Seiki Hirano

Kyushu University, Fukuoka-shi, Fukuoka-ken, Japan

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Publications (12)72.05 Total impact

  • Hiroyuki Kitao, Seiki Hirano, Minoru Takata
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    ABSTRACT: Homologous recombination (HR) is a mode of double-strand break (DSB) repair required for cell viability in vertebrate cells. Targeted integration of homologous DNA fragment by HR is usually a very rare event in vertebrate cells; however, in chicken B lymphoma cell line DT40, the ratio of targeted to random integration is extremely high. Although the underlying mechanism of this phenotype is not fully understood, DT40 has been utilized as a model cell line for a number of genetic analyses. Here we describe three assays for evaluating homologous recombinational repair (HRR) using DT40 as a model system, measuring gene-targeting frequency, analyzing HRR process of single DSB induced by yeast homing endonuclease I-SceI, and measuring sister chromatid exchange frequency. Combined with generation of gene-disrupted DT40 mutant cell line, these assays have been highly useful to investigate the mechanisms in HRR. Using these techniques, a role of HRR of not only Rad52 epistasis group genes but also genes whose mutation cause hereditary cancer syndrome, such as Fanconi anemia, has been established.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2011; 745:293-309. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Twenty-five percent of all lung cancer cases are not attributable to smoking. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, which are involved in approximately 50% of nonsmoker lung cancer, are positively correlated with responsiveness to gefitinib, and inversely correlated with smoking history. Activating EGFR mutations play a critical role in the carcinogenesis of nonsmoking-related lung cancer. To investigate the chemopreventive effects of gefitinib on nonsmoking-related lung cancer, we generated transgenic mice expressing EGFR L858R in type II pneumocytes constitutively using the surfactant protein-C promoter. The transgenic mice invariably developed atypical adenomatous hyperplasia at age 4 weeks and multifocal adenocarcinoma of varying sizes at age 7 weeks. Notably, the expression levels of phosphorylated and total ErbB2, ErbB3, and thyroid transcription factor-1 were elevated in the transgenic mice compared with wild-type controls at age 3 weeks. Administration of gefitinib to 3-week-old transgenic mice for 1 week before carcinogenesis reduced the amount of phosphorylated EGFR in the lungs of the mice to the baseline level. Gefitinib (5 mg/kg/d; n = 5, 5, and 15) or vehicle (n = 5, 5, and 15) was administered to transgenic mice from age 3 to 8, 13, and 18 weeks, respectively. The numbers of lung tumors in the control and gefitinib-treated groups were 1.75, 5.8, 10.2, and 0 (P < 0.05), respectively. No fatal toxic events occurred in either group, and gefitinib inhibited tumorigenesis completely in this mouse model. These results suggest the utility of molecular targeted chemoprevention against nonsmoking-related lung cancer.
    Cancer Research 08/2009; 69(17):7088-95. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the role of an activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation in lung cancer, we generated transgenic mice expressing the delE748-A752 mutant version of mouse EGFR driven by the SP-C promoter, which is equivalent to the delE746-A750 mutation found in lung cancer patients. Strikingly, the mice invariably developed multifocal lung adenocarcinomas of varying sizes at between 5 and 6 weeks of age, and they died from tumor progression approximately 2 months later if left untreated. Daily oral administration of the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) gefitinib (5 mg/kg/day) reduced the total and phosphorylation levels of EGFR to those in wild-type mouse lung tissue; in addition, it abrogated tumor growth within 1 week and prolonged survival to >30 weeks. Interestingly, phosphorylated ErbB2, ErbB3, and thyroid transcriptional factor-1 increased in the transgenic mice compared with those in wild-type mice. They might play some roles in tumors progression in the transgenic mice. This model will be useful for studying the mechanisms of carcinogenesis, chemoprevention, and acquired resistance to EGFR TKIs in lung cancer patients carrying activating EGFR mutations.
    Cancer Science 06/2008; 99(9):1747-53. · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib may provide dramatic clinical responses in some patients with pulmonary adenocarcinoma carrying activating mutations of the EGFR. However, prolonged administration of gefitinib may eventually induce acquired resistance in such patients. To gain insight into the mechanisms of this phenomenon, we placed PC-9, a cell line derived from pulmonary adenocarcinoma that has a 15-bp deletion in EGFR exon 19, under the continuous selective pressure of low levels of gefitinib without any mutagen, and established a subline that was able to grow in the presence of 2 micromol/L of gefitinib (designated RPC-9). In this cell line, about half of the reverse transcription-PCR products from mutated EGFR also carried an additional mutation (T790M). In keeping with the proposed role of T790M in abrogating gefitinib binding with EGFR, gefitinib-treated RPC-9 hardly displayed any decrease in the constitutive phosphorylation of EGFR, Akt, or Erk1/2 unlike in PC-9 cells. Interestingly, transfection of the EGFR carrying only a 15-bp deletion reversed the resistance to gefitinib in RPC-9 cells. Thus, the balance of expression levels between gefitinib-sensitive or gefitinib-resistant EGFR may govern the response to gefitinib in lung cancer.
    Cancer Research 09/2007; 67(16):7807-14. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with pulmonary adenocarcinoma carrying the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation tend to display dramatic clinical response to treatment with the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib. Unfortunately, in many cases the cancer cells eventually acquire resistance, and this limits the duration of efficacy. To gain insight into these acquired resistance mechanisms, we first prepared HEK293T cell line stably transfected with either wild-type (WT) or mutant (L858R) EGFR, and then expressed oncogenic K-Ras12V mutant in the latter transfectant. Although 293T cells expressing wild-type EGFR did not show any growth inhibition by gefitinib treatment similarly to the non-transfected cells, the cells expressing the EGFR-L858R were exquisitely sensitive. Consistently, phospho-Akt levels were decreased in response to gefitinib in cells expressing EGFR-L858R but not in cells with EGFR-WT. In contrast, 293T cells expressing both EGFR-L858R and oncogenic K-Ras were able to proliferate even in the presence of high concentration of gefitinib probably by inducing Erk1/2 activation. We also expressed K-Ras12V in the gefitinib-sensitive pulmonary adenocarcinoma cell line PC-9, which harbors an in-frame deletion in the EGFR gene. The activated K-Ras inhibited the effects of gefitinib treatment on cell growth, cell death induction and levels of phospho-Akt, as well as phospho-Erk. These data indicate that activated Ras could substitute most of the upstream EGFR signal, and are consistent with the hypothesis that mutational activation of targets immediately downstream from the EGFR could induce the secondary resistance to gefitinib in patients with lung cancer carrying EGFR mutation.
    Cancer Science 04/2007; 98(3):357-63. · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The rare hereditary disorder Fanconi anemia (FA) can be caused by mutations in components of the FA core complex (FancA/B/C/E/F/G/L/M), a key regulator FancD2, the breast cancer susceptibility protein BRCA2/FancD1, or the newly identified FancJ/BRIP1 helicase. By performing yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screens using N-terminal chicken (ch) FancD2 as a bait, we have identified chFancL, the likely ubiquitin E3 ligase subunit of the FA core complex. We also found that ectopically expressed FancD2 and FancL co-immunoprecipitated in 293T cells, and this interaction was dependent on the PHD domain of FancL. FANCL-disrupted chicken DT40 cells displayed defects in both FancD2 monoubiquitination and focus formation. Importantly, cell lines lacking the FANCL or FANCD2 genes, or carrying a “knock-in” mutation of the FancD2 monoubiquitination site (where the Lys 563 residue is changed to Arg), displayed quantitatively identical defects in the repair of I-SceI-induced chromosomal breaks by homologous recombination (HR). These data establish the role of FANCL and FancD2 monoubiquitination in HR repair.
    Genes to Cells 03/2007; 12(3):299 - 310. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare hereditary disorder characterized by bone marrow failure, compromised genome stability, and increased incidence of cancer. FA is caused by abnormalities that occur in components of the FA core complex, a key factor FancD2, breast cancer susceptibility protein BRCA2/FancD1, or BRIP1/FancJ. These proteins are proposed to function in a common biochemical process (FA pathway), however, its precise role is still unclear. In this chapter, we will summarize our genetic analysis on the FA pathway using DT40 cells line. Our data revealed that (1) FA pathway promotes DNA repair mediated by homologous recombination, and likely regulates translesion synthesis, thereby protecting cells against stalled replication forks; (2) BLM helicase can be regarded as an effector molecule of the FA pathway, since its subnuclear localization is regulated by FA pathway; (3) the FA core complex has multiple roles in the activation, relocalization, and DNA repair function of FANCD2.
    Sub-cellular biochemistry 02/2006; 40:295-311.
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    ABSTRACT: Cross-linking agents that induce DNA interstrand cross-links (ICL) are widely used in anticancer chemotherapy. Yeast genetic studies show that nucleotide excision repair (NER), Rad6/Rad18-dependent postreplication repair, homologous recombination, and cell cycle checkpoint pathway are involved in ICL repair. To study the contribution of DNA damage response pathways in tolerance to cross-linking agents in vertebrates, we made a panel of gene-disrupted clones from chicken DT40 cells, each defective in a particular DNA repair or checkpoint pathway, and measured the sensitivities to cross-linking agents, including cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) (cisplatin), mitomycin C, and melphalan. We found that cells harboring defects in translesion DNA synthesis (TLS), Fanconi anemia complementation groups (FANC), or homologous recombination displayed marked hypersensitivity to all the cross-linking agents, whereas NER seemed to play only a minor role. This effect of replication-dependent repair pathways is distinctively different from the situation in yeast, where NER seems to play a major role in dealing with ICL. Cells deficient in Rev3, the catalytic subunit of TLS polymerase Polzeta, showed the highest sensitivity to cisplatin followed by fanc-c. Furthermore, epistasis analysis revealed that these two mutants work in the same pathway. Our genetic comprehensive study reveals a critical role for DNA repair pathways that release DNA replication block at ICLs in cellular tolerance to cross-linking agents and could be directly exploited in designing an effective chemotherapy.
    Cancer Research 01/2006; 65(24):11704-11. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In DNA damage responses, the Fanconi anemia (FA) protein, FancD2, is targeted to chromatin and forms nuclear foci following its monoubiquitination, a process likely catalyzed by the FA core complex. Here, we show that a chicken FancD2-ubiquitin fusion protein, carrying a Lys-Arg substitution removing the natural monoubiquitination site (D2KR-Ub), could reverse cisplatin hypersensitivity and localize to chromatin in FANCD2-deficient DT40 cells. Importantly, the chromatin targeting was dependent on three core complex components as well as the hydrophobic surface of ubiquitin that may direct protein-protein interactions. Furthermore, a constitutively chromatin bound fusion of D2KR-histone H2B could complement cisplatin sensitivity in FANCD2- but not FANCC-, FANCG-, or FANCL-deficient cells. Thus these core complex components have an additional function in the DNA repair, which is independent of the monoubiquitination and chromatin targeting of FancD2. These results define functional consequences of FancD2 monoubiquitination and reveal previously hidden functions for the FA protein core complex.
    Molecular Cell 10/2005; 19(6):841-7. · 15.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A variety of cellular proteins has the ability to recognize DNA lesions induced by the anti-cancer drug cisplatin, with diverse consequences on their repair and on the therapeutic effectiveness of this drug. We report a novel gene involved in the cell response to cisplatin in vertebrates. The RDM1 gene (for RAD52 Motif 1) was identified while searching databases for sequences showing similarities to RAD52, a protein involved in homologous recombination and DNA double-strand break repair. Ablation of RDM1 in the chicken B cell line DT40 led to a more than 3-fold increase in sensitivity to cisplatin. However, RDM1-/- cells were not hypersensitive to DNA damages caused by ionizing radiation, UV irradiation, or the alkylating agent methylmethane sulfonate. The RDM1 protein displays a nucleic acid binding domain of the RNA recognition motif (RRM) type. By using gel-shift assays and electron microscopy, we show that purified, recombinant chicken RDM1 protein interacts with single-stranded DNA as well as double-stranded DNA, on which it assembles filament-like structures. Notably, RDM1 recognizes DNA distortions induced by cisplatin-DNA adducts in vitro. Finally, human RDM1 transcripts are abundant in the testis, suggesting a possible role during spermatogenesis.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2005; 280(10):9225-35. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies show overlap between Fanconi anemia (FA) proteins and those involved in DNA repair mediated by homologous recombination (HR). However, the mechanism by which FA proteins affect HR is unclear. FA proteins (FancA/C/E/F/G/L) form a multiprotein complex, which is responsible for DNA damage-induced FancD2 monoubiquitination, a key event for cellular resistance to DNA damage. Here, we show that FANCD2-disrupted DT40 chicken B-cell line is defective in HR-mediated DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, as well as gene conversion at the immunoglobulin light-chain locus, an event also mediated by HR. Gene conversions occurring in mutant cells were associated with decreased nontemplated mutations. In contrast to these defects, we also found increased spontaneous sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and intact Rad51 foci formation after DNA damage. Thus, we propose that FancD2 promotes a subpathway of HR that normally mediates gene conversion by a mechanism that avoids crossing over and hence SCEs.
    Molecular and Cellular Biology 02/2005; 25(1):34-43. · 5.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Some of the restarting events of stalled replication forks lead to sister chromatid exchange (SCE) as a result of homologous recombination (HR) repair with crossing over. The rate of SCE is elevated by the loss of BLM helicase or by a defect in translesion synthesis (TLS). We found that spontaneous SCE levels were elevated 2-fold in chicken DT40 cells deficient in Fanconi anemia (FA) gene FANCC. To investigate the mechanism of the elevated SCE, we deleted FANCC in cells lacking Rad51 paralog XRCC3, TLS factor RAD18, or BLM. The increased SCE in fancc cells required Xrcc3, whereas the fancc/rad18 double mutant exhibited higher SCE than either single mutant. Unexpectedly, SCE in the fancc/blm mutant was similar to that in blm cells, indicating functional linkage between FANCC and BLM. Furthermore, MMC-induced formation of GFP-BLM nuclear foci was severely compromised in both human and chicken fancc or fancd2 cells. Our cell survival data suggest that the FA proteins serve to facilitate HR, but not global TLS, during crosslink repair.
    The EMBO Journal 12/2004; 24(2):418-427. · 9.82 Impact Factor