E A Bacha

Cincinnati Eye Hospital, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States

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Publications (12)43.34 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The outcome for children with pulmonary vein atresia has been historically poor. This report describes clinical outcomes after surgical treatment of primary and secondary pulmonary vein atresia. All patients undergoing surgery for pulmonary vein atresia at Children's Hospital Boston from 1 January 2005 to 1 January 2009 were identified. The data available for analysis included demographic characteristics, findings based on cardiac catheterization and other imaging, clinical information, operative surgical intervention, and pulmonary vein histology. The study-specific information included the calculated number of atretic pulmonary veins as well as surgical interventions performed during the study period. The study end points included successful relief of pulmonary vein atresia, recurrence of pulmonary atresia or stenosis, overall pulmonary vein disease progression, and patient survival. A total of 16 patients with one or more pulmonary vein atresias were identified in the cardiac surgery registry database. Of these 16 patients, 5 had primary pulmonary atresia, and 11 had secondary atresia after repair of anomalous pulmonary venous drainage. Surgical recanalization of atretic pulmonary veins was achieved for more than 80% of the patients. At the most recent follow-up assessment, 7 (44%) of the 16 patients had recurrence of atresia. Five of the patients had development of new atresia in other previously healthy pulmonary veins. The median follow-up period was 4 months for primary and 17 months for secondary pulmonary vein atresia. The three main predictors of pulmonary vein disease progression after surgery were the presence of underlying lung disease (P = 0.036), prematurity (P = 0.035), and a history of recurrent pulmonary vein atresia. The overall mortality rate for the patients with primary or secondary pulmonary vein atresia was 56% at the most recent follow-up assessment (100% for the patients with primary vein atresia and 36% for the patients with secondary vein atresia). Conclusions: Surgical recanalization of pulmonary vein atresia is possible, but prognosis remains poor. Recurrence of atresia can take place as early as a few months in the presence of underlying lung disease, prematurity, or history of recurrent pulmonary vein atresia. Further research is needed to identify mechanisms for attaining and sustaining pulmonary vein patency after surgery.
    Pediatric Cardiology 02/2011; 32(5):639-45. · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Complex intracardiac and extracardiac anatomy is often confronted during biventricular repair in patients with heterotaxy syndrome. We examined factors affecting surgical outcomes in these patients. Between January 1990 and July 2007, 371 patients received a diagnosis of heterotaxy syndrome; 91 (91/371, 24.5%) underwent biventricular repair. Left atrial isomerism was present in 73% (66/91) and right atrial isomerism in 10% (9/91), with indeterminate atrial anatomy in 17% (16/91). Median age at biventricular repair was 6.8 months (5 days to 22.3 years). Systemic venous anomalies were present in 75 patients, pulmonary venous anomalies in 26, and endocardial cushion defects in 36. Transposition complexes were present in 15 patients with atrioventricular discordance in 10; 8 underwent double switch, 2 received a physiologic repair, 2 underwent arterial switch, and 3 underwent the Rastelli operation. Other conotruncal anomalies included double-outlet right ventricle in 10 patients, tetralogy of Fallot in 3, and hemitruncus in 2. Separation of systemic from pulmonary venous return included intra-atrial baffling in 48 patients and extracardiac grafting in 2. Combined lesions were common, occurring in 99% (90/91). Statistical analysis with Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models were performed. Average follow-up was 44.9 +/- 57.5 months (3 days to 189.3 months). Kaplan-Meier estimated survival was 93.4% at 10 years; unbalanced complete atrioventricular canal was the only risk factor for mortality (P = .006). Subsequent procedures were common with a 10-year freedom from reoperation or reintervention of 38% +/- 7.5%. Arrhythmias occurred in 36 (39.6%) patients; bradyarrhythmia in 27 (29.7%) and tachyarrhythmia in 15 (16.5%). Freedom from any arrhythmia was 53.9% +/- 6.7% at 10 years. Excellent survival for patients with heterotaxy undergoing biventricular repair can be expected, even for multiple, complex lesions. Reintervention is common, and arrhythmia is a long-term concern. This experience shows that patients with heterotaxy syndrome and complex cardiac anatomy can be considered for biventricular repair. Patients with unbalanced complete atrioventricular canal are a high-risk group for which selection criteria are particularly important.
    The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 03/2009; 137(2):371-379.e3. · 3.41 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation - J HEART LUNG TRANSPLANT. 01/2008; 27(2).
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    ABSTRACT: Early primary repair of tetralogy of Fallot has been routinely performed at Children's Hospital, Boston, since 1972. We evaluated the long-term outcome of this treatment strategy including the influence of a transannular patch. Fifty-seven patients less than 24 months of age (median 8 months) underwent primary repair of tetralogy of Fallot between January 1972 and December 1977. Thirty-one patients had a transannular patch. Survival and freedom from reintervention were determined by the Kaplan-Meier method with 95% confidence intervals. There were 8 early deaths, and 1 patient died 24 years after initial repair. Recent follow-up was obtained for 45 of the 49 long-term survivors (92%). Median follow-up was 23.5 years. Ten patients underwent reintervention, 8 of whom underwent relief of right ventricular outflow tract obstruction. Right ventricular outflow tract obstruction occurred in 6 patients without a transannular patch and 2 with a transannular patch (33% vs 6%, P =.04). One pulmonary valve replacement was performed at another institution 20 years after the repair. Forty-one long-term survivors were in New York Heart Association class I and 4 were in class II. Actuarial survival was 86% at 20 years (95% confidence intervals = 80%-92%). Freedom from reintervention was 93% at 5 years (95% confidence intervals = 87%-99%) and 79% at 20 years (95% confidence intervals = 70%-86%). No significant differences were found between patients with and without a transannular patch (survival, P =.34; freedom from reintervention, P =.09, log-rank tests). Long-term survival is excellent and the freedom from reintervention is satisfactory after early primary repair of tetralogy of Fallot in the 1970s. Use of a transannular patch does not reduce late survival and is associated with a lower incidence of right ventricular outflow tract obstruction.
    Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 08/2001; 122(1):154-61. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This is a review of the experience over 26 year in a single institution with surgical repair of aortopulmonary window. Between July 1973 and March 1999, 38 patients underwent surgery for aortopulmonary window at a median age of 5 weeks, and with a median weight of 3.9 kg. Median follow-up was 6.6 years, with a range from 0.8 to 26 years. Additional defects were present in 25 (65%) patients, including interruption of the aortic arch in 7, tetralogy of Fallot in 7, ventricular septal defect in 5, functionally univentricular anatomy in 3, aortic coarctation in 2, and anomalous origin of a coronary artery in 1. We approached via an aortotomy in 45%, an incision through the defect in 31%, and using a pulmonary arteriotomy in 24% of patients. Closure was achieved using a single patch in 30 patients (79%). There were 3 (7.9%) in-hospital deaths. Actuarial patient survival was 88% at 10 years. Three patients required reinterventions for stenoses of the great arteries. Freedom from any reintervention was 70% at 10 years. By multivariate analysis, the approach through a pulmonary arteriotomy was shown to result in a higher need for reintervention (p = 0.01). Repair of aortopulmonary window can be done with excellent results. A pulmonary arteriotomy should be avoided.
    Cardiology in the Young 08/2001; 11(4):385-90. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aortic regurgitation after balloon dilation of congenital aortic stenosis may be treated with valve repair as an alternative to replacement. Charts and echocardiograms of all patients undergoing aortic valve operations after balloon dilation of congenital aortic stenosis at our institution between January 1988 and December 1999 were reviewed. Twenty-one patients underwent valvuloplasty for predominant aortic regurgitation 9 months to 15 years (mean, 6.1 years) after balloon dilation. The mean +/- SD age at the time of the operation was 11 +/- 7 years. Aortic regurgitation was caused by a combination of commissural avulsion (10), cusp dehiscence with retraction (9), cusp tear (5), central incompetence (2), perforated cusp (1), or cusp adhesion to the aortic wall (1). Repair techniques included commissural reconstruction with a pericardial patch (8), pericardial patch cusp augmentation (6), primary suture repair (6), raphae release and debridement (4), commissurotomy (4), commissural resuspension with sutures (3), and cusp release (1). There were no deaths. At a mean follow-up of 30.1 months (range, 9 months-8 years), all patients were asymptomatic, and the grade of aortic regurgitation had been significantly reduced (P <.001). Left ventricular end-diastolic dimension z scores and proximal regurgitant jet/aortic anulus diameter ratios were significantly reduced (P <.001) and remained so over time. Freedom from reoperation for late failure was 100%, and overall freedom from reintervention was 80% at 3 years. Aortic valve repair for balloon-induced aortic regurgitation is reproducible and durable at medium-term follow-up.
    Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 07/2001; 122(1):162-8. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • E A Bacha, J Kreutzer
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    ABSTRACT: Branch pulmonary artery stenosis may occur as an isolated finding or in conjunction with other cardiac malformations; it may be congenital or acquired postoperatively. Transcatheter management with balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) and/or endovascular stenting is generally considered the procedure of choice for most patients. With the introduction of high-pressure balloons, the results of BPA have improved significantly (75%). Stent implantation has increased the success rate to over 90%. However, BPA continues to be the initial procedure of choice for distal stenoses, or those associated with branching points, and in small children or infants. Stent implantation is preferred over BPA for central or proximal stenoses, and those due to kinking or tenting, external compression, intimal flaps, failed balloon dilation, and early postoperative procedures. Certain lesions, such as supravalvar pulmonary stenosis, or stenosis at the branch pulmonary arteries bifurcation, are better dealt with at surgery. High-risk situations for the development of postoperative pulmonary artery (PA) stenosis exist in small infants with hypoplastic branch PAs after a conotruncal procedure, after duct ligation, after shunt insertion, after PA band placement, or after pulmonary arteriotomies or anastomoses of any kind. A combined collaborative transcatheter and surgical approach is essential for many patients with PA stenosis, particularly in complex forms of tetralogy of Fallot.
    Journal of Interventional Cardiology 07/2001; 14(3):367-75. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous tissue engineering approaches to create heart valves have been limited by the structural immaturity and mechanical properties of the valve constructs. This study used an in vitro pulse duplicator system to provide a biomimetic environment during tissue formation to yield more mature implantable heart valves derived from autologous tissue. Trileaflet heart valves were fabricated from novel bioabsorbable polymers and sequentially seeded with autologous ovine myofibroblasts and endothelial cells. The constructs were grown for 14 days in a pulse duplicator in vitro system under gradually increasing flow and pressure conditions. By use of cardiopulmonary bypass, the native pulmonary leaflets were resected, and the valve constructs were implanted into 6 lambs (weight 19+/-2.8 kg). All animals had uneventful postoperative courses, and the valves were explanted at 1 day and at 4, 6, 8, 16, and 20 weeks. Echocardiography demonstrated mobile functioning leaflets without stenosis, thrombus, or aneurysm up to 20 weeks. Histology (16 and 20 weeks) showed uniform layered cuspal tissue with endothelium. Environmental scanning electron microscopy revealed a confluent smooth valvular surface. Mechanical properties were comparable to those of native tissue at 20 weeks. Complete degradation of the polymers occurred by 8 weeks. Extracellular matrix content (collagen, glycosaminoglycans, and elastin) and DNA content increased to levels of native tissue and higher at 20 weeks. This study demonstrates in vitro generation of implantable complete living heart valves based on a biomimetic flow culture system. These autologous tissue-engineered valves functioned up to 5 months and resembled normal heart valves in microstructure, mechanical properties, and extracellular matrix formation.
    Circulation 12/2000; 102(19 Suppl 3):III44-9. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Low-velocity and nonlaminar flow patterns in the Fontan circulation, as well as abnormal liver function in some patients, may partly account for the coagulation abnormalities seen. We examined (1) coagulation factor abnormalities before and after the Fontan procedure and (2) regional coagulation factor abnormalities in the Fontan circulation. Levels of factors V, VII, VIII, X, antithrombin III, prothrombin fragment F1+2, protein C, and protein S were measured in 2 groups of patients: In 14 patients undergoing the Fontan procedure, blood was analyzed before the operation and 5 days after the operation (group 1). The median age in this group was 3.2 years. In 10 patients who had undergone the Fontan procedure, cardiac catheterization was performed and samples were taken from the femoral vein, inferior vena cava, right atrium, and pulmonary artery (group 2). The median age in this group was 6.2 years and the median follow-up from the Fontan procedure was 4.1 years. In group 1 a significant increase was noted postoperatively in the concentration of factor VIII (P<.001), factor X (P<.001), and prothrombin fraction F1+2 (P <.001). A significant decrease in the levels of antithrombin III (P <.001), protein C (P<.004), and protein S (P<.02) was also found. The increase in factors VIII and X persisted at 4 years' follow-up in group 2 patients. In group 2, no significant regional differences were observed between the coagulation factors measured at different sites. There is an increased tendency toward coagulation after the Fontan procedure. A prothrombotic state is supported by thrombin generation associated with reduced antithrombin III concentration. This increase in coagulation may contribute to the early and late risks of thromboembolism observed after the Fontan procedure. We did not find any regional differences in coagulation abnormalities in patients late after the Fontan procedure. Therefore, the mechanisms and causes of the coagulation abnormalities remain unclear.
    Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 11/2000; 120(4):778-82. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A number of patients with Williams syndrome or other forms of elastin arteriopathy have stenoses of pulmonary arteries in addition to supravalvular aortic stenosis. We sought to investigate the effect of the degree of pulmonary arterial stenosis on the prognosis after an operation for supravalvular aortic stenosis to help define the optimal treatment strategy for patients with severe forms of elastin arteriopathy. Between 1960 and 1999, 33 patients underwent operations for supravalvular aortic stenosis while having significant stenoses of the pulmonary arteries. We retrospectively reviewed patient charts, obtained current follow-up information, and determined risk factors for survival and reoperation. Fifteen patients with moderate right-sided obstructions (confirmed by pulmonary artery Z-scores and right ventricular/descending aortic pressure ratio) underwent operations for supravalvular aortic stenosis only. Eighteen patients had more severe right-sided obstructions and underwent surgical relief of pulmonary arterial stenoses or right ventricular outflow tract obstruction in addition to operations for supravalvular aortic stenosis. Eight patients had undergone preoperative balloon dilations of stenotic pulmonary arteries. There were 6 early deaths and 1 late death in our series. Survival at 10 and 20 years was 76% (70% confidence interval, 68%-84%) and freedom from reintervention was 59% (70% confidence interval, 46%-71%) at 10 years and 49% (70% confidence interval, 35%-62%) at 20 years. Multivariate analysis revealed that patients with a right ventricular/descending aortic pressure ratio of 1.0 or more were at higher risk for reintervention but not for death. Surgical treatment of pulmonary artery obstructions in elastin arteriopathy is palliative but, in conjunction with balloon dilation of peripheral pulmonary arteries, offers good long-term survival to patients with the severest form of elastin arteriopathy.
    Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 11/2000; 120(4):755-63. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: From May 1996 to August 1998 a minimal access approach was used for 135 of 200 consecutive surgical atrial septal defects closures in children through young adults ranging in age from 6 months to 25 years (median 5 years). A 3.5- to 5-cm midline incision was centered over the xiphoid with division of the xiphoid alone (transxiphoid) or of the lower sternum (ministernotomy); both groups underwent bicaval venous cannulation through the incision. Cardioplegia and aortic cross-clamping were administered through the incision. Cephalad retraction of the sternum with a fixed-arm retractor aided exposure. There have been no early or late deaths and no bleeding or wound complications. No procedure required conversion to a full sternotomy, and no cannulation attempt was abandoned for an alternate site. Cross-clamp and cardiopulmonary bypass times were equivalent to those in the full sternotomy group. The mean length of hospital stay in the ministernotomy group was 2.7 days. The closure of atrial septal defects can be performed through a transxiphoid or ministernotomy approach, conferring a satisfactory cosmetic result without compromising the safety or accuracy of the repair.
    The Annals of Thoracic Surgery 08/2000; 70(1):115-8. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 01/2000; 119(1):175-6. · 3.53 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

306 Citations
43.34 Total Impact Points


  • 2011
    • Cincinnati Eye Hospital
      Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
  • 2001–2011
    • Boston Children's Hospital
      • Department of Cardiac Surgery
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • University of Chicago
      • Specialty of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgery
      Chicago, IL, United States
    • Harvard Medical School
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States