[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Following DNA double-strand breaks, poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) is quickly and heavily synthesized to mediate fast and early recruitment of a number of DNA damage response factors to the sites of DNA lesions and facilitates DNA damage repair. Here, we found that EXO1, an exonuclease for DNA damage repair, is quickly recruited to the sites of DNA damage via PAR-binding. With further dissection of the functional domains of EXO1, we report that the PIN domain of EXO1 recognizes PAR both in vitro and in vivo and the interaction between the PIN domain and PAR is sufficient for the recruitment. We also found that the R93G variant of EXO1, generated by a single nucleotide polymorphism, abolishes the interaction and the early recruitment. Moreover, our study suggests that the PAR-mediated fast recruitment of EXO1 facilities early DNA end resection, the first step of homologous recombination repair. We observed that other PIN domains could also recognize DNA damage-induced PAR. Taken together, our study demonstrates a novel class of PAR-binding module that plays an important role in DNA damage response.
Nucleic Acids Research 09/2015; DOI:10.1093/nar/gkv939 · 9.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Induction of DNA damage by ionizing radiation (IR) and/or cytotoxic chemotherapy is an essential component of cancer therapy. The Ataxia-Telangiectasia group D Complementing gene (ATDC, also called TRIM29), is highly expressed in many malignancies. It participates in the DNA damage response (DDR) downstream of ATM and p38/MK2 and promotes cell survival after IR. To elucidate the downstream mechanisms of ATDC-induced IR protection, we performed a mass spectrometry screen to identify ATDC binding partners. We identified a direct physical interaction between ATDC and the E3 ubiquitin ligase and DNA damage response protein, RNF8, which is required for ATDC-induced radioresistance. This interaction was refined to the C-terminal portion (aa 348-588) of ATDC and the ring domain of RNF8 and was disrupted by mutation of ATDC S550 to alanine. Mutations disrupting this interaction abrogated ATDC-induced radioresistance. The interaction between RNF8 and ATDC, which was increased by IR, also promoted downstream DNA damage responses such as IR-induced γ-H2AX ubiquitination, 53BP1 phosphorylation, and subsequent resolution of the DNA damage foci. These studies define a novel function for ATDC in the RNF8-mediated DNA damage response and implicate RNF8 binding as a key determinant of the radioprotective function of ATDC.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2015; DOI:10.1074/jbc.M115.665489 · 4.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The G9a/GLP complex mediates mono- and dimethylation of Lys9 of histone H3 at specific gene loci, which is associated with transcriptional repression. However, the molecular mechanism by which the G9a/GLP complex is targeted to the specific gene loci for H3K9 methylation is unclear. In this study, with unbiased protein affinity purification, we found ZNF644 and WIZ as two core subunits in the G9a/GLP complex. ZNF644 and WIZ interact with the transcription activation domain of G9a and GLP, respectively. Moreover, both ZNF644 and WIZ contain multiple zinc finger motifs that recognize consensus DNA sequences. ZNF644 and WIZ target G9a and GLP to the chromatin and mediate the G9a/GLP complex-dependent H3K9 methylation as well as gene repression. Thus, our studies reveal two key subunits in the G9a/GLP complex that regulate the function of this histone methyltransferase complex.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) undergo death during atherosclerosis, a widespread cardiovascular disease. Recent study suggests that oxidative damage occurs in VSMCs and induces atherosclerosis. Here, we analyzed oxidative damage repair in VSMCs and found that VSMCs are hypersensitive to oxidative damage. Further analysis shows that oxidative damage repair in VSMCs is suppressed by low level of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation), a key post-translational modification in oxidative damage repair. The low level of PARylation is not caused by lacking PARP-1, the major poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activated by oxidative damage. Instead, the expression of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase, PARG, the enzyme hydrolyzing poly(ADP-ribose), is significantly higher in VSMCs than that in the control cells. Using PARG inhibitor to suppress PARG activity facilitates oxidative damage-induced PARylation as well as DNA damage repair. Thus, our study demonstrates a novel molecular mechanism of oxidative damage-induced VSMCs death. Moreover, this study reveals PARG inhibitors as a potential treatment for atherosclerosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract During meiotic prophase, DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair-mediated homologous recombination (HR) occurs for exchange of genetic information between homologous chromosomes. Unlike autosomes or female sex chromosomes, human male sex chromosomes X and Y share little homology. Although DSBs are generated throughout male sex chromosomes, homologous recombination does not occur for most regions and DSB repair process is significantly prolonged. As a result, male sex chromosomes are coated with many DNA damage response proteins and form a unique chromatin structure known as the XY body. Interestingly, associated with the prolonged DSB repair, transcription is repressed in the XY body but not in autosomes, a phenomenon known as meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI), which is critical for male meiosis. Here using mice as model organisms, we briefly summarize recent progress on DSB repair in meiotic prophase and focus on the mechanism and function of DNA damage response in the XY body.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is an unique posttranslational modification and required for spindle assembly and function during mitosis. However, the molecular mechanism of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) in mitosis remains elusive. Here, we show the evidence that PAR is recognized by ECT2, a key guanine nucleotide exchange factor in mitosis. The BRCT domain of ECT2 directly binds to PAR both in vitro and in vivo. We further found that α-tubulin is PARylated during mitosis. PARylation of α-tubulin is recognized by ECT2 and recruits ECT2 to mitotic spindle for completing mitosis. Taken together, our study reveals a novel mechanism by which PAR regulates mitosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive and intractable human malignant tumors and a leading cause of cancer-related death across the world, with incidence equaling mortality. Because of the extremely high malignance, this disease is usually diagnosed at its advanced stage and recurs even after surgical excision. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is generally thought to arise from pathological changes of pancreatic duct, and the pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma accounts for more than 90 % of malignant neoplasms of the pancreas. To date, scientists have revealed several risk factors for pancreatic cancer, including smoking, family history, and aging. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. Meanwhile, more mutations of DNA damage response factors have been identified in familial pancreatic cancers, implying a potential link between DNA damage and pancreatic cancer. DNA damage is a recurring phenomenon in our bodies which could be induced by exogenous agents and endogenous metabolism. Accumulated DNA lesions cause genomic instability which eventually results in tumorigenesis. In this study, we showed obvious DNA damages existed in human pancreatic cancer, which activated DNA damage response and the DNA repair pathway including ataxia-telangiectasia mutated, DNA-PK, CHK1, and CHK2. The persistent DNA damage in pancreatic tissue may be the source for its tumorigenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB) fold is a ssDNA or RNA binding motif in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Unexpectedly, we found that the OB fold of human ssDNA-binding protein 1 (hSSB1) is a poly(ADP ribose) (PAR) binding domain. hSSB1 exhibits high-affinity binding to PAR and recognizes iso-ADP ribose (ADPR), the linkage between two ADPR units. This interaction between PAR and hSSB1 mediates the early recruitment of hSSB1 to the sites of DNA damage. Mutations in the OB fold of hSSB1 that disrupt PAR binding abolish the relocation of hSSB1 to the sites of DNA damage. Moreover, PAR-mediated recruitment of hSSB1 is important for early DNA damage repair. We have screened other OB folds and found that several other OB folds also recognize PAR. Taken together, our study reveals a PAR-binding domain that mediates DNA damage repair.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/2014; 111(20). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1318367111 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by therapeutic resistance for which the basis is poorly understood. Here we report that the DNA and p53 binding protein ATDC/TRIM29, which is highly expressed in PDAC, plays a critical role in DNA damage signaling and radioresistance in pancreatic cancer cells. ATDC mediated resistance to ionizing radiation in vitro and in vivo in mouse xenograft assays. ATDC was phosphorylated directly by MAPKAP kinase 2 (MK2) at Ser550 in an ATM-dependent manner. Phosphorylation at Ser-550 by MK2 was required for the radioprotective function of ATDC. Our results identify a DNA repair pathway leading from MK2 and ATM to ATDC, suggesting its candidacy as a therapeutic target to radiosensitize PDAC and improve the efficacy of DNA-damaging treatment.
Cancer Research 01/2014; 74(6). DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-13-2289 · 9.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: H2A.B is a unique histone H2A variant that only exists in mammals. Here, we found that H2A.B is ubiquitously expressed in major organs. Genome-wide analysis of H2A.B in mouse ES cells shows that H2A.B is associated with methylated DNA in gene body regions. Moreover, H2A.B enriched gene loci are actively transcribed. One typical example is that H2A.B is enriched in a set of differentially methylated regions at imprinted loci and facilitates transcription elongation. These results suggest that H2A.B positively regulates transcription elongation by overcoming DNA methylation in the transcribed region. It provides a novel mechanism by which transcription is regulated at DNA hypermethylated regions.
Genome Research 01/2014; 24(4). DOI:10.1101/gr.156877.113 · 14.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the recent decades, carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) has been developed into a credible option for the patients with carotid stenosis. However, restenosis remains a severe and unsolved issue after CAS treatment. Restenosis is characterized by neointimal hyperplasia, which is partially caused by vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) proliferation. However, the molecular mechanism involved in the restenosis is still unclear. In this study, we demonstrated a functional crosstalk between two TGF-β superfamily signaling pathway members, Smad3 and BMPR2, in VSMC proliferation. Smad3 plays an important role in the TGF-β/Smad3 signaling pathway, and is significantly upregulated in the carotid artery with restenosis to promote VSMC proliferation. In contrast, BMP receptor II (BMPR2), an inhibitor of VSMC proliferation is downregulated in carotid restenosis. We further found that BMPR2 downregulation is mediated by miR-17-92 cluster, which is transcriptionally regulated by Smad3. Thus, Smad3 upregulation and Smad3/miR-17-92 cluster-dependent BMPR2 downregulation are likely to promote VSMC proliferation and restenosis. Taken together, our results may provide novel clues for early diagnosis of carotid restenosis and developing new therapeutic strategy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ten-eleven translocation (TET) family enzymes convert 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxylmethylcytosine. However, the molecular
mechanism that regulates this biological process is not clear. Here, we show the evidence that PGC7 (also known as Dppa3 or
Stella) interacts with TET2 and TET3 both in vitro and in vivo to suppress the enzymatic activity of TET2 and TET3. Moreover, lacking PGC7 induces the loss of DNA methylation at imprinting
loci. Genome-wide analysis of PGC7 reveals a consensus DNA motif that is recognized by PGC7. The CpG islands surrounding the
PGC7-binding motifs are hypermethylated. Taken together, our study demonstrates a molecular mechanism by which PGC7 protects
DNA methylation from TET family enzyme-dependent oxidation.
Nucleic Acids Research 12/2013; 42(5). DOI:10.1093/nar/gkt1261 · 9.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Emerging evidence shows that Uhrf1 plays an important role in DNA damage response for maintaining genomic stability. Interestingly, Uhrf1 has a paralog Uhrf2 in mammals. Uhrf1 and Uhrf2 share similar domain architectures. However, the role of Uhrf2 in DNA damage response has not been studied yet. During the analysis of the expression level of Uhrf2 in different tissues, we found that Uhrf2 is highly expressed in aorta and aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. Thus, we studied the role of Uhrf2 in DNA damage response in aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. Using laser microirradiation, we found that like Uhrf1, Uhrf2 was recruited to the sites of DNA damage. We dissected the functional domains of Uhrf2 and found that the TTD, PHD and SRA domains are important for the relocation of Uhrf2 to the sites of DNA damage. Moreover, depletion of Uhrf2 suppressed DNA damage-induced H2AX phosphorylation and DNA damage repair. Taken together, our results demonstrate the function of Uhrf2 in DNA damage response.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 10/2013; 441(1). DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2013.10.018 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: hSSB1 plays an important role in DNA damage response and the maintenance of genomic stability. It has been shown that the core hSSB1 complex contains hSSB1, INTS3 and C9orf80. Here, using protein affinity purification, we have identified INTS6 as a major subunit of the core hSSB1 complex. INTS6 forms a stable complex with INTS3 and hSSB1 both in vitro and in vivo. In this complex, INTS6 directly interacts with INTS3. In response to DNA damage response, along with INTS3 and hSSB1, INTS6 relocates to the DNA damage sites. Moreover, the hSSB1-INTS complex regulates the accumulation of RAD51 and BRCA1 at DNA damage sites and the correlated homologous recombination (HR).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Poly-ADP-ribosylation is a unique post-translational modification participating in many biological processes, such as DNA damage response. Here, we demonstrate that a set of Forkhead-associated (FHA) and BRCA1 C-terminal (BRCT) domains recognizes poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) both in vitro and in vivo. Among these FHA and BRCT domains, the FHA domains of APTX and PNKP interact with iso-ADP-ribose, the linkage of PAR, whereas the BRCT domains of Ligase4, XRCC1, and NBS1 recognize ADP-ribose, the basic unit of PAR. The interactions between PAR and the FHA or BRCT domains mediate the relocation of these domain-containing proteins to DNA damage sites and facilitate the DNA damage response. Moreover, the interaction between PAR and the NBS1 BRCT domain is important for the early activation of ATM during DNA damage response and ATM-dependent cell cycle checkpoint activation. Taken together, our results demonstrate two novel PAR-binding modules that play important roles in DNA damage response.
Genes & development 08/2013; 27(16):1752-68. DOI:10.1101/gad.226357.113 · 10.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During meiotic prophase in males, the sex chromosomes partially synapse to form the XY body, a unique structure that recruits proteins involved in the DNA damage response, which is believed to be important for silencing of the sex chromosomes. It remains elusive how the DNA damage response in the XY body is regulated. Here we show that H2AX-MDC1-RNF8 signaling, which is well characterized in somatic cells, is dispensable for the recruitment of proteins to the unsynapsed axes in the XY body. On the other hand, the DNA damage response that spreads over the sex chromosomes is largely similar to that in somatic cells. This analysis shows that there are important differences between the regulation of the DNA damage response at the XY body and at DNA damage sites in somatic cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carriers of BRCA1 germline mutations are predisposed to breast and ovarian cancers. Accumulated evidence shows that BRCA1 is quickly recruited to DNA lesions and plays an important role in the DNA damage response. However, the mechanism by which BRCA1 is recruited to DNA damage sites remains elusive. BRCA1 forms a Ring-domain heterodimer with BARD1, a major partner of BRCA1 that contains tandem BRCA1 C-terminus (BRCT) motifs. Here, we identify the BRCTs of BARD1 as a poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR)-binding module. The binding of the BARD1 BRCTs to PAR targets the BRCA1/BARD1 heterodimer to DNA damage sites. Thus, our study uncovers a PAR-dependent mechanism of rapid recruitment of BRCA1/BARD1 to DNA damage sites.
Cancer cell 05/2013; 23(5):693-704. DOI:10.1016/j.ccr.2013.03.025 · 23.52 Impact Factor