Jay S Skyler

University of Miami, كورال غيبلز، فلوريدا, Florida, United States

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Publications (233)1496.48 Total impact

  • Diabetes Care 10/2015; 38(10):1964-1974. DOI:10.2337/dc15-1419 · 8.42 Impact Factor
  • Jay M. Sosenko · Jay S. Skyler · Jerry P. Palmer ·
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    ABSTRACT: This report details the development, validation, and utility of the Diabetes Prevention Trial-Type 1 (DPT-1) Risk Score (DPTRS) for type 1 diabetes (T1D). Proportional hazards regression was used to develop the DPTRS model which includes the glucose and C-peptide sums from oral glucose tolerance tests at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min, the log fasting C-peptide, age, and the log BMI. The DPTRS was externally validated in the TrialNet Natural History Study cohort (TNNHS). In a study of the application of the DPTRS, the findings showed that it could be used to identify normoglycemic individuals who were at a similar risk for T1D as those with dysglycemia. The DPTRS could also be used to identify lower risk dysglycemic individuals. Risk estimates of individuals deemed to be at higher risk according to DPTRS values did not differ significantly between the DPT-1 and the TNNHS; whereas, the risk estimates for those with dysglycemia were significantly higher in DPT-1. Individuals with very high DPTRS values were found to be at such marked risk for T1D that they could reasonably be considered to be in a pre-diabetic state. The findings indicate that the DPTRS has utility in T1D prevention trials and for identifying pre-diabetic individuals.
    Current Diabetes Reports 08/2015; 15(8). DOI:10.1007/s11892-015-0626-1 · 3.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the safety, tolerability, and feasibility of adult allogeneic bone marrow-derived mesenchymal precursor cells (MPCs) in type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with metformin either alone or with one additional oral antidiabetic agent. The study was a dose-escalating randomized placebo-controlled trial assessing one intravenous (IV) infusion of MPCs (rexlemestrocel-L; Mesoblast Inc.) 0.3 × 10(6)/kg (n = 15), 1.0 × 10(6)/kg (n = 15), or 2.0 × 10(6)/kg (n = 15) or placebo (n = 16). Study duration was 12 weeks. Subjects (21 women, 40 men) with a mean ± SD baseline HbA1c 8.3 ± 1.0% (67 ± 10.9 mmol/mol), BMI 33.5 ± 5.5 kg/m(2), and diabetes duration 10.1 ± 6.0 years were enrolled at 18 U.S. sites. No acute adverse events (AEs) were associated with infusion. No serious AEs, serious hypoglycemia AEs, or discontinuations due to AEs over 12 weeks were found. No subjects developed donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies or became sensitized. The safety profile was comparable among treatment groups. Compared with placebo, a single IV infusion of rexlemestrocel-L reduced HbA1c at all time points after week 1. The adjusted least squares mean ± SE dose-related differences in HbA1c from placebo in the rexlemestrocel-L groups ranged from -0.1 ± 0.2% (-1.1 ± 2.2 mmol/mol) to -0.4 ± 0.2% (4.4 ± 2.2 mmol/mol) at 8 weeks and from 0.0 ± 0.25% to -0.3 ± 0.25% (-3.3 ± -2.7 mmol/mol) at 12 weeks (P < 0.05 for 2.0 × 10(6)/kg dose at 8 weeks). The clinical target HbA1c <7% (53 mmol/mol) was achieved by 33% (5 of 15) of the subjects who received the 2.0 × 10(6)/kg dose vs. 0% of those who received placebo (P < 0.05). This short-term study demonstrates the safety and feasibility of up to 246 million MPCs in subjects with type 2 diabetes. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
    Diabetes care 07/2015; 38(9). DOI:10.2337/dc14-2830 · 8.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ranolazine is an antianginal drug that mediates its effects by inhibition of cardiac late sodium current. Although ranolazine is not approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, in post hoc analyses of pivotal angina trials, ranolazine was associated with reductions in percent glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in subjects with type 2 diabetes. The study prospectively assessed the safety and efficacy of ranolazine in subjects with type 2 diabetes with inadequate glycemic control managed by lifestyle alone. The study was conducted worldwide in 465 subjects, with baseline HbA1c of 7-10% (53-86 mmol/mol) and fasting serum glucose of 130-240 mg/dL, randomized to placebo versus ranolazine. Compared with placebo, there was a greater decline in HbA1c at week 24 from baseline (primary end point) in subjects taking ranolazine (mean difference -0.56% [-6.1 mmol/mol]; P < 0.0001). Moreover, the proportion of subjects achieving an HbA1c <7.0% was greater with ranolazine (25.6% vs. 41.2%; P = 0.0004). Ranolazine was associated with reductions in fasting (mean difference -8 mg/dL; P = 0.0266) and 2-h postprandial glucose (mean difference -19 mg/dL; P = 0.0008 vs. placebo). Subjects taking ranolazine trended toward a greater decrease from baseline in fasting insulin (P = 0.0507), a greater decrease in fasting glucagon (P = 0.0003), and a lower postprandial 3-h glucagon area under the curve (P = 0.0031 vs. placebo). Ranolazine was safe and well tolerated. Compared with placebo, use of ranolazine monotherapy over 24 weeks, in subjects with type 2 diabetes and inadequate glycemic control on diet and exercise alone, significantly reduced HbA1c and other measures of glycemic control. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
    Diabetes care 06/2015; 38(7). DOI:10.2337/dc14-2629 · 8.42 Impact Factor
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    William T Cefalu · William V Tamborlane · Jay S Skyler ·

    Diabetes care 06/2015; 38(6):968-70. DOI:10.2337/dc15-0615 · 8.42 Impact Factor
  • Jay S Skyler ·
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    ABSTRACT: Over the past three decades there have been a number of clinical trials directed at interdicting the type 1 diabetes (T1D) disease process in an attempt to prevent the development of the disease in those at increased risk or to stabilize-potentially even reverse-the disease in people with T1D, usually of recent onset. Unfortunately, to date there has been no prevention trial that has resulted in delay or prevention of T1D. And, trials in people with T1D have had mixed results with some showing promise with at least transient improvement in β-cell function compared with randomized control groups, while others have failed to slow the decline in β-cell function when compared with placebo. This Perspective will assess the past and present challenges in this effort and provide an outline for potential future opportunities. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
    Diabetes care 06/2015; 38(6):997-1007. DOI:10.2337/dc15-0349 · 8.42 Impact Factor
  • Jay S Skyler ·

    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 04/2015; 313(15):1520-1521. DOI:10.1001/jama.2015.2054 · 35.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We developed a scale to serve as a potential end point for 6-month glycemic progression (PS6M) toward type 1 diabetes (T1D) in autoantibody-positive relatives of individuals with T1D. The PS6M was developed from Diabetes Prevention Trial-Type 1 (DPT-1) data and tested in the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention Study (PTP). It is the difference between 6-month glucose sum values (30-120 min oral glucose tolerance test values) and values predicted for nonprogressors. The PS6M predicted T1D in the PTP (P < 0.001). The area under the receiver operating chacteristic curve was greater (P < 0.001) for the PS6M than for the baseline-to-6-month difference. PS6M values were higher in those with two or more autoantibodies, 30-0 min C-peptide values <2.00 ng/mL, or DPT-1 Risk Scores >7.00 (P < 0.001 for all). The PS6M is an indicator of short-term glycemic progression to T1D that could be a useful tool for assessing preventive treatments and biomarkers. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
    Diabetes Care 03/2015; 38(5). DOI:10.2337/dc14-2787 · 8.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High-carbohydrate diets have been associated with ß-cell strain, dyslipidemia, and endothelial dysfunction. We examined how β-cell and endothelial function adapt to carbohydrate overloading and the influence of insulin resistance. On sequential days in randomized order, nondiabetic subjects (classified as insulin-sensitive (IS, n=64) or insulin-resistant (IR, n=79) by euglycemic clamp) received 4 mixed meals over 14 hours with either standard (300 kcal) or double carbohydrate content. β-cell function was reconstructed by mathematical modeling; brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was measured before and after each meal. Compared with IS, IR subjects showed higher glycemias and insulin hypersecretion due to greater ß-cell glucose and rate sensitivity; potentiation of insulin secretion, however, was impaired. Circulating FFA were less suppressed in IR than IS subjects. Baseline FMD was reduced in IR, and postprandial FMD attenuation occurred after each meal, particularly with high carbohydrate, similarly in IR and IS. Throughout the 2 study days, higher FFA levels were significantly associated with lower (incretin-induced) potentiation and impaired FMD. In nondiabetic individuals, enhanced glucose sensitivity and potentiation upregulate the insulin secretory response to carbohydrate overloading. With insulin resistance this adaptation is impaired. Defective suppression of endogenous FFA is one common link between impaired potentiation and vascular endothelial dysfunction. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
    Diabetes 03/2015; 64(7). DOI:10.2337/db15-0106 · 8.10 Impact Factor
  • Jay S Skyler ·
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    ABSTRACT: 2014 was a good year for developments in automated insulin delivery systems for patients with diabetes mellitus. Clinical trials shifted from research units to the outpatient setting, included both adult and adolescent individuals and were conducted over periods from overnight to 24 h, with improvements seen in time spent in the target glycaemic range and reduced risk of hypoglycaemia.
    Nature Reviews Endocrinology 12/2014; 11(2). DOI:10.1038/nrendo.2014.228 · 13.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We assessed whether type 1 diabetes (T1D) can be diagnosed earlier using a new approach based on prediction and natural history in autoantibody-positive individuals. Diabetes Prevention Trial-Type 1 (DPT-1) and TrialNet Natural History Study (TNNHS) participants were studied. A metabolic index, the T1D Diagnostic Index60 (Index60), was developed from 2-h oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) using the log fasting C-peptide, 60-min C-peptide, and 60-min glucose. OGTTs with Index60 ≥2.00 and 2-h glucose <200 mg/dL (Ind60+Only) were compared with Index60 <2.00 and 2-h glucose ≥200 mg/dL (2hglu+Only) OGTTs as criteria for T1D. Individuals were assessed for C-peptide loss from the first Ind60+Only OGTT to diagnosis. Areas under receiver operating characteristic curves were significantly higher for Index60 than for the 2-h glucose (P < 0.001 for both DPT-1 and the TNNHS). As a diagnostic criterion, sensitivity was higher for Ind60+Only than for 2hglu+Only (0.44 vs. 0.15 in DPT-1; 0.26 vs. 0.17 in the TNNHS) OGTTs. Specificity was somewhat higher for 2hglu+Only OGTTs in DPT-1 (0.97 vs. 0.91) but equivalent in the TNNHS (0.98 for both). Positive and negative predictive values were higher for Ind60+Only OGTTs in both studies. Postchallenge C-peptide levels declined significantly at each OGTT time point from the first Ind60+Only OGTT to the time of standard diagnosis (range -22 to -34% in DPT-1 and -14 to -27% in the TNNHS). C-peptide and glucose patterns differed markedly between Ind60+Only and 2hglu+Only OGTTs. An approach based on prediction and natural history appears to have utility for diagnosing T1D. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
    Diabetes Care 12/2014; 38(2). DOI:10.2337/dc14-1813 · 8.42 Impact Factor
  • Jay S Skyler ·
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) rapidly lose β cell function and/or mass, leading to a life-long dependence on insulin therapy. β Cell destruction is mediated by aberrant immune responses; therefore, immune modulation has potential to ameliorate disease. While immune intervention in animal models of diabetes has shown promising results, treatment of patients with T1D with the same agents has not been as successful. In this issue of the JCI, Haller and colleagues present data from a small clinical trial that tested the efficacy of a combination of immunomodulatory agents, anti-thymocyte globulin and pegylated granulocyte CSF, neither of which have shown benefit for T1D as single treatment agents. Many patients that received combination therapy maintained β cell function at baseline levels up to a year after treatment. The results from this study challenge current trial design paradigm that for combined therapy to be successful individual agents should show benefit.
    Journal of Clinical Investigation 12/2014; 125(1):1-3. DOI:10.1172/JCI79190 · 13.22 Impact Factor
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    Jay S Skyler ·

    Diabetes 11/2014; 63(11):3578-80. DOI:10.2337/db14-1160 · 8.10 Impact Factor
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    Jay S Skyler ·

    10/2014; 4(6):473-477. DOI:10.2217/dmt.14.40
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from the inflammatory destruction of pancreatic β-cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on stimulated inflammatory cytokine production in white blood cells (WBC) from infants with a high genetic risk for T1D.Research design and methodsThis was a multicenter, two-arm, randomized, double-blind pilot trial of DHA supplementation, beginning either in the last trimester of pregnancy (41 infants) or in the first 5 months after birth (57 infants). Levels of DHA in infant and maternal red blood cell (RBC) membranes and in breast milk were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Inflammatory cytokines were assayed from whole blood culture supernatants using the Luminex multiplex assay after stimulation with high dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 1 µg/mL.ResultsThe levels of RBC DHA were increased by 61–100% in treated compared to control infants at ages 6–36 months. There were no statistically significant reductions in production of the inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, TNFα, or IL-12p40 at any of the six timepoints measured. The inflammatory marker, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), was significantly lower in breast-fed DHA-treated infants compared to all formula-fed infants at the age of 12 months. Three infants (two received DHA) were removed from the study as a result of developing ≥two persistently positive biochemical islet autoantibodies.Conclusions This pilot trial showed that supplementation of infant diets with DHA is safe and fulfilled the pre-study goal of increasing infant RBC DHA levels by at least 20%. Inflammatory cytokine production was not consistently reduced.
    Pediatric Diabetes 07/2014; 16(4). DOI:10.1111/pedi.12170 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    Jay S Skyler ·

    Diabetes care 05/2014; 37(5):1173-5. DOI:10.2337/dc13-2878 · 8.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: Prandial treatment with human regular insulin for diabetes may result in early postprandial hyperglycaemia and late hypoglycaemia due to its slow onset and long duration of action. This study compared injections of recombinant human insulin (rHI) formulated with recombinant human hyaluronidase [rHuPH20] (INSULIN-PH20) to insulin lispro for prandial treatment in subjects with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Methods: After a 1-month run-in period using twice-daily insulin glargine (or usual basal insulin therapy for pump users) with prandial lispro, 46 subjects with T1D (42 ± 13 years; body mass index: 26 ± 4 kg/m(2); A1c: 6.8 ± 0.5%) were assigned to INSULIN-PH20 or lispro in a random sequence for two consecutive, 12-week periods as the prandial insulin in an intensive treatment regimen. Results: The mean glycaemic excursion for INSULIN-PH20 (0.96 ± 2.00 mmol/l) was comparable (p = 0.322) to lispro (0.80 ± 1.95 mmol/l). The 8-point self-monitored blood glucose profiles were also comparable in the two groups. Good glycaemic control (A1c) was maintained for both treatments at 12 weeks (INSULIN-PH20: 7.0 ± 0.5%; lispro: 6.9 ± 0.6%). Overall rates of hypoglycaemia (≤ 3.9 mmol/l) were 24 events per patient per 4 weeks for INSULIN-PH20 and 22 events for lispro. There were no significant differences in adverse events or immunogenicity between treatments and both treatments were well tolerated. Conclusions: Unlike commercially available formulations of regular human insulin, a formulation of rHI with rHuPH20 was comparable to lispro for postprandial glucose excursions in a basal-bolus treatment regimen for T1D patients. Glycaemic control, safety and tolerability profiles were comparable for both treatments.
    Diabetes Obesity and Metabolism 05/2014; 16(11). DOI:10.1111/dom.12315 · 6.36 Impact Factor
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    Thomas Peyser · Eyal Dassau · Marc Breton · Jay S. Skyler ·
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    ABSTRACT: Recent advances in insulins, insulin pumps, continuous glucose-monitoring systems, and control algorithms have resulted in an acceleration of progress in the development of artificial pancreas devices. This review discusses progress in the development of external systems that are based on subcutaneous drug delivery and subcutaneous continuous glucose monitoring. There are two major system-level approaches to achieving closed-loop control of blood glucose in diabetic individuals. The unihormonal approach uses insulin to reduce blood glucose and relies on complex safety mitigation algorithms to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia. The bihormonal approach uses both insulin to lower blood glucose and glucagon to raise blood glucose, and also relies on complex algorithms to provide for safety of the user. There are several major strategies for the design of control algorithms and supervision control for application to the artificial pancreas: proportional–integral–derivative, model predictive control, fuzzy logic, and safety supervision designs. Advances in artificial pancreas research in the first decade of this century were based on the ongoing computer revolution and miniaturization of electronic technology. The advent of modern smartphones has created the ability to utilize smartphone technology as the engineering centerpiece of an artificial pancreas. With these advances, an artificial or bionic pancreas is within reach.
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 04/2014; 1311(1). DOI:10.1111/nyas.12431 · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE We studied the utility of the Diabetes Prevention Trial-Type 1 Risk Score (DPTRS) for improving the accuracy of type 1 diabetes (T1D) risk classification in TrialNet Natural History Study (TNNHS) participants.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The cumulative incidence of T1D was compared between normoglycemic individuals with DPTRS values >7.00 and dysglycemic individuals in the TNNHS (n = 991). The cumulative incidence was compared between individuals with DPTRS values <7.00 and >7.00 among those with dysglycemia and those with multiple autoantibodies in the TNNHS. DPTRS values >7.00 were compared with dysglycemia for characterizing risk in Diabetes Prevention Trial-Type 1 (DPT-1) (n = 670) and TNNHS participants. The reliability of DPTRS values >7.00 was compared with dysglycemia in the TNNHS.RESULTSThe cumulative incidence of T1D for normoglycemic TNNHS participants with DPTRS values >7.00 was comparable to those with dysglycemia. Among those with dysglycemia, the cumulative incidence was much higher (P < 0.001) for those with DPTRS values >7.00 than for those with values <7.00 (3-year risks: 0.16 for <7.00 and 0.46 for >7.00). Dysglycemic individuals in DPT-1 were at much higher risk for T1D than those with dysglycemia in the TNNHS (P < 0.001); there was no significant difference in risk between the studies among those with DPTRS values >7.00. The proportion in the TNNHS reverting from dysglycemia to normoglycemia at the next visit was higher than the proportion reverting from DPTRS values >7.00 to values <7.00 (36 vs. 23%).CONCLUSIONSDPTRS thresholds can improve T1D risk classification accuracy by identifying high-risk normoglycemic and low-risk dysglycemic individuals. The 7.00 DPTRS threshold characterizes risk more consistently between populations and has greater reliability than dysglycemia.
    Diabetes care 02/2014; 37(4). DOI:10.2337/dc13-2359 · 8.42 Impact Factor
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    Jay S Skyler ·

    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 02/2014; 16(S1):S85-S91. DOI:10.1089/dia.2014.1510 · 2.11 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

7k Citations
1,496.48 Total Impact Points


  • 1983-2015
    • University of Miami
      • • Miller School of Medicine
      • • Diabetes Research Institute
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Behavioral Medicine Research Center
      • • Department of Psychology
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      كورال غيبلز، فلوريدا, Florida, United States
  • 1980-2015
    • University of Miami Miller School of Medicine
      • • Diabetes Research Institute (DRI)
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Division of Hospital Medicine
      • • Division of Pediatric Psychology
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Division of General Internal Medicine
      Miami, Florida, United States
  • 2014
    • Yale University
      • Department of Pediatrics
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 2012
    • Benaroya Research Institute
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2009
    • Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis
      • Department of Medicine
      Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
  • 2006
    • Columbia University
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2003
    • University of Leeds
      Leeds, England, United Kingdom
  • 2002
    • Diabetes Australia, Victoria
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 1999
    • Deakin University
      Geelong, Victoria, Australia
  • 1997
    • Rochester Center for Behavioral Medicine
      Rochester Hills, Michigan, United States
  • 1994
    • University Of Miami Hospital
      Miami, Florida, United States
  • 1976-1978
    • Duke University Medical Center
      • Department of Medicine
      Durham, North Carolina, United States