T Cameron Wild

University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

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Publications (104)219.11 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Maternal depression is a risk factor for adolescent depression; however, the effect of childhood exposure to maternal depression on adolescent engagement in health risk behaviors (eg, substance use, delinquency) is unclear. We examined the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms (child's age 4-15) and engagement in health risk behaviors at age 16 to 17 by using data from 2910 mother-youth pairs in a nationally representative prospective Canadian cohort. Maternal depressive trajectories were estimated through finite mixture modeling, and multiple regression analyses examined the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms and engagement in various health risk behaviors (linear regression) and age of debut of various behaviors (Cox regression). Five trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms were found: recurrent maternal symptoms, midchildhood exposure to maternal symptoms, adolescent exposure to maternal symptoms, mild maternal symptoms, and low symptoms. Adolescents exposed to maternal depressive symptoms during middle childhood were more likely to use common substances (alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana), engage in violent and nonviolent delinquent behavior, and have an earlier debut ages of cigarette, alcohol, marijuana, and hallucinogen use. The results of this study suggest that exposure to maternal depressive symptoms, particularly in middle childhood, is associated with greater and earlier engagement in health risk behaviors. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
    Pediatrics 12/2014; · 5.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, the concept of addiction has expanded to include many types of problematic repetitive behaviors beyond those related to substance misuse. This trend may have implications for the way that lay people think about addictions and about people struggling with addictive disorders. The aim of this study was to provide a better understanding of how the public understands a variety of substance-related and behavioral addictions. A representative sample of 4000 individuals from Alberta, Canada completed an online survey. Participants were randomly assigned to answer questions about perceived addiction liability, etiology, and prevalence of problems with four substances (alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and cocaine) and six behaviors (problematic gambling, eating, shopping, sexual behavior, video gaming, and work). Bivariate analyses revealed that respondents considered substances to have greater addiction liability than behaviors and that most risk factors (moral, biological, or psychosocial) were considered as more important in the etiology of behavioral versus substance addictions. A discriminant function analysis demonstrated that perceived addiction liability and character flaws were the two most important features differentiating judgments of substance-related versus behavioral addictions. Perceived addiction liability was judged to be greater for substances. Conversely, character flaws were viewed as more associated with behavioral addictions. The general public appreciates the complex bio-psycho-social etiology underlying addictions, but perceives substance-related and behavioral addictions differently. These attitudes, in turn, may shape a variety of important outcomes, including the extent to which people believed to manifest behavioral addictions feel stigmatized, seek treatment, or initiate behavior changes on their own. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Addictive Behaviors 11/2014; 42C:24-31. · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of key policy influencers and the general public can support or hinder the development of public policies that support cancer prevention. To address gaps in knowledge concerning healthy public policy development, views on cancer causation and endorsement of policy alternatives for cancer prevention among government influencers (elected members of legislative assemblies and senior ministry bureaucrats), non-governmental influencers (school board chairs and superintendents, print media editors and reporters, and workplace presidents and senior human resource managers), and the general public were compared.
    Cancer Causes and Control 10/2014; · 2.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Smoking is an undertreated risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD) and is associated with adverse outcomes after myocardial infarction. Aims of our study were to determine if management of CAD by medical therapy (MT) alone or with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) influence smoking status at one year following angiography and if a change in smoking status at one year influences long term survival.
    BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 10/2014; 14(1):133. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective As overweight and obesity is a risk factor for chronic diseases, the development of environmental and healthy public policy interventions across multiple sectors has been identified as a key strategy to address this issue.Methods In 2009, a survey was developed to assess the attitudes and beliefs regarding health promotion principles, and the priority and acceptability of policy actions to prevent obesity and chronic diseases, among key policy influencers in Alberta and Manitoba, Canada. Surveys were mailed to 1,765 key influencers from five settings: provincial government, municipal government, school boards, print media companies, and workplaces with greater than 500 employees. A total of 236 surveys were completed with a response rate of 15.0%.ResultsFindings indicate nearly unanimous influencer support for individual-focused policy approaches and high support for some environmental policies. Restrictive environmental and economic policies received weakest support. Obesity was comparable to smoking with respect to perceptions as a societal responsibility versus a personal responsibility, boding well for the potential of environmental policy interventions for obesity prevention.Conclusions This level of influencer support provides a platform for more evidence to be brokered to policy influencers about the effectiveness of environmental policy approaches to obesity prevention.
    Obesity 08/2014; · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To describe absolute and relative prevalence of 10 self-attributed substance-related and behavioural addiction problems among Canadian adults, to describe perceived prevalence of these problems in the general population, and to examine whether estimates varied by survey mode. Methods: Sample 1 included 4000 adults recruited from an online research panel; Sample 2 included 2000 randomly selected adults who completed a computer-assisted telephone interview. Respondents in both samples were asked (1) whether or not they had experienced a problem in the preceding year with each of four substances (alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and cocaine) and six behaviours (gambling, eating, shopping, sex, video gaming, and work), (2) whether they had ever personally knew someone exhibiting a problem with each behaviour, and (3) perceived prevalence of problems in the general population. Results: About half of the respondents reported experiencing any past-year addiction problems. Tobacco and alcohol were the most common substance-related problems, while the most common behavioural problems were related to eating and work. Respondents consistently overestimated perceived population prevalence relative to self-attributed problems; however, the magnitude of overestimation was significantly greater among those who personally reported a problem with these behaviours. Online survey participants consistently reported higher self-attributed problem rates compared with CATI respondents, but rank-order correlations across self-, acquaintances-, and population-attributed prevalence estimates were very high in both samples. Conclusions: Both survey modes provided accurate relative prevalence estimates, but further research should explore determinants of higher prevalence rates among online participants and respondents’ consistent tendency to overestimate perceived population prevalence.
    Addiction Research and Theory 06/2014; · 1.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous research examining the development of anxious and depressive symptoms (i.e., internalizing symptoms) from childhood to adolescence has often assumed that trajectories of these symptoms do not vary across individuals. The purpose of this study was to identify distinct trajectories of internalizing symptoms from childhood to adolescence, and to identify risk factors for membership in these trajectory groups. In particular, we sought to identify risk factors associated with early appearing (i.e., child onset) symptoms versus symptoms that increase in adolescence (i.e., adolescent onset). Drawing on longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, latent class growth modeling (LCGM) was used to identify distinct trajectories of internalizing symptoms for 6,337 individuals, from age 4-5 to 14-15. Multinomial regression was used to examine potential early-life risk factors for membership in a particular trajectory group. Five trajectories were identified as follows: "low stable" (68%; reference group), "adolescent onset" (10%), "moderate stable" (12%), "high childhood" (6%), and "high stable" (4%). Membership in the "adolescent onset" group was predicted by child gender (greater odds for girls), stressful life events, hostile parenting, aggression, and hyperactivity. Membership in the "high stable" and "high childhood" trajectory groups (i.e., child-onset) was additionally predicted by maternal depression, family dysfunction, and difficult temperament. Also, several significant gender interactions were observed. Causal mechanisms for child and adolescent depression and anxiety may differ according to time of onset, as well as child gender. Some early factors may put girls at greater risk for internalizing problems than boys.
    Depression and Anxiety 01/2014; · 4.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Few studies have assessed the construct validity of measures of neighborhood food environment, which remains a major challenge in accurately assessing food access. In this study, we adapted a psychometric tool to examine the construct validity of 4 such measures for 3 constructs. We used 4 food-environment measures to collect objective data from 422 Ontario, Canada, food stores in 2010. Residents' perceptions of their neighborhood food environment were collected from 2,397 households between 2009 and 2010. Objective and perceptual data were aggregated within buffer zones around respondents' homes (at 250 m, 500 m, 1,000 m, and 1,500 m). We constructed multitrait-multimethod matrices for each scale to examine construct validity for the constructs of food availability, food quality, and food affordability. Convergent validity between objective measures decreased with increasing geographic scale. Convergent validity between objective and subjective measures increased with increasing geographic scale. High discriminant validity coefficients existed between food availability and food quality, indicating that these two constructs may not be distinct in this setting. We conclude that the construct validity of food environment measures varies over geographic scales, which has implications for research, policy, and practice.
    American journal of epidemiology 11/2013; · 4.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The emergency department (ED) is a key clinical care setting for identifying and managing patients with alcohol-related presentations. We explored the experiences of emergency physicians in providing alcohol-related care to adolescents. Purposeful sampling was used to identify pediatric emergency physicians with at least 1 year of experience (n = 12) from pediatric EDs across Canada. Data were collected via telephone using a semistructured interview guide. Hermeneutic phenomenology was used to identify common and unique experiences among respondents, using Moustakas' immersion/crystallization procedures. Physicians expressed frustration with patient behaviors accompanying intoxication and described providing care as a struggle; developing an effective therapeutic alliance was challenging. Physicians believed intoxicated adolescent patients required more clinical time and resources than they could offer. Although physicians described the ED as unsuitable for ensuring continuity of care and addressing the broader social issues that accompany alcohol use, they did view the ED as a place to medically stabilize the patient and initiate a discussion on alcohol use and its harmful effects. Pediatric ED physicians struggled during the caring experience and were skeptical that broader, more chronic social issues that are often associated with adolescent alcohol misuse can be effectively managed in a clinical setting where they feel primarily responsible for providing medical stabilization. Physicians did believe the ED was an appropriate place to ensure medical stability of a patient and then initiate a conversation regarding alcohol use and its harmful effects.
    Pediatric emergency care 11/2013; · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There are limited data on the composition and smoke emissions of 'herbal' shisha products and the air quality of establishments where they are smoked. Three studies of 'herbal' shisha were conducted: (1) samples of 'herbal' shisha products were chemically analysed; (2) 'herbal' and tobacco shisha were burned in a waterpipe smoking machine and main and sidestream smoke analysed by standard methods and (3) the air quality of six waterpipe cafés was assessed by measurement of CO, particulate and nicotine vapour content. We found considerable variation in heavy metal content between the three products sampled, one being particularly high in lead, chromium, nickel and arsenic. A similar pattern emerged for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Smoke emission analyses indicated that toxic byproducts produced by the combustion of 'herbal' shisha were equivalent or greater than those produced by tobacco shisha. The results of our air quality assessment demonstrated that mean PM2.5 levels and CO content were significantly higher in waterpipe establishments compared to a casino where cigarette smoking was permitted. Nicotine vapour was detected in one of the waterpipe cafés. 'Herbal' shisha products tested contained toxic trace metals and PAHs levels equivalent to, or in excess of, that found in cigarettes. Their mainstream and sidestream smoke emissions contained carcinogens equivalent to, or in excess of, those of tobacco products. The content of the air in the waterpipe cafés tested was potentially hazardous. These data, in aggregate, suggest that smoking 'herbal' shisha may well be dangerous to health.
    Tobacco control 10/2013; · 3.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the impact of a 3year (2006-2009) community-based intervention for obesity and chronic disease prevention in four diverse "Healthy Alberta Communities" (HAC). Targeted intervention development incorporated the ANGELO conceptual framework to help community stakeholders identify environmental determinants of obesity amenable to intervention. Several inter-related initiatives were implemented. To evaluate, we surveyed separate samples of adults in HAC communities before and after the interventions and compared responses to identical survey questions asked of adults living in Alberta in two waves of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS). The HAC sample included 4761 (2006) and 4733 (2009) people. The comparison sample included 9775 and 9784 respondents in 2005 and 2009-10 respectively. Self-reported body mass index showed no change, and neither were there significant changes in behaviors relative to secular trends. Most significant outcomes were relevant to social conditions, specifically sense of belonging to community in the intervention communities. Health outcome indicators at the community level may not be sufficiently sensitive to capture changes which, over a relatively short term, would only be expected to be incremental, given that interventions were directed primarily to creating environmental conditions supportive of changes in behavioral outcomes rather than toward health outcome change directly.
    Preventive Medicine 09/2013; · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pathways by which food environments affect residents' diet-related outcomes are still unclear. Understanding pathways may help decision makers identify food environment strategies to promote healthy diets. To examine the hypothesis that residents' perceptions mediate the relationship between objective food environment and residents' diet quality and weight status. In the Waterloo Region, Ontario, objective food environment data were collected from 422 food stores and 912 restaurants using the Nutrition Environment Measure Survey in Stores and Restaurants, a shelf-space measure of fruits and vegetables, and the Retail Food Environment Index. Waterloo Region households (n=2223) completed a subjective food environment perception survey; household members (n=4102) self-reported weight, height, and waist circumference. A subsample (1170 individuals within 690 households) completed diet records. Food environment data were collected in 2010; respondent data were collected from 2009-2010; and data were analyzed in 2012. A series of gender-specific models were conducted to test mediation, adjusting for household income, car ownership, age, and education level. Residents' perceptions did not mediate the relationship between objective measures and diet-related outcomes; instead, results revealed the direct effect of several objectively measured factors of the food environment (notably food access and relative food affordability) on outcomes. Perceptions generally were not associated with diet-related outcomes. These results reveal that in this setting, strategies aimed at improving residents' perceptions may be less effective than those acting directly on food environments to improve food access and relative food affordability.
    American journal of preventive medicine 09/2013; 45(3):289-96. · 4.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Childhood cognitive ability may have protective effects against internalizing symptoms in adolescence, although this may depend on the time of symptom assessment and child gender. Also, the effects of childhood stressors on adolescent internalizing symptoms may be moderated by childhood cognitive ability. The sample included 4405 individuals from the Canadian National Longitudinal Study of Children and Youth (NLSCY). Between ages 4-5 and 10-11, children completed a test of verbal ability and scholastic aptitude and a series of mathematics computation tests. Internalizing symptoms were assessed via self-reports at ages 12-13 and 14-15. Greater cognitive ability was generally associated with decreased odds of internalizing symptoms at age 12-13. However, greater cognitive ability generally increased, or had no effect on, the odds of internalizing symptoms at age 14-15. Some of the effects of childhood cognitive ability varied with child gender. Also, childhood cognitive ability attenuated the effects of family dysfunction and chronic illness throughout childhood on subsequent internalizing symptoms. These data are largely subject to some degree of reporting bias, the tests of cognitive ability are limited and may not represent overall cognitive ability, and there may be intermediary variables that account for the relationship between childhood cognitive ability and adolescent internalizing symptoms. Results suggest that programs attempting to increase early cognitive skills may be particularly beneficial for girls. Also, an increased focus on cognitive skills may attenuate the negative effects of some stressors on subsequent anxious and depressive symptoms, regardless of child gender.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 08/2013; · 3.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Illicit and prescription drug use disorders are two to four times more prevalent among Aboriginal peoples in North America than the general population. Research suggests Aboriginal cultural participation may be protective against substance use problems in rural and remote Aboriginal communities. As Aboriginal peoples continue to urbanize rapidly around the globe, the role traditional Aboriginal beliefs and practices may play in reducing or even preventing substance use problems in cities is becoming increasingly relevant, and is the focus of the present study. Mainstream acculturation was also examined. Data were collected via in-person surveys with a community-based sample of Aboriginal adults living in a mid-sized city in western Canada (N = 381) in 2010. Associations were analysed using two sets of bootstrapped linear regression models adjusted for confounders with continuous illicit and prescription drug problem scores as outcomes. Psychological mechanisms that may explain why traditional culture is protective for Aboriginal peoples were examined using the cross-products of coefficients mediation method. The extent to which culture served as a resilience factor was examined via interaction testing. Results indicate Aboriginal enculturation was a protective factor associated with reduced 12-month illicit drug problems and 12-month prescription drug problems among Aboriginal adults in an urban setting. Increased self-esteem partially explained why cultural participation was protective. Cultural participation also promoted resilience by reducing the effects of high school incompletion on drug problems. In contrast, mainstream acculturation was not associated with illicit drug problems and served as a risk factor for prescription drug problems in this urban sample. Findings encourage the growth of programs and services that support Aboriginal peoples who strive to maintain their cultural traditions within cities, and further studies that examine how Aboriginal cultural practices and beliefs may promote and protect Aboriginal health in an urban environment.
    Social Science [?] Medicine 07/2013; 88C:1-9. · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Brief intervention (BI) is recommended for use with youth who use alcohol and other drugs. Emergency departments (EDs) can provide BIs at a time directly linked to harmful and hazardous use. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the effectiveness of ED-based BIs. We searched 14 electronic databases, a clinical trial registry, conference proceedings, and study references. We included randomized controlled trials with youth 21 years or younger. Two reviewers independently selected studies and assessed methodological quality. One reviewer extracted and a second verified data. We summarized findings qualitatively. Two trials with low risk of bias, 2 trials with unclear risk of bias, and 5 trials with high risk of bias were included. Trials evaluated targeted BIs for alcohol-positive (n = 3) and alcohol/other drug-positive youth (n = 1) and universal BIs for youth reporting recent alcohol (n = 4) or cannabis use (n = 1). Few differences were found in favor of ED-based BIs, and variation in outcome measurement and poor study quality precluded firm conclusions for many comparisons. Universal and targeted BIs did not significantly reduce alcohol use more than other care. In one targeted BI trial with high risk of bias, motivational interviewing (MI) that involved parents reduced drinking quantity per occasion and high-volume alcohol use compared with MI that was delivered to youth only. Another trial with high risk of bias reported an increase in abstinence and reduction in physical altercations when youth received peer-delivered universal MI for cannabis use. In 2 trials with unclear risk of bias, MI reduced drinking and driving and alcohol-related injuries after the ED visit. Computer-based MI delivered universally in 1 trial with low risk of bias reduced alcohol-related consequences 6 months after the ED visit. Clear benefits of using ED-based BI to reduce alcohol and other drug use and associated injuries or high-risk behaviours remain inconclusive because of variation in assessing outcomes and poor study quality.
    Pediatric emergency care 05/2013; 29(5):673-84. · 0.92 Impact Factor
  • Cheryl Currie, T Cameron Wild
    Canadian journal of psychiatry. Revue canadienne de psychiatrie 05/2013; 58(5):308. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Little is known about the knowledge and attitudes towards tobacco use among medical students in Canada. Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use among medical students, assess their perceived level of education about tobacco addiction management and their preparedness to address tobacco use with their future patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was administered to University of Alberta undergraduate medical school trainees. The 32-question survey addressed student demographics, tobacco use, knowledge and attitudes around tobacco and waterpipe smoking, tobacco education received in medical school, as well as knowledge and competency regarding tobacco cessation interventions. RESULTS: Of 681 polled students, 301 completed the survey. Current (defined as "use within the last 30 days") cigarette, cigar/cigarillo and waterpipe smoking prevalence was 3.3%, 6% and 6%, respectively. One third of the respondents had ever smoked a cigarette, but 41% had tried cigars/cigarillos and 40% had smoked a waterpipe at some time in the past. Students reported moderate levels of education on a variety of tobacco-related subjects but were well-informed on the role of tobacco in disease causation. The majority of students in their final two years of training felt competent to provide tobacco cessation interventions, but only 10% definitively agreed that they had received enough training in this area. CONCLUSIONS: Waterpipe exposure/current use was surprisingly high among this sample of medical students, a population well educated about the role of tobacco in disease causation. The majority of respondents appeared to be adequately prepared to manage tobacco addiction but education could be improved, particularly training in behavioral modification techniques used in tobacco use cessation.
    Tobacco Induced Diseases 04/2013; 11(1):9.
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral for Treatment (SBIRT) is an effective approach for managing alcohol and other drug misuse in primary care; however, uptake into routine care has been limited. Uptake of SBIRT by healthcare providers may be particularly problematic for disadvantaged populations exhibiting alcohol and other drug problems, and requires creative approaches to enhance patient engagement. This knowledge translation project developed and evaluated a group of patient and health care provider resources designed to enhance the capacity of health care providers to use SBIRT and improve patient engagement with health care. METHODS: A nonrandomized, two-group, pre-post, quasi-experimental intervention design was used, with baseline, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. Low income patients using alcohol and other drugs and who sought care in family medicine and emergency medicine settings in Edmonton, Canada, along with physicians providing care in these settings, were recruited. Patients and physicians were allocated to the intervention or control condition by geographic location of care. Intervention patients received a health care navigation booklet developed by inner city community members and also had access to an experienced community member for consultation on health service navigation. Intervention physicians had access to online educational modules, accompanying presentations, point of care resources, addiction medicine champions, and orientations to the inner city. Resource development was informed by a literature review, needs assessment, and iterative consultation with an advisory board and other content experts. Participants completed baseline and follow-up questionnaires (6 months for patients, 6 and 12 months for physicians) and administrative health service data were also retrieved for consenting patients. Control participants were provided access to all resources after follow-up data collection was completed. The primary outcome measure was patient satisfaction with care; secondary outcome measures included alcohol and drug use, health care and addiction treatment use, uptake of SBIRT strategies, and physician attitudes about addiction. DISCUSSION: Effective knowledge translation requires careful consideration of the intended knowledge recipient's context and needs. Knowledge translation in disadvantaged settings may be optimized by using a community-based participatory approach to resource development that takes into account relevant patient engagement issues.Trial registration: Northern Alberta Clinical Trials and Research Centre #30094.
    BMC Health Services Research 03/2013; 13(1):108. · 1.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The GAIN Substance Problem Scale (SPS) measures alcohol and drug problem severity within a DSM-IV-TR framework. This study builds on prior psychometric evaluation of the SPS by using Rasch analysis to assess scale unidimensionality, item severity, and differential item functioning (DIF). METHODS: Participants were attending residential or outpatient treatment in Alberta and Ontario, Canada, respectively (n=372). Rasch analyses modeled a latent problem severity continuum using SPS scores at treatment admission and 6-week follow-up. We examined DIF by gender, treatment modality (outpatient vs. residential), and assessment timing (baseline vs. follow-up). RESULTS: Model fit was good overall, supporting unidimensionality and a single underlying continuum of substance problem severity. Relative to person severity, however, the range of item severities was narrow. Items were too severe for many clients to endorse, particularly at follow-up. Overall, the rank order of item severities was stable across gender, treatment modality, and time point. Although traditional Rasch criteria indicated a number of statistically significant and substantive DIF estimates across modality and time points, effect size indices did not suggest a net effect on total scale scores. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis broadly supports use of the SPS as an additive measure of global substance severity in men and women and both residential and outpatient settings. Although DIF was not a major concern, there was evidence of item redundancy and suboptimal matching between items and persons. Findings highlight potential opportunities for further improving this scale in future research and clinical applications of the GAIN.
    Addictive behaviors 03/2013; 38(7):2279-2287. · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    Elaine Hyshka, Tania Bubela, T Cameron Wild
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: North America's first supervised injection facility-Insite-opened in Vancouver in 2003 under a special federal legal exemption. Insite has faced significant political and legal opposition, which culminated in a recent Supreme Court of Canada ruling that ordered the federal Minister of Health to extend the facility's exemption and cited evidence that the facility is life-preserving and does not increase public disorder. Officials in several other cities have initiated or accelerated preparations for new facilities due to speculation that the ruling provides sufficient legal basis to expand supervised injection in Canada. However, a comprehensive assessment of the barriers and facilitators to supervised injection facility scale-up is lacking. METHODS: This policy case study reviews a corpus of jurisprudence, legislation, scientific research and media texts to: describe the role of evidence in legal and political decision-making around Insite; analyze the implications of the Insite decision for new facilities; and discuss alternative avenues for supervised injection facility expansion. RESULTS: The Insite decision does not simplify the path towards new supervised injection facilities, but nor does it does pose an insurmountable hurdle. Whether new facilities will be established depends largely upon how the Minister of Health interprets the ruling, the proponents' ability to demonstrate need and support from municipal and provincial governments and community members. Formally defining supervised injection as within nurses' scope of practice could further efforts to establish new facilities. CONCLUSION: Additional court action may be required to establish a stable legal and policy basis for supervised injection facilities in Canada.
    Addiction 01/2013; · 4.60 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
219.11 Total Impact Points


  • 1998–2013
    • University of Alberta
      • • School of Public Health
      • • Centre for Health Promotion Studies
      Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
  • 2009–2012
    • Centre for Addiction and Mental Health
      • Social and Epidemiological Research Department (SER)
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2011
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Cambridge, MA, United States
  • 2006
    • Stony Brook University
      • Department of Psychology
      Stony Brook, NY, United States