addition of immunotherapy, including a combination of anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody (mAb), ch14.18, and cytokines, improves outcome for patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. However, this therapy is limited by ch14.18-related toxicities that may be partially mediated by complement activation. We report the results of a phase I trial to determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), safety profile, and pharmacokinetics of hu14.18K322A, a humanized anti-GD2 mAb with a single point mutation (K322A) that reduces complement-dependent lysis. Eligible patients with refractory or recurrent neuroblastoma received escalating doses of hu14.18K322A ranging from 2 to 70 mg/m(2) per day for 4 consecutive days every 28 days (one course). Thirty-eight patients (23 males; median age, 7.2 years) received a median of two courses (range, one to 15). Dose-limiting grade 3 or 4 toxicities occurred in four of 36 evaluable patients and were characterized by cough, asthenia, sensory neuropathy, anorexia, serum sickness, and hypertensive encephalopathy. The most common non-dose-limiting grade 3 or 4 toxicities during course one were pain (68%) and fever (21%). Six of 31 patients evaluable for response by iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine score had objective responses (four complete responses; two partial responses). The first-course pharmacokinetics of hu14.18K322A were best described by a two-compartment linear model. Median hu14.18K322A α (initial phase) and β (terminal phase) half-lives were 1.74 and 21.1 days, respectively. The MTD, and recommended phase II dose, of hu14.18K322A is 60 mg/m(2) per day for 4 days. Adverse effects, predominately pain, were manageable and improved with subsequent courses.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 04/2014; · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Most prior studies evaluating subsequent malignant neoplasms (SMNs) in patients with neuroblastoma are restricted to long-term survivors and/or their treatment exposures. This study investigates SMNs in patients diagnosed with neuroblastoma at our institution. Records of 646 patients treated for neuroblastoma at St Jude Children's Research Hospital between 1961 and 2005 were reviewed. Data from patients with SMNs were analyzed and the 20- and 30-year cumulative incidence of SMNs and standardized incidence ratio were calculated. Twenty-one patients had a SMN. The 20- and 30-year cumulative incidences of a SMN were 2.6%±0.7% and 4.6%±1.1%, respectively. The standardized incidence ratio was 8.3 (95% confidence interval, 5.0-13.0). Five patients developed a SMN within 5 years from diagnosis. The median latency for the development of acute myeloid leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome (n=4), sarcomas (n=7), and carcinomas (n=5) were 3.6, 9, and 24.2 years, respectively. Nine patients died from their SMN, including all with acute myeloid leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome. Patients with neuroblastoma have an increased risk of secondary neoplasia. Modification of risk-adapted therapies will likely alter the affected patient population and the incidence of SMNs. Future studies are necessary to link SMNs to treatment exposures and to evaluate the risk of SMNs beyond 30 years from diagnosis.
    Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology 03/2014; · 0.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There are no standardized diagnostic or treatment guidelines for patients with advanced unilateral retinoblastoma. Patients with advanced unilateral retinoblastoma were prospectively treated after enucleation using a risk-based protocol. Patients were assigned to low risk (LR), intermediate risk (IR), or high risk (HR) based on pathology. LR patients underwent observation. IR patients received 4 courses of chemotherapy with vincristine, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (VDC). In the HR group, patients received 3 courses of VDC alternating with 3 courses of vincristine, carboplatin, and etoposide (VCE) and irradiation when indicated. Fifty patients with advanced unilateral retinoblastoma were treated (LR, n=36; IR, n=7; HR, n=7). All eyes were Reese-Ellsworth group V. All bone scans (n=81), lumbar punctures (n=16), and bone marrow aspirates (n=16) were negative. Chemotherapy was well tolerated. Grades 3/4 hematologic toxicities were seen in all patients; grades 3/4 nonhematologic toxicities were seen in half the patients. Only one patient in the HR group received radiation therapy. All patients were alive at the time of analysis with no signs of disease recurrence. Median follow-up was 3.4 years (range, 0.8 to 6.4 y). Patients with nonmetastatic unilateral retinoblastoma undergoing primary enucleation can be cured with a graduated intensity approach based on pathology.
    Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology 02/2014; · 0.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The history, prognostic factors and outcome of young patients with head and neck non-rhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcomas (NRSTS) have not been adequately characterized. Methods: Medical records of 58 patients with head and neck NRSTS treated at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital were reviewed. Results: The majority of tumors were ≤ 5 cm and high grade. Lymph node and/or distant metastases were present in 17% at presentation. Patients received a combination of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The 10-year event-free and survival rates were 53.1% ± 7.3% and 63.2% ± 7.1%. Features associated with inferior survival included high histologic grade (p=0.006), tumor diameter > 5 cm (p<0.001), invasiveness (p<0.001), and incomplete resection at diagnosis (p=0.005). Conclusions: Most head and neck NRSTS in young patients are small, high-grade and non-metastatic. The outcome is poor compared to NRSTS at other anatomic sites. Innovative approaches to local control and improved systemic therapy are needed. Head Neck, 2013.
    Head & Neck 12/2013; · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to assess the feasibility and utility of PET/CT in distinguishing benign from malignant pulmonary nodules in patients with solid childhood malignancies. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. This prospective study was conducted between March 2008 and August 2010. We enrolled 25 subjects 21 years old or younger with solid childhood malignancies and at least one pulmonary nodule measuring 0.5-3.0 cm. PET/CT was performed within 3 weeks of diagnostic chest CT. Three panels of three reviewers each reviewed diagnostic CT only (panel 1), PET/CT only (panel 2), or diagnostic CT and PET/CT concurrently (panel 3) and predicted each nodule's histologic diagnosis as benign, malignant, or indeterminate. Interreviewer agreement was assessed with the kappa statistic. Using nodule biopsy or clinical follow-up as reference standards, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for each panel was assessed. Logistic regression was used to assess the nodule's maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) association with its histologic diagnosis. RESULTS. There were 75 nodules with a median size of 0.74 cm (range, 0.18-2.38 cm); 48 nodules were malignant. Sensitivity was 85% (41/48) for panel 1, 60% (29/48) for panel 2, and 67% (32/48) for panel 3. All panels had poor specificities. Interreviewer agreement was moderate for panel 1 (0.43) and poor for panels 2 (0.22) and 3 (0.33). SUVmax was a significant predictor of histologic diagnosis (p = 0.004). CONCLUSION. PET/CT assessment of pulmonary nodules is feasible in children with solid malignancies but may not reliably improve our ability to predict a nodule's histologic diagnosis. The SUVmax may improve the performance of PET/CT in this setting.
    American Journal of Roentgenology 12/2013; 201(6):W900-W905. · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Volasertib (BI 6727) is a potent inhibitor of Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1), that is overexpressed in several childhood cancers and cell lines. Because of its novel mechanism of action, volasertib was evaluated through the PPTP. Volasertib was tested against the PPTP in vitro cell line panel at concentrations from 0.1 nM to 1.0 μM and against the PPTP in vivo xenograft panels administered IV at a dose of 30 mg/kg (solid tumors) or 15 mg/kg (ALL models) using a q7dx3 schedule. In vitro volasertib demonstrated cytotoxic activity, with a median relative IC50 value of 14.1 nM, (range 6.0-135 nM). Volasertib induced significant differences in EFS in 19 of 32 (59%) of the evaluable solid tumor xenografts and in 2 of 4 (50%) of the evaluable ALL xenografts. Volasertib induced tumor growth inhibition meeting criteria for intermediate EFS T/C (>2) activity in 11 of 30 (37%) evaluable solid tumor xenografts, including neuroblastoma (4 of 6) and glioblastoma (2 of 3) panels, and 2 of 4 ALL models. Objective responses (CR's) were observed for 4 of 32 solid tumor (two neuroblastoma, one glioblastoma, and one rhabdomyosarcoma) and one of four ALL xenografts. Volasertib shows potent in vitro activity against the PPTP cell lines with no histotype selectivity. In vivo, volasertib induced regressions in several xenograft models. However, pharmacokinetic data suggest that mice tolerate higher systemic exposure to volasertib than humans, suggesting that the current results may over-estimate potential clinical efficacy against the childhood cancers studied. Pediatr Blood Cancer © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Pediatric Blood & Cancer 08/2013; · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    Annals of Surgical Oncology 05/2013; · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Activation of the PI3 kinase pathway occurs frequently in many adult cancers and is implicated in tumor cell proliferation, survival, and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. However, less is known regarding the relevance of this pathway in pediatric cancers. Here we have evaluated SAR245408, a novel small molecule PI3K inhibitor, against childhood cancer cell lines and xenografts. ProceduresSAR245408 was tested against the PPTP in vitro cell line panel at concentrations from 10 to 100 µM and against the PPTP in vivo xenograft panels at a dose of 100 mg/kg administered orally daily × 14. ResultsIn vitro SAR245408 demonstrated cytotoxic activity, with a median relative IC50 value of 10.9 µM (range 2.7–24.5 µM). SAR245408 was well tolerated in vivo, and all 44 tested xenograft models were evaluable for efficacy. SAR245408 induced significant differences in EFS distribution compared to control in 29 of 37 (79%) of solid tumor xenografts and in two of seven (29%) ALL xenografts. SAR245408 induced tumor growth inhibition meeting criteria for intermediate EFS T/C activity (EFS T/C > 2) in 4 of 37 (11%) solid tumor xenografts. Intermediate EFS T/C activity was also observed for two of seven (29%) evaluable ALL xenografts. Objective responses were not observed for solid tumor or for ALL xenografts. Conclusions Under the conditions evaluated in this study, SAR245408 achieved modest single-agent activity against most PPTP preclinical models. Further exploration of SAR245408 in combination with standard agents or with other signaling inhibitors could be considered. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2013; 60: 791–798. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Pediatric Blood & Cancer 05/2013; 60(5). · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy has improved the outcome of patients with newly diagnosed osteosarcoma, but its role in relapsed disease is unclear. METHODS: We reviewed the records of all patients who were treated for relapsed high-grade osteosarcoma at our institution between 1970 and 2004. Postrelapse event-free survival (PREFS) and postrelapse survival (PRS) were estimated, and outcome comparisons were made using an exact log-rank test. RESULTS: The 10-year PREFS and PRS of the 110 patients were 11.8% ± 3.5% and 17.0% ± 4.3%, respectively. Metastasis at initial diagnosis (14%), and relapse in lung only (75%) were not significantly associated with PREFS or PRS. Time from initial diagnosis to first relapse (RL1) ≥18 months (43%), surgery at RL1 (76%), and ability to achieve second complete remission (CR2, 56%) were favorably associated with PREFS and PRS (P ≤ 0.0002). In patients without CR2, chemotherapy at RL1 was favorably associated with PREFS (P = 0.01) but not with PRS. In patients with lung relapse only, unilateral relapse and number of nodules ( ≤ 3) were associated with better PREFS and PRS (P ≤ 0.0005); no patients with bilateral relapse survived 10 years. The median PREFS after treatment with cisplatin, doxorubicin, methotrexate, and ifosfamide was 3.5 months (95% confidence interval, 2.1-5.2), and the median PRS was 8.2 months (95% confidence interval, 5.2-15.1). CONCLUSIONS: Late relapse, surgical resection, and unilateral involvement (in lung relapse only) favorably impact outcome after relapse. Surgery is essential for survival; chemotherapy may slow disease progression in patients without CR2. These data are useful for designing clinical trials that evaluate novel agents. Cancer 2013;. © 2013 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 04/2013; · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Antimitotic agents are essential components for curative therapy of pediatric acute leukemias and many solid tumors. Eribulin is a novel agent that differs from both Vinca alkaloids and taxanes in its mode of binding to tubulin polymers. PROCEDURES: Eribulin was tested against the PPTP in vitro cell line panel at concentrations from 0.1 nM to 1.0 μM and against the PPTP in vivo xenograft panels at a dose of 1 mg/kg (solid tumors) or 1.5 mg/kg (ALL models) using a q4dx3 schedule repeated at Day 21. RESULTS: In vitro eribulin demonstrated cytotoxic activity, with a median relative IC50 value of 0.27 nM, (range <0.1-14.8 nM). Eribulin was well tolerated in vivo, and all 43 xenograft models were considered evaluable for efficacy. Eribulin induced significant differences in event-free survival (EFS) distribution compared to control in 29 of 35 (83%) of the solid tumors and in 8 of 8 (100%) of the ALL xenografts. Objective responses were observed in 18 of 35 (51%) solid tumor xenografts. Complete responses (CR) or maintained CR were observed in panels of Wilms tumor, Ewing sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, glioblastoma, and osteosarcoma xenografts. All eight ALL xenografts achieved CR or MCR. CONCLUSIONS: The high level of activity observed for eribulin against the PPTP preclinical models makes this an interesting agent to consider for pediatric evaluation. The activity pattern observed for eribulin in the solid tumor panels is equal or superior to that observed previously for vincristine. Pediatr Blood Cancer © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Pediatric Blood & Cancer 03/2013; · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Pediatric adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare, aggressive malignancy. Conventional chemotherapeutic agents have shown limited utility and are largely ineffective in treating children with advanced ACC. The lack of cell lines and animal models of pediatric ACC has hampered the development of new therapies. Here we report the establishment of the first pediatric ACC xenograft model and the characterization of its sensitivity to selected chemotherapeutic agents. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A tumor from an 11-year-old boy with previously untreated ACC was established as a subcutaneous xenograft in immunocompromised CB17 scid-/- mice. The patient harbored a germline TP53 G245C mutation, and the primary tumor showed loss of heterozygosity with retention of the mutated TP53 allele. Histopathology, DNA fingerprinting, gene expression profiling, and biochemical analyses of the xenograft were performed and compared with the primary tumor and normal adrenal cortex. The second endpoint was to assess the preliminary antitumor activity of selected chemotherapeutic agents. RESULTS: The xenograft maintained the histopathologic and molecular features of the primary tumor. Screening the xenograft for drug responsiveness showed cisplatin had a potent antitumor effect. However, etoposide, doxorubicin, and a panel of other common cancer drugs had little or no antitumor activity, with the exception of topotecan, which was found to significantly inhibit tumor growth. Consistent with these preclinical findings, topotecan as a single agent in a child with relapsed ACC resulted in disease stabilization. CONCLUSIONS: Our study established a novel TP53-associated pediatric ACC xenograft and identified topotecan as a potentially effective agent for treating children with this disease.
    Clinical Cancer Research 02/2013; · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmacodynamics (PD) of sorafenib, bevacizumab, and low-dose oral cyclophosphamide in children and young adults with recurrent/refractory solid tumors. Patients and Methods Sorafenib dose was escalated from 90 mg/m2 to 110 mg/m2 twice daily with fixed doses of bevacizumab at 5 mg/kg every 3 weeks and cyclophosphamide at 50 mg/m2 daily. Once sorafenib's MTD was established, bevacizumab dose was escalated. Each course was 21 days. PK and PD studies were performed during the first course. Results Nineteen patients (11 males; median age, 9.2 years) received a median of 4 courses (range, 1 to 23). DLTs during course 1 included grade 3 rash (2), increased lipase (1), anorexia (1), and thrombus (1). With an additional 71 courses of therapy, the most common toxicities ≥ grade 3 included neutropenia (9), lymphopenia (9), and rashes (4). Five of 17 evaluable patients had partial tumor responses, and 5 had disease stabilization (>2 courses). Median day 1 cyclophosphamide apparent oral clearance was 3.13 L/h/m2. Median day 1 sorafenib apparent oral clearance was 44 and 39 ml/min/m2 at the 2 dose levels evaluated, and steady-state concentrations ranged from 1.64 to 4.8 mg/L. Inhibition of serum VEGFR2 was inversely correlated with sorafenib steady-state concentrations (p=0.019). Conclusion The recommended phase II doses are sorafenib, 90 mg/m2 twice daily; bevacizumab, 15 mg/kg q3 weeks; and cyclophosphamide, 50 mg/m2 once daily. This regimen is feasible with promising evidence of antitumor activity that warrants further investigation.
    Clinical Cancer Research 11/2012; · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Locoregional failure is a significant concern in patients with high-risk abdominal neuroblastoma (NB) receiving radiotherapy. Locoregional control outcomes were studied in children with NB receiving intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). PROCEDURE: Twenty children (11 females, 9 males) with NB (median age at diagnosis 3.4 years) receiving IMRT were analyzed for locoregional failure, outcomes, and toxicities. IMRT doses were 23.4 Gy (n = 12), 30 Gy (n = 1), 30.6 Gy (n = 5), and 36.0 Gy (n = 2) based on extent of resection. Five patients had tumors with MYCN amplification, and 19 had metastatic disease. All patients were treated consistently using reproducible immobilization techniques; physiological motion was assessed by 4D-CT, and target localization by cone-beam computed tomography. ICRU 62 volumetric conventions were employed based on institutional data for pediatric target volume and organ motion. RESULTS: No patient developed primary site infield or locoregional failure at a median follow-up of 2.2 years. Distant failure (median time to distant failure 1.6 years) occurred in the brain, lungs, or skeletal sites in eight patients, five of whom died. The 2-year event-free survival was 58.5 ± 13.3% and cumulative incidence of local and distant failures was 0% and 41.5 ± 11.9%, respectively. Asymptomatic loose stool during RT occurred in nearly all patients, but required no intervention. CONCLUSIONS: IMRT is feasible, safe in the short term, and yields excellent locoregional control. Despite subtotal resection in some cases, locoregional control appeared to be increased by conformal radiotherapy with ICRU 62-compliant volumes. Dose escalation beyond 30.6 Gy may be unnecessary with improved target volume coverage. Pediatr Blood Cancer © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Pediatric Blood & Cancer 09/2012; · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ewing sarcoma (ES) is the most common chest wall malignancy in adolescents. Current therapy incorporates chemotherapy to treat systemic disease and radiotherapy to assist with local control. We sought to evaluate the timing of surgery and role of adjuvant radiotherapy. We reviewed the St. Jude Children's Research Hospital chest wall ES experience from 1979 to 2009. Patient demographics, tumor characteristics, treatment variables, and outcomes were analyzed with respect to timing of surgery and use of adjuvant radiotherapy. Our cohort consisted of 36 patients with chest wall ES; median follow-up was 14.2 years, and 15-year estimate of overall survival was 66 %. In patients with localized disease, the timing of surgery (up-front vs. delayed) did not impact margin negativity or the use of adjuvant radiotherapy, but it did decrease the extent of chest wall resection. When considering radiotherapy in patients with localized disease, we found that patients who did not receive radiotherapy had smaller tumor size (median 6 vs. 10 cm) (p = 0.04) and were more likely to have had negative margins (p = 0.01) than patients who received adjuvant radiotherapy. One patient in each group developed a locoregional recurrence. The 15-year estimated of overall survival for patients who received adjuvant radiotherapy was 80 versus 100 % for those who did not. Delayed surgery decreased the extent of chest wall resection and helped define a patient population with favorable tumor biology. Patients with complete pathologic responses to chemotherapy, and those with tumors <8 cm and negative surgical margins may be spared adjuvant radiotherapy without any decrement in overall survival.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 07/2012; 19(12):3809-15. · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: RG7112 is a selective inhibitor of p53-MDM2 binding that frees p53 from negative control, activating the p53 pathway in cancer cells leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. RG7112 was selected for evaluation by the Pediatric Preclinical Testing Program (PPTP) due to the relatively low incidence of p53 mutations in pediatric cancers compared with adult malignancies. PROCEDURES: RG7112 and its inactive enantiomer RG7112i were evaluated against the 23 cell lines of the PPTP in vitro panel using 96 hours exposure (1 nM to 10 µM). It was tested against the PPTP in vivo panel focusing on p53 wild-type (WT) xenografts at a dose of 100 mg/kg daily for 14 days followed by 4 weeks of observation. Response outcomes were related to MDM2 and p53 expression datasets ( RESULTS: RG7112 demonstrated cytotoxic activity with a lower median IC(50) for p53 WT versus p53 mutant cell lines (approximately 0.4 µM vs. >10 µM, respectively). RG7112 induced tumor growth inhibition meeting criteria for intermediate activity (EFS T/C > 2) in 10 of 26 (38%) solid tumor xenografts. Objective responses included medulloblastoma, alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, Wilms, rhabdoid and Ewing sarcoma xenografts. For the ALL panel, there was one partial response, five complete responses and one maintained complete response. The ALL xenografts expressed the highest levels of p53 among the PPTP panels. CONCLUSIONS: RG7112 induced tumor regressions in solid tumors from different histotype panels, and exhibited consistent high-level activity against ALL xenografts. This high level of activity supports prioritization of RG7112 for further evaluation. Pediatr Blood Cancer © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Pediatric Blood & Cancer 07/2012; · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: More than 90% of children with favorable-risk Hodgkin lymphoma can achieve long-term survival, yet many will experience toxic effects from radiation therapy. Pediatric oncologists strive for maintaining excellent cure rates while minimizing toxic effects. To evaluate the efficacy of 4 cycles of vinblastine, Adriamycin (doxorubicin), methotrexate, and prednisone (VAMP) in patients with favorable-risk Hodgkin lymphoma who achieve a complete response after 2 cycles and do not receive radiotherapy. Multi-institutional, unblinded, nonrandomized single group phase 2 clinical trial to assess the need for radiotherapy based on early response to chemotherapy. Eighty-eight eligible patients with Hodgkin lymphoma stage I and II (<3 nodal sites, no B symptoms, mediastinal bulk, or extranodal extension) enrolled between March 3, 2000, and December 9, 2008. Follow-up data are current to March 12, 2012. The 47 patients who achieved a complete response after 2 cycles received no radiotherapy, and the 41 with less than a complete response were given 25.5 Gy-involved-field radiotherapy. Two-year event-free survival was the primary outcome measure. A 2-year event-free survival of greater than 90% was desired, and 80% was considered to be unacceptably low. Two-year event-free survival was 90.8% (95% CI, 84.7%-96.9%). For patients who did not require radiotherapy, it was 89.4% (95% CI, 80.8%-98.0%) compared with 92.5% (95% CI, 84.5%-100%) for those who did (P = .61). Most common acute adverse effects were neuropathic pain (2% of patients), nausea or vomiting (3% of patients), neutropenia (32% of cycles), and febrile neutropenia (2% of patients). Nine patients (10%) were hospitalized 11 times (3% of cycles) for febrile neutropenia or nonneutropenic infection. Long-term adverse effects after radiotherapy were asymptomatic compensated hypothyroidism in 9 patients (10%), osteonecrosis and moderate osteopenia in 2 patients each (2%), subclinical pulmonary dysfunction in 12 patients (14%), and asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction in 4 patients (5%). No second malignant neoplasms were observed. Among patients with favorable-risk Hodgkin lymphoma and a complete early response to chemotherapy, the use of limited radiotherapy resulted in a high rate of 2-year event-free survival. Identifier: NCT00145600.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 06/2012; 307(24):2609-16. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether routine pelvic imaging is needed in patients with Wilms tumor. Thus, the primary objective of the current study was to examine the role of routine pelvic computed tomography (CT) in a cohort of pediatric patients with Wilms tumor. METHODS: With institutional review board approval, the authors retrospectively identified 110 patients who had Wilms tumor diagnosed between January 1999 and December 2009 with surveillance imaging that continued through March 2011. The authors estimated overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS), and dosimetry from dose length product (DLP) conversion to the effective dose (ED) for every CT in a subgroup of 80 patients who had CT studies obtained using contemporary scanners (2002-2011). Metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeters were placed within organs of anthropomorphic phantoms to directly calculate the truncal ED. ED(DLP) was correlated with ED(MOSFET) to calculate potential pelvic dose savings. RESULTS: Eighty patients underwent 605 CT examinations that contained DLP information, including 352 CT scans of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis; 123 CT scans of the chest and abdomen; 102 CT scans of the chest only; 18 CT scans of the abdomen and pelvis; 9 CT scans of the abdomen only; and 1 CT that was limited to the pelvis. The respective 5-year OS and EFS estimates were 92.8% ± 3% and 2.6% ± 4.3%. Sixteen of 110 patients (15%) developed a relapse a median of 11.3 months (range, 5.0 months to 7.3 years) after diagnosis, and 4 patients died of disease recurrence. Three patients developed pelvic relapses, all 3 of which were symptomatic. The estimated ED savings from sex-neutral CT surveillance performed at a 120-kilovolt peak without pelvic imaging was calculated as 30.5% for the average patient aged 1 year, 30.4% for the average patient aged 5 years, 39.4% for the average patient aged 10 years, and 44.9% for the average patient aged 15 years. CONCLUSIONS: Omitting pelvic CT from the routine, off-therapy follow-up of patients with Wilms tumor saved an average 30% to 45% of the ED without compromising disease detection. Cancer 2012. © 2012 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 06/2012; · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: New, effective chemotherapeutic agents are needed for intraocular retinoblastoma. METHODS: This institutional clinical trial sought to estimate the rate of response to 2 courses of vincristine and topotecan (VT) window therapy in patients with bilateral retinoblastoma and advanced disease (Reese-Ellsworth group IV or V) in at least 1 eye. The topotecan dose started at 3 mg/m(2) /day for 5 days and was adjusted to target a systemic exposure of 140 ± 20 ng/mL · hour. The vincristine dose was 0.05 mg/kg for patients <12 months of age and 1.5 mg/m(2) for those >12 months of age at diagnosis. RESULTS: From February 2005 to June 2010, 27 patients received VT window therapy. Median age at enrollment was 8.1 months (range, 0.7-22.1 months). Twenty-four patients (88.9%) responded to window therapy (95% confidence interval = 71.3%-96.9%). Hematologic toxicity comprised grade 4 neutropenia (n = 27), grade 3 anemia (n = 19), and grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia (n = 16). Thirteen patients had grade 3 nonhematologic toxicity. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor support was added after 10 patients had been treated, and it significantly reduced the duration of grade 4 neutropenia (median, 7 vs 24 days; P < .001). Pharmacokinetic studies showed rapid changes in topotecan clearance rates during the first year of life. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of topotecan and vincristine is effective for the treatment of advanced intraocular retinoblastoma. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor treatment alleviates the duration of grade 4 neutropenia. Appropriate topotecan starting doses for patients 0-3, 3-6, 6-9, 9-12, and >12 months of age are specified. Cancer 2012. © 2012 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 04/2012; · 5.20 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
680.72 Total Impact Points


  • 2002–2014
    • St. Jude Children's Research Hospital
      • • Department of Oncology
      • • Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Memphis, Tennessee, United States
  • 2013
    • Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center
      El Paso, Texas, United States
  • 2012
    • University of New South Wales
      • Children’s Cancer Institute of Australia
      Kensington, New South Wales, Australia
    • NCI-Frederick
      Maryland, United States
  • 2011–2012
    • Montefiore Medical Center
      • The Children's Hospital at Montefiore
      New York City, New York, United States
    • Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
    • The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2010–2011
    • Nationwide Children's Hospital
      Columbus, Ohio, United States
    • Children's Cancer Institute Australia
      Randwick, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2008–2011
    • Nemours
      Jacksonville, Florida, United States
    • The Children’s Hospital at Montefiore (CHAM)
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2007–2011
    • The University of Tennessee Health Science Center
      • Department of Ophthalmology
      Memphis, TN, United States
  • 2009
    • Children's National Medical Center
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2005
    • KK Women's and Children's Hospital
      • Department of Paediatric Surgery
      Singapore, Singapore
    • Bristol-Myers Squibb
      • Clinical Discovery
      New York City, NY, United States