M Anidjar

Université Paris 13 Nord, Villetaneuse, Ile-de-France, France

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Publications (32)77.4 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The feasibility of routine real-time clinical detection of precancerous lesions such as severe dysplasia and carcinoma in situ (CIS) by laser induced autofluorescence (LIAF), that is without the use of exogenous fluorescent marker, has been recently demonstrated in several medical fields. We present here an in vivo autofluorescence study we have undergone on normal, suspicious and tumoral areas of human bladder. Three different pulsed laser wavelengths were alternately used for excitation: 488 nm (Dye laser), 337 nm (Nitrogen laser), and 308 nm (XeCl excimer laser). A clinical endoscopic study was performed on 25 patients. Spectroscopic results were compared with histological analysis. For 488 nm and 337 nm excitation a single fluorescence broad band was obtained in any case, but for tumors the overall intensity was significantly reduced compared to normal mucosa. For 308 nm excitation we observed two main broad bands, centered respectively at about 360 nm and 440 nm. In case of neoplastic lesions (including carcinoma in situ), the intensity ratio [I(360nm)/I(440nm)] was always greater than 2, for normal or inflammatory areas it was less than 2. A clear diagnosis could then be achieved for 308 nm excitation with no need of absolute intensity measurements. However, in turbid media, the optical properties of the medium are wavelength dependent. As a consequence the observed fluorescence signals are different from the isolated fluorophores spectra and their shape depends also on the illumination and detection geometry. We show how this phenomenon can be taken into account for useful comparison of results from different groups.
    Physica Scripta 12/2006; 1997(T72):87. · 1.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dog prostate cancer is usually considered to be highly relevant to human prostate cancer. We report the isolation of a new canine prostate cancer epithelial cell line designated DPC-1. Primary cultures were established from a canine poorly differentiated prostatic adenocarcinoma. Population doubling time was determined by counting nuclei after cell lysis. Tumorigenicity was assessed in nude mice and in one adult immunodeficient dog. Immunoscintigraphy was performed in both models using a monoclonal antibody (mAb) raised against the [44-62] sequence of human PSMA. DPC-1 cells have a rapid growth in vitro (doubling time, 27 hr) which is not stimulated by androgens. In addition, DPC-1 displays immunoreactivity to human PSA and PSMA. DPC-1 was found to be highly tumorigenic not only in nude mice but also for the first time after orthotopic seeding in an immunodeficient dog. This allograft mimicked, in a compressed form, the aggressive biological behavior of spontaneous dog prostate adenocarcinoma. Immunoscintigraphy using a (131)Iodine-labeled PSMA mAb clearly visualized induced tumors in nude mice and in the dog allograft. This study suggests that DPC-1 may constitute a powerful model for assessing new diagnostic and/or therapeutic tools in the management of prostate cancer.
    The Prostate 02/2001; 46(1):2-10. · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a new prostatic stent (Trestle((R)), Boston Scientific Microvasive) for the treatment of BPH in patients with complete urinary retention and considered to be inoperable. The efficacy of the stent was evaluated in terms of return of micturition, level of patient satisfaction, uroflowmetry and residual urine. Any stents removed were examined by infrared spectrophotometry for the presence of crystalline encrustations. From December 1997 to April 1999, 20 stents were inserted under local anaesthesia in 17 patients aged 54-90 years. Stents remained in place for an average of 3.5 months. Two migrations were reported. The mean maximum flow rate was 13.7 ml/s and the mean residual urine was 110 ml. The infrared spectrophotometry study revealed a glycoprotein film on stents in place for 1-6 months, accompanied by uric acid crystals on stents in place for 9 months. The Trestle prostatic stent is effective and constitutes a good alternative to surgical treatment in patients with a high operative risk.
    European Urology 10/2000; 38(3):272-8. · 10.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the rationale for virus-mediated gene transfer into the urethra in vivo and in vitro, using a rabbit model, as this is an attractive approach to prevent recurrence after the endoscopic management of urethral strictures. Primary cultures of rabbit urethral stromal cells were infected with adenoviral and retroviral solutions carrying a nucleus-targeted beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal) reporter gene (respectively 109 and 107 plaque-forming units/mL). In addition, to mimic the human clinical situation, a model was developed of thermally induced stricture in rabbit urethra which produced fibrotic stenosis within 15 days. Using a prototype channelled balloon catheter, these strictures were endoscopically dilated and then instilled with the beta-Gal adenoviral or retroviral constructs. The application of recombinant adenovirus and retrovirus harbouring a nucleus-targeted beta-Gal reporter gene to cultured rabbit urethral stromal cells resulted in a high transduction efficiency of up to 90% and 96%, respectively. Five days after infection, histochemical and immunohistochemical staining of the strictured urethrae showed a 3% rate of transfection targeted to stromal cells within the fibrosis, confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Adjacent and distal spread of the virus was excluded by histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and PCR. These results represent the first report of endoscopic adenovirus and retrovirus-mediated gene transfer to the urethra. Although at a low rate, transduction reached stromal cells transmurally within the induced strictures and was site-specific.
    BJU International 07/2000; 85(9):1120-5. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess telomerase activity (involved in cell immortalization and detectable in most malignant tumours but not in normal somatic tissues) as a marker in cancer diagnosis. Tissue telomerase activity was assayed by two different techniques, the telomeric repeat amplification protocol-polymerase chain reaction (TRAP-PCR) and a telomerase PCR-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Malignant and inflammatory bladder lesions and their adjacent normal tissues were assessed for telomerase activity in a group of 18 patients, 14 of whom had urothelial carcinoma and four a nonspecific inflammatory lesion of the bladder. Eleven of the 14 tumour samples analysed were telomerase-positive and two of the three telomerase-negative tumour samples had a detectable 'telomerase inhibitor'. In the apparently normal tissues next to bladder tumours, four of the 14 specimens were telomerase-positive. Interestingly, these lesions were always next to high-grade muscle-invasive bladder tumours (pT2G3). Two of the four nonspecific inflammatory lesions (one of cystitis glandularis and one of severe dysplasia), known to be preneoplastic lesions, were also telomerase-positive. These results strongly suggest that the reactivation of telomerase may be an early event in bladder carcinogenesis, preceding morphological changes related to malignant transformation. Telomerase activity may therefore be useful both as an indicator of malignant potential in preneoplastic lesions, e.g. cystitis glandularis and severe dysplasia, and as a prognostic marker of bladder tumour relapse or progression.
    BJU International 04/2000; 85(4):526-31. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bladder neck suspension or colpo-suspension can be performed via retropubic or percutaneous transvaginal approaches. A higher success rate is observed for retropubic procedures. One of the hypotheses proposed, but not yet verified, is that the retropubic approach allows better quality vaginal fixation than the percutaneous approach. The objective of this study was to compare the biomechanical properties of vaginal fixation according to the Burch procedure and according to a percutaneous technique (Vesica; Boston Scientific). We performed bladder neck suspension according to the Burch technique (2 points) on the left and according to the Vesica percutaneous technique on the right, on 6 fresh cadavers (mean age 8-5 years), using the same suture material. Vaginal fixations were subsequently excised. The depth of penetration into the vagina was measured and a computerized traction test (Lloyd Instruments, France) was performed on these fixations. The maximum force of traction before rupture was measured. No significant difference was demonstrated for any of the measurements. Vaginal fixation of bladder neck suspension performed according to the Burch technique or via a percutaneous technique (Vesica) present equivalent biomechanical properties.
    Progrès en Urologie 10/1999; 9(4):727-30. · 0.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Direct gene transfer to the ureter is an attractive approach to prevent restenosis after endourologic management of ureteral strictures. We therefore assessed the rationale for adenovirus-mediated gene transfer in the ureter in vitro and in vivo using a porcine model. Primary cultures of porcine ureteral epithelial and stromal cells were infected with an adenoviral solution carrying a nucleus-targeted beta-Galactosidase (beta-Gal) reporter gene (6.5 10(8) pfu/ml.). In addition, in order to mimic the human clinical situation, we have devised a model of thermally-induced stricture in porcine ureter which produced tight fibrotic stenosis within 8 days. Using a purposely designed channelled balloon catheter prototype, these strictures were endoscopically dilated and then instilled with the same beta-Gal adenoviral construction. Application of recombinant adenovirus harboring a nucleus-targeted beta-Gal reporter gene to cultured porcine urothelial and stromal cells resulted in high transduction efficiency of up to 99% and 84% respectively. Seven days after infection, X-Gal staining of the strictured ureters demonstrated transfection up to 2 mm. depth within the fibrosis, confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Adjacent and distal spread of the virus was excluded by histochemistry (X-Gal staining) and PCR. This data represents the first report of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer to the ureter. It remained site specific by endourologic retrograde clinically applicable techniques.
    The Journal of Urology 06/1999; 161(5):1636-43. · 3.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To develop an experimental model of endoscopic urethral stricture mimicking the human clinical situation. Twenty-four New Zealand male rabbits were included. Eighteen animals (study group) underwent videourethroscopy with a pediatric resectoscope, and a 3 to 5-mm-long circumferential electrocoagulation of the bulbar urethra was performed, without postoperative urinary diversion. Six animals underwent the same procedure without application of electrocautery (control group). Each animal was assessed for urethral stricture on day 15 and day 30 by videourethroscopy and voiding cystogram. Among the study group, 8 animals were killed on day 15 and 10 on day 30 for histologic evaluation. All the control animals were killed on day 30 for histologic examination. Nine animals (50%) in the study group developed a significant bulbar stricture (reducing the lumen by more than 50%) at day 15. Histologic examination confirmed the presence of hyalin fibrosis mutilating the urethral wall. No spontaneous improvement of the stricture was observed on day 30. None of the controls developed urethral stricture, and histologic examination showed a normal urethra in each case. Endoscopic electrocoagulation of the urethral wall provides a reproducible model of stricture in the rabbit.
    Urology 06/1999; 53(5):1054-7. · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of holmium:YAG laser vaporization v transurethral electroresection (TURP) for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Thirty-six patients were randomized. Two laser procedures (60 to 80 W) were performed for one TURP. Symptom Score, peak flow rate, potency, and ejaculation status were measured at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. The mean operative time was 75 minutes for laser and 56 minutes for TURP (P = 0.0407). With a mean laser energy delivered of 103.6 kJ, hemostasis was satisfactory during vaporization. The mean catheterization time was 1.7 and 2.1 days in the laser and TURP group, respectively. For the laser and TURP groups, the mean AUA Score improved from 20 preoperatively to 7 and from 24.1 to 5, respectively, at 12 months. The mean peak flow increased from 8.4 to 19.5 mL/sec and from 7.6 to 16.8 ml/sec, respectively, at 12 months. These results are not statistically different. No significant initial dysuria occurred. No significant difference between the groups appeared in potency or ejaculatory status during the follow-up. One patient in the laser group (Day 5) and two in the TURP group (2nd and 6th month) had to undergo a second procedure to relieve obstruction. Although taking slightly longer to accomplish, holmium:YAG laser vaporization of BPH provides early results very similar to those of TURP with a shorter catheterization time and no initial dysuria or pain.
    Journal of Endourology 04/1999; 13(2):127-30. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To establish a reliable model of iatrogenic ureteral stricture mimicking the human clinical situation in order to experiment with new site-specific endourologic treatment concepts. After cystoscopic insertion of a 7F right ureteral catheter, we induced external thermal radiofrequency injury to the right upper third ureter at low power setting (10 W) using an open surgical approach in 13 pigs. Three pigs considered as controls underwent the same procedure without application of electrocautery. All 16 animals were initially assessed at 8 days; 3 study animals and the 3 controls were followed for 6 weeks. No control animals had strictures. Significant upper third ureteral strictures with marked hydronephrosis where achieved in all study animals after a mean interval of 9 days, as evidenced by ultrasound examination and retrograde ureteropyelography. Endoscopic retrograde access to these strictures was always possible (mean length 1.4 cm.). Histologic examination displayed severe disorganization of the muscular layer by dense fibrosis composed of collagen bundles with few scattered fibroblasts. No spontaneous improvement of the stricture was observed in the 3 animals reassessed at 6 weeks. Externally applied radiofrequency energy to porcine ureter provides a reproducible model of fibrous stricture resembling its clinical counterparts.
    The Journal of Urology 02/1999; 161(1):298-303. · 3.70 Impact Factor
  • Transplantation Proceedings 10/1998; 30(6):2818-9. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the retropubic and transvaginal approaches in terms of the length of gracilis muscle available for female urethral graciloplasty. Two groups of female cadavers were submitted to bilateral gracilis muscle dissection, followed by urethral graciloplasty using either the standard retropubic approach or the transvaginal approach. The two groups were studied in terms of various muscle characteristics, in particular the length of muscle that could effectively be wrapped around the bladder neck. Because muscle transfer to the perineum was more direct, the transvaginal approach provided a greater functional length of gracilis for effective periurethral wrapping than the retropubic approach (mean: 8.4 cm. versus 5.2 cm., p = 0.0022). The transvaginal approach allows a more "proximal" graciloplasty and should therefore be evaluated clinically to provide circumferential bladder neck support without tension.
    The Journal of Urology 07/1998; 159(6):2182-4. · 3.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We assessed the ability of laser-induced autofluorescence spectroscopy to distinguish neoplastic urothelial bladder lesions from normal or nonspecific inflammatory mucosa. Three different pulsed laser excitation wavelengths were used successively: 308 nm (xenium chloride excimer laser), 337 nm (nitrogen laser) and 480 nm (coumarin dye laser). The excitation light was delivered by a specially devised multifiber catheter connected to a 1-mm core diameter silica monofiber introduced through the working channel of a standard cystoscope with saline irrigation. The captured fluorescence light was focused onto an optical multichannel analyzer detection system. Performance of this device was evaluated in 25 patients after obtaining consent and immediately before transurethral resection of a bladder tumor. Spectroscopic results were compared with histological findings. At 337- and 480-nm excitation wavelengths, the overall fluorescence intensity of bladder tumors was clearly decreased compared to normal urothelial mucosa regardless of tumor stage and grade. At the 308-nm excitation wavelength, the shape of the tumor spectra, including carcinoma in situ, was markedly different from that of normal or nonspecific inflammatory mucosa. No absolute intensity determinations were required in this situation, since a definite diagnosis could be established based on the fluorescence intensity ratio at 360 and 440 nm. This spectroscopic study could be particularly useful in designing a simplified autofluorescence imaging device for detection of occult urothelial neoplasms.
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 02/1998; 838:130-42. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the usefulness of an experimental model of ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction designed to facilitate subsequent percutaneous surgery, a right UPJ obstruction was created in 10 pigs by an open retroperitoneal surgical approach. With the pig in the left lateral decubitus position, a 0.038-inch Terumo guidewire was inserted via a 1-cm longitudinal upper-third ureterotomy and advanced up and down so as to bridge the UPJ from the flank to the urogenital opening. A UPJ obstruction was then induced by securing two 2-0 chromic gut ties, separated by an interval of 1 cm, over the Terumo guidewire and a 6F ureteral catheter, which was removed immediately after this procedure. After closure of the ureterotomy, the kidney was anchored horizontally to the muscle wall, and the Terumo guidewire was coiled subcutaneously in the flank and fixed to the urogenital opening. Each pig developed marked hydronephrosis, diagnosed by ultrasonography, after a mean interval of 8.3 days. Retrograde ureteropyelography confirmed this pronounced dilation of the right collecting system above a tight UPJ stricture (mean length 1.17 cm). Subsequent percutaneous access to the UPJ over the Terumo guidewire in the lateral decubitus position was facilitated by the almost-horizontal plane of dilation (mean operating time 14 minutes). Pathologic examination of the UPJ revealed mild periureteral fibrosis, but the muscle layer and urothelium remained normal. We have developed a reliable and reproducible model of secondary UPJ obstruction especially designed for percutaneous surgery. This model should provide a better understanding of current endoscopic techniques such as endopyelotomy and could help to promote new treatment concepts such as percutaneous endoscopic pyeloplasty.
    Journal of Endourology 05/1997; 11(2):139-44. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the influence of two sizes of internal ureteral stents, 7 F and 12 F, on ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) healing after antegrade endopyelotomy. A right UPJ stricture was created in 10 pigs using an open surgical retroperitoneal approach. This model of obstruction consists of initially bridging the UPJ with a Terumo guide wire through an upper third ureterotomy and securing two 2.0 chronic gut ties around the UPJ over the guide wire and a 6 F ureteral catheter. The ureteral catheter is then withdrawn and the guide wire left in situ coiled up within the lumbar wall and fixed to the urogenital opening. Eight days later, each UPJ stricture was incised percutaneously using the invagination technique. Five pigs received a 7 F double-pigtail ureteral stent, while the remaining 5 pigs received a 12/7 F internal endopyelotomy stent. These stents were removed 1 week later. Retrograde ureteropyelography was performed at three months and the UPJ were examined grossly and harvested for histologic studies. One of the 5 pigs in each study group developed a recurrent stricture. The two groups were not statistically different in terms of histologic findings, although fibrosis of the muscle layer was more pronounced in the 12 F group. The use of a large caliber stent after experimental antegrade endopyelotomy does not provide any advantage over the use of a smaller easily positioned 7 F stent.
    European Urology 02/1997; 32(2):245-52. · 10.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We assessed the ability of laser induced autofluorescence spectroscopy to distinguish neoplastic urothelial bladder lesions from normal or nonspecific inflammatory mucosa. Three different pulsed laser excitation wavelengths were used successively: 308 nm. (xenium chloride excimer laser), 337 nm. (nitrogen laser) and 480 nm. (coumarin dye laser). The excitation light was delivered by a specially devised multifiber catheter connected to a 1 mm. core diameter silica monofiber introduced through the working channel of a standard cystoscope with saline irrigation. The captured fluorescence light was focused onto an optical multichannel analyzer detection system. Device performance was evaluated in 25 patients after obtaining consent and immediately before transurethral resection of a bladder tumor. Spectroscopic results were compared with histological findings. At 337 and 480 nm. excitation wavelengths the overall fluorescence intensity of bladder tumors was clearly decreased compared to normal urothelial mucosa regardless of tumor stage and grade. At the 308 nm. excitation wavelength the shape of the tumor spectra, including carcinoma in situ, was markedly different from that of normal or nonspecific inflammatory mucosa. No absolute intensity determinations were required in this situation, since a definite diagnosis could be established based on the fluorescence intensity ratio at 360 and 440 nm. This spectroscopic study could be particularly useful to design a simplified autofluorescence imaging device for detection of occult urothelial neoplasms.
    The Journal of Urology 12/1996; 156(5):1590-6. · 3.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to perform a preliminary evaluation of the diagnostic potential of laser-induced autofluorescence spectroscopy (LIAFS) for urothelial tumors, using fluorescence intensity ratios at different wavelengths. After testing three laser excitation wavelengths in normal and malignant bladder cell lines, 308 nm appeared to be the most promising wavelength since tow fluorescence bands were observed at 360 and 440 nm; these were attributed to tryptophan (Trp) and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) respectively. This study was then performed on freshly removed normal bladder and bladder tumor specimens exclusively using the 308-nm excitation wavelength. The tumor spectra, regardless of stage and grade, were very similar to the malignant cell spectra. However, a marked reduction of overall intensity was observed for carcinoma in situ (CIS). Normal bladder mucosa exhibited a shift of the first fluorescence band to 380 nm, indicating an overlap of Trp urothelial cell emission and collagen fluorescence derived from the lamina propria. The intensity of the NADH emission band was markedly reduce in tumor tissues compared with normal mucosa, which could indicate different redox conditions in urothelial tumors. A fluorescence intensity ratio at 360 and 440 nm can accurately discriminate normal or inflammatory mucosa from all bladder tumors, including CIS. These findings support the use of LIAFS as a new diagnostic technique for occult urothelial tumors.
    Journal of Biomedical Optics 06/1996; 1:335-341. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the ability of argon laser-induced autofluorescence spectroscopy (LIAFS) to discriminate normal from tumor human urothelial cells. Emission spectra of single living cells excited at 488 nm. have been studied with confocal microspectrofluorimeter. Cellular autofluorescence appeared as a broad band with a maximum in the same "green" spectral range, 550 to 560 nm., probably corresponding to oxidized flavoprotein emission. However, the maximum autofluorescence intensity of normal urothelial cells was much higher, 10 times (p<0.0001) that of any of the tumor cell types tested. These results, suggesting a significantly reduced oxidized flavoprotein concentration in tumor urothelial cells, should prompt us to evaluate argon LIAFS as a potential tool to detect occult urothelial severe dysplasia and carcinoma in situ.
    The Journal of Urology 05/1996; 155(5):1771-4. · 3.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Laparoscopic suturing is still difficult and time-consuming. The aim of this study, using the porcine model, was to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of laparoscopic fibrin glue ureteral anastomosis without stay sutures for approximating the ureteral ends. In five pigs, after bilateral cystoscopic insertion of a 7F ureteral catheter, each upper ureter was laparoscopically dissected free and transected with scissors. The ureteral ends were then approximated with two atraumatic grasping forceps, and the fibrin glue was applied over the anastomotic site using a specially designed catheter (Duplocath). After waiting 5 minutes for the sealant to adhere, the forceps were removed, and the anastomotic site was examined for any early disruption. The ureteral stents were then pulled back to the distal ureter, and retrograde ureteropyelography was accomplished bilaterally in order to assess the immediate patency of the anastomoses. The animals were sacrificed and the ureteral anastomoses surgically removed for histologic examination. The operative time after insertion of the trocars averaged 15 minutes for each anastomosis, and no early disruption was observed after withdrawal of the grasping forceps. Immediate ureteral fluoroscopic patency was achieved in all 10 ureteral anastomoses, without leakage in 8 and with minimal leakage in 2. Histologic examination revealed a mild inflammatory reaction in the serosa with no modifications of the mucosa or the muscularis. Subsequently, two pigs were subjected to the same procedure bilaterally and not sacrificed. These two animals died with enormous urinomas on postoperative days 6 and 8. In each case, the anastomotic site was completely disrupted on one side, while the other side remained grossly patent. However, histologic examination of these latter anastomoses revealed no real coaptation of the ureteral ends, while demonstrating complete eversion of the mucosa. In conclusion, fibrin glue ureteroureterostomies, although easy to accomplish, are not safe enough to be used without stay sutures in laparoscopic surgery.
    Journal of Endourology 03/1996; 10(1):51-6. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have designed a program using laser induced autofluorescence spectroscopy as a possible way to characterize urothelial tumors of the bladder. The autofluorescence spectra were compared between normal, suspicious and tumor areas of human bladder. Three different pulsed laser wavelengths were used for excitation: 308 nm (excimer), 337 nm (nitrogen) and 480 nm (dye laser). Excitation light was delivered by a specially devised multifiber catheter introduced through the working channel of a regular cystoscope under saline irrigation. The fluorescence light was focused into an optical multichannel analyzer detection system. The data was evaluated in 25 patients immediately before resection of a bladder tumor. Spectroscopic results were compared with histopathology. Upon 337 nm and 480 nm excitations, the overall intensity of the fluorescence spectra from bladder tumors was clearly reduced in comparison with normal urothelium, regardless of the stage and the grade of the tumor. upon 308 nm excitation, the shape of tumor fluorescence spectra, including carcinoma in situ, differed drastically from that of normal tissue. In this case, no absolute intensity measurements are needed and clear diagnosis can be achieved from fluorescence intensity ratio (360/440 nm). This spectroscopic study could be particularly useful for the design of a simplified autofluorescence imaging device for real-time routine detection of occult urothelial neoplastic lesions.
    Proc SPIE 01/1996;