Michael D Cabana

University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States

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Publications (154)542.8 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Milk supply concern is the most common reason for breastfeeding discontinuation and maternal anxiety is also associated with reduced breastfeeding duration. Newborn excess weight loss (EWL) could trigger milk supply concern and anxiety and might be amenable to modification. Our objective was to determine the relationship between EWL and the development of milk supply concern and anxiety and the effect of such development on breastfeeding duration. We conducted a cohort analysis using data previously obtained from a randomised controlled trial comparing two post-hospital discharge follow-up strategies. For 1107 well, singleton infants born at ≥34 weeks, we extracted data on all inpatient infant weights. EWL was defined as the loss of ≥10% of birthweight. We surveyed mothers to obtain data on state anxiety and milk supply concern at birth and at 2 weeks. Our final outcome was breastfeeding at 6 months. Seventy (6.3%) infants developed EWL during the birth hospitalisation. At 2 weeks, milk supply concern and positive anxiety screen were more common (42% and 18%, respectively) among mothers whose infants had had EWL than among mothers whose infants had not had EWL (20% and 6%, respectively) (P < 0.001 for each comparison). Mothers with milk supply concern at 2 weeks were much less likely to be breastfeeding at 6 months, with odds ratio of 0.47 (0.30, 0.74) in multivariate analysis. EWL may increase milk supply concern and anxiety and these may reduce breastfeeding duration. Ameliorating EWL might alleviate milk supply concern and anxiety and improve breastfeeding duration. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Maternal and Child Nutrition 03/2015; DOI:10.1111/mcn.12171 · 2.97 Impact Factor
  • Laurence E Cheng, Michael D Cabana
  • Nancy Tran, Harold S Bernstein, Michael D Cabana
    Pediatrics in Review 02/2015; 36(2):79-81. DOI:10.1542/pir.36-2-79 · 0.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Infant colic, or excessive crying of unknown cause in infants less than 3 months old, is common and burdensome. Its aetiology is undetermined, and consensus on its management is still lacking. Recent studies suggest a possible link between infant colic and gut microbiota, indicating probiotics to be a promising treatment. However, only a few strains have been tested, and results from randomised controlled trials are conflicting. It is important to clarify whether probiotics are effective for treating infant colic in general, and to identify whether certain subgroups of infants with colic would benefit from particular strains of probiotics. Through an individual participant data meta-analysis (IPDMA), we aim to identify whether the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 is effective in the management of infant colic, and to clarify whether its effects differ according to feeding method (breast vs formula vs combined), proton pump inhibitor exposure, and antibiotic exposure. The primary outcomes are infant crying duration and treatment success (at least 50% reduction in crying time from baseline) at 21 days postintervention. Individual participant data from all studies will be modelled simultaneously in multilevel generalised linear mixed-effects regression models to account for the nesting of participants within studies. Subgroup analyses of participant-level and intervention-level characteristics will be undertaken on the primary outcomes to assess if the intervention effect differs between certain groups of infants. Approved by the Royal Children's Hospital Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC 34081). Results will be reported in a peer-reviewed journal in 2015. PROSPERO CRD42014013210. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
    BMJ Open 12/2014; 4(12):e006475. DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-006475 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence-based guidelines recommend smoking cessation treatment, including screening and counseling, for all smokers, including those with chronic diseases exacerbated by smoking. Physician treatment improves smoking cessation. Little data describes smoking treatment guideline uptake for patients with chronic cardiopulmonary smoking-sensitive diseases. Describe U.S. primary care physician (PCP) smoking cessation treatment during patient visits for chronic cardiopulmonary smoking-sensitive diseases. The National (Hospital) Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys captured PCP visits. We examined smoking screening and counseling time trends for smokers with chronic diseases. Multivariable logistic regression assessed factors associated with smoking counseling for smokers with chronic smoking-sensitive diseases. From 2001-2009 smoking screening and counseling for smokers with chronic smoking-sensitive cardiopulmonary diseases was unchanged. Among smokers with chronic smoking-sensitive diseases, 50%-72% received no counseling. Smokers with COPD (OR=6.54, CI95% 4.85-8.83) and peripheral vascular disease (OR=4.50, CI95% 1.72-11.75) were more likely to receive smoking counseling at chronic/preventive care visits, compared patients without smoking-sensitive diseases. Other factors associated with increased smoking counseling included non-private insurance, preventive and longer visits, and an established PCP. Asthma and cardiovascular disease showed no association with counseling. Smoking cessation counseling remains infrequent for smokers with chronic smoking-sensitive cardiopulmonary diseases. New strategies are needed to encourage smoking cessation counseling. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Preventive Medicine 11/2014; 71. DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.11.010 · 2.93 Impact Factor
  • Michael D Cabana, Naomi S Bardach
    Journal of Pediatrics 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.09.021 · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For many asthma medications, pregnancy safety data remains insufficient. The omalizumab pregnancy registry, EXPECT, evaluates maternal, pregnancy, and infant outcomes after exposure to omalizumab, including incidence of congenital anomalies. EXPECT is a prospective, observational study of pregnant women exposed to ≥1 dose of omalizumab within 8 weeks prior to conception or at any time during pregnancy. Primary outcome measures include rates of live births, elective terminations, stillbirths, and congenital anomalies. Data were collected at enrollment, each trimester, birth, and every 6 months up to 18 months post-delivery. As of November 2012, 188 of 191 pregnant women were exposed to omalizumab during their first trimester. Of 169 pregnancies with known outcomes (median exposure during pregnancy, 8.8 months), there were 156 live births of 160 infants (4 twin pairs), 1 fetal death/stillbirth, 11 spontaneous abortions, and 1 elective termination. Among 152 singleton infants, 22 (14.5%) were born prematurely. Of 147 singleton infants with weight data, 16 (10.9%) were small for gestational age. Among 125 singleton full-term infants, 4 (3.2%) had low birth weights. Overall, 20 infants had congenital anomalies confirmed, 7 (4.4%) of whom had 1 major defect. No pattern of anomalies was observed. To date, proportions of major congenital anomalies, prematurity, low birth weight, and small size for gestational age observed in the EXPECT registry are not inconsistent with findings from other studies in this asthma population. Recognizing the small sample size available, no apparent increased birth prevalence of major anomalies or patterns of major anomalies has been observed. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 10/2014; 135(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jaci.2014.08.025 · 11.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For mothers with breastfeeding difficulties, pumping can be recommended to help establish milk production. However, pumping may present some barriers to successful breastfeeding. Mothers with milk supply concern may be at higher risk of barriers to successful breastfeeding. No previous studies have described experiences of pumping among mothers with milk supply concern. We conducted 10 focus groups of 56 mothers who had milk supply concern in the first month after birth. A paid, trained facilitator led groups in a semi-structured approach. Sessions were audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were coded independently by two investigators and analysed using grounded theory. We identified five themes related to the experience of pumping among mothers with milk supply concern: (1) additional control over breastfeeding from pumping: ‘I would feed and then give him … whatever I could manage to pump to him’. (2) Painful experience: ‘The first time I pumped my boobs hurt so bad’. (3) Pumped volume affected milk supply concern: ‘Pump and there was hardly anything coming out that's when I started to worry’. (4) Pumping interfered with other nurturing activities: ‘While you're pumping, you can't touch the baby’. (5) Frustration from inconsistent provider advice: ‘They told me to pump … and then said, “That's going to cause your milk to increase too much” ’. Mothers had positive and negative experiences with pumping. Clinicians should assess a mother's experience shortly after she initiates pumping, as further management and counselling may be necessary to avoid barriers to successful breastfeeding.
    Maternal and Child Nutrition 09/2014; DOI:10.1111/mcn.12137 · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Various institution-specific guidelines have been developed to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia. However, the availability of guidelines does not ensure adherence to recommended strategies. Objective To identify factors that influence adherence to guidelines for prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia, with a focus on oral hygiene, head-of-bed elevation, and spontaneous breathing trials. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study of critical care nurses at 8 hospitals in Northern California was conducted. A survey was created to gather information on possible facilitators of and barriers to adherence to institution-specific guidelines for preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia. User factors, guideline qualities, and contextual factors were explored and tested for possible relationships. Results A total of 576 critical care nurses participated in the survey. Each hospital had unique guidelines for preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia. In general, nurses had positive attitudes and reported adhering to the guidelines always or most of the time. Factors associated with adherence differed according to the intervention implemented. The score on the user attitude scale was the strongest and most consistent predictor of adherence across interventions (odds ratio, 3.49-4.75). Time availability (odds ratio, 1.54) and the level of prioritization (odds ratio, 1.86) were also significant predictors. Conclusion The most consistent facilitator of adherence to guidelines for prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia was nurses' positive attitude toward the guidelines.
    American Journal of Critical Care 05/2014; 23(3):201-215. DOI:10.4037/ajcc2014837 · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: National guidelines have recommended against codeine use in children, but little is known about prescribing patterns in the United States. Our objectives were to assess changes over time in pediatric codeine prescription rates in emergency departments nationally and to determine factors associated with codeine prescription. We performed a serial cross-sectional analysis (2001-2010) of emergency department visits for patients ages 3 to 17 years in the nationally representative National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. We determined survey-weighted annual rates of codeine prescriptions and tested for linear trends over time. We used multivariate logistic regression to identify characteristics associated with codeine prescription and interrupted time-series analysis to assess changes in prescriptions for upper respiratory infection (URI) or cough associated with two 2006 national guidelines recommending against its use for these indications. The proportion of visits (N = 189 million) with codeine prescription decreased from 3.7% to 2.9% during the study period (P = .008). Odds of codeine prescription were higher for children ages 8 to 12 years (odds ratio [OR], 1.42; 95% confidence interval [1.21-1.67]) and among providers outside the northeast. Odds were lower for children who were non-Hispanic black (OR, 0.67 [0.56-0.8]) or with Medicaid (OR, 0.84 [0.71-0.98]). The 2006 guidelines were not associated with a decline in codeine prescriptions for cough or URI visits. Although there was a small decline in codeine prescription over 10 years, use for cough or URI did not decline after national guidelines recommending against its use. More effective interventions are needed to prevent codeine prescription to children.
    PEDIATRICS 04/2014; 133(5). DOI:10.1542/peds.2013-3171 · 5.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Population-based birth cohorts on asthma and allergies increasingly provide new insights into the development and natural history of the diseases. More than 130 birth cohorts focusing on asthma and allergy have been initiated in the last 30 years. A National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Mechanisms of the Development of Allergy (MeDALL; Framework Programme 7 of the European Commission) joint workshop was held in Bethesda, Maryland, on September 11-12, 2012, with 3 objectives: (1) documenting the knowledge that asthma/allergy birth cohorts have provided, (2) identifying the knowledge gaps and inconsistencies, and (3) developing strategies for moving forward, including potential new study designs and the harmonization of existing asthma birth cohort data. The meeting was organized around the presentations of 5 distinct workgroups: (1) clinical phenotypes, (2) risk factors, (3) immune development of asthma and allergy, (4) pulmonary development, and (5) harmonization of existing birth cohorts. This article presents the workgroup reports and provides Web links (AsthmaBirthCohorts.niaid.nih.gov or www.medall-fp7.eu), where the reader will find tables describing the characteristics of the birth cohorts included in this report, the type of data collected at differing ages, and a selected bibliography provided by the participating birth cohorts.
    The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 03/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jaci.2014.01.018 · 11.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: One of the most common reasons for medication non-adherence for asthma patients is forgetfulness. Daily medication reminder system interventions in the form of text messages, automated phone calls, and audiovisual reminder devices can potentially address this problem. The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness of reminder systems on patient daily asthma medication adherence. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify randomized controlled trials which assessed the effect of reminder systems on daily asthma medication adherence. We searched all English-language articles in Pub Med (MEDLINE), CINAHL, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and the Cochrane Library through May, 2013. We abstracted data on the year of study publication, location, inclusion and exclusion criteria, patient characteristics, reminder system characteristics, effect on patient adherence rate and other outcomes measured. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the characteristics and results of the studies. Results: 5 randomized controlled trials and 1 pragmatic randomized controlled trial were included in the analysis. Median follow-up time was 16 weeks. All of the six studies suggested that the reminder system intervention was associated with greater levels of participant asthma medication adherence compared to those participants in the control group. None of the studies documented a change in asthma-related quality of life or clinical asthma outcomes. Conclusion: All studies in our analysis suggest that reminder systems increase patient medication adherence, but none documented improved clinical outcomes. Further studies with longer intervention durations are needed to assess effects on clinical outcomes, as well as the sustainability of effects on patient adherence.
    Journal of Asthma 02/2014; DOI:10.3109/02770903.2014.888572 · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical asthma studies across different age groups (ie, cross-age studies) can potentially offer insight into the similarities, differences, and relationships between childhood and adult asthma. The National Institutes of Health's Asthma Research Network (AsthmaNet) is unique and innovative in that it has merged pediatric and adult asthma research into a single clinical research network. This combination enhances scientific exchange between pediatric and adult asthma investigators and encourages the application of cross-age studies that involve participants from multiple age groups who are generally not studied together. The experience from AsthmaNet in the development of cross-age protocols highlights some of the issues in the evaluation of cross-age research in asthma. The aim of this review is to summarize these challenges, including the selection of parallel cross-age clinical interventions, identification of appropriate controls, measurement of meaningful clinical outcomes, and various ethical and logistic issues.
    The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 01/2014; 133(1):27-33. DOI:10.1016/j.jaci.2013.10.026 · 11.25 Impact Factor
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    American Journal of Human Biology 01/2014; 26(1). DOI:10.1002/ajhb.22484 · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess the applicability of a simple mathematical formula for prediction of individual child linear growth. The formula describes a square root dependence of height on age with only two constants, k and C. Retrospective serial height measurements of 137 healthy children (61 female), who attended clinic in the Pediatrics Department at the University of California, San Francisco were used. For each child, two of the initial measurements and their corresponding measurement times were used to determine the values of k and C. By substituting the determined values of k and C into the formula, the formula was then used to predict the trajectory of the child's growth. The 137 children were comprised of 20% Hispanic, 23% African-American, 27% Caucasian and 30% Asian. The formula predicted growth trajectories of 136 out of the 137 children with minimal discrepancies between the measured data and the corresponding predicted data. The mean of the discrepancies was 0.8 cm. Our proposed formula is very easy to use and predicts individual child growth with high precision irrespective of gender or ethnicity. The formula will be a valuable tool for studying human growth and possibly growths of other animals. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Human Biology 09/2013; 25(5). DOI:10.1002/ajhb.22428 · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:To assess variation among hospitals on pediatric readmission and revisit rates and to determine the number of high- and low-performing hospitals.METHODS:In a retrospective analysis using the State Inpatient and Emergency Department Databases from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project with revisit linkages available, we identified pediatric (ages 1-20 years) visits with 1 of 7 common inpatient pediatric conditions (asthma, dehydration, pneumonia, appendicitis, skin infections, mood disorders, and epilepsy). For each condition, we calculated rates of all-cause readmissions and rates of revisits (readmission or presentation to the emergency department) within 30 and 60 days of discharge. We used mixed logistic models to estimate hospital-level risk-standardized 30-day revisit rates and to identify hospitals that had performance statistically different from the group mean.RESULTS:Thirty-day readmission rates were low (<10.0%) for all conditions. Thirty-day rates of revisit to the inpatient or emergency department setting ranged from 6.2% (appendicitis) to 11.0% (mood disorders). Study hospitals (n = 958) had low condition-specific visit volumes (37.0%-82.8% of hospitals had <25 visits). The only condition with >1% of hospitals labeled as different from the mean on 30-day risk-standardized revisit rates was mood disorders (4.2% of hospitals [n = 15], range of hospital performance 6.3%-15.9%).CONCLUSIONS:We found that when comparing hospitals' performances to the average, few hospitals that care for children are identified as high- or low-performers for revisits, even for common pediatric diagnoses, likely due to low hospital volumes. This limits the usefulness of condition-specific readmission or revisit measures in pediatric quality measurement.
    PEDIATRICS 08/2013; 132(3). DOI:10.1542/peds.2012-3527 · 5.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Exclusive breastfeeding through 3 months is a Healthy People 2020 goal, yet most US infants who initiate breastfeeding receive formula before 3 months. The effect of birth weight on exclusive breastfeeding has not been previously studied. Methods. We analyzed data from a randomized trial of probiotics for healthy infants to determine the effect of birth weight and other predictors available at birth on any breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding through 3 months. We used backward stepwise logistic regression to examine the effect of maternal age, education, feeding plan, delivery method, and parity and infant birth weight and gestational age on the outcomes of any and exclusive breastfeeding through 3 months. Results. Birth weight was strongly associated with exclusive breastfeeding through 3 months (odds ratio = 6.23 [95% confidence interval = 2.27-17.1] per kilogram birth weight), adjusting for maternal college education and maternal plan to breastfeed exclusively. However, birth weight was not associated with any breastfeeding at 3 months when adjusting for the same predictors. Discussion. Smaller newborns were more likely to receive formula before 3 months in this study population. Educating mothers of smaller babies and their physicians about normal newborn growth patterns might reduce unnecessary formula use for smaller newborns.
    ICAN Infant Child & Adolescent Nutrition 08/2013; 5(4):200-203. DOI:10.1177/1941406413495089
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    ABSTRACT: Tap water provides a calorie-free, no-cost, environmentally friendly beverage option, yet only some youth drink it. To examine sociodemographic characteristics, weight status, and beverage intake of those aged 1-19 years who drink tap water. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data (2005-2010) were used to examine factors associated with tap water consumption. A comparison was made of beverage intake among tap water consumers and nonconsumers, by age, race/ethnicity, and income. Tap water consumption was more prevalent among school-aged children (OR=1.85, 95% CI=1.47, 2.33, for those aged 6-11 years; OR=1.85, 95% CI=1.32, 2.59, for those aged 12-19 years) as compared to those aged 1-2 years. Tap water intake was less prevalent among girls/women (OR=0.76, 95% CI=0.64, 0.89); Mexican Americans (OR=0.32, 95% CI=0.23, 0.45); non-Hispanic blacks (OR=0.48, 95% CI=0.34, 0.67); and others (OR=0.50, 95% CI=0.36, 0.68) as compared to whites; Spanish speakers (OR=0.72, 95% CI=0.55, 0.95); and among referents with a lower than Grade-9 education (OR=0.52, 95% CI=0.31, 0.88); Grade 9-11 education (OR=0.50, 95% CI=0.32, 0.77); and high school/General Educational Development test completion (OR=0.50, 95% CI=0.33, 0.76), as compared to college graduates. Tap water consumers drank more fluid (52.5 vs 48.0 ounces, p<0.01); more plain water (20.1 vs 15.2 ounces, p<0.01); and less juice (3.6 vs 5.2 ounces, p<0.01) than nonconsumers. One in six children/adolescents does not drink tap water, and this finding is more pronounced among minorities. Sociodemographic disparities in tap water consumption may contribute to disparities in health outcomes. Improvements in drinking water infrastructure and culturally relevant promotion may help to address these issues.
    American journal of preventive medicine 07/2013; 45(1):75-82. DOI:10.1016/j.amepre.2013.04.001 · 4.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Recent public health efforts focus on reducing formula use for breastfed infants during the birth hospitalization. No previous randomized trials report the effects of brief early formula use. The objective of the study was to determine if small formula volumes before the onset of mature milk production might reduce formula use at 1 week and improve breastfeeding at 3 months for newborns at risk for breastfeeding problems.METHODS:We randomly assigned 40 exclusively breastfeeding term infants, 24 to 48 hours old, who had lost ≥5% birth weight to early limited formula (ELF) intervention (10 mL formula by syringe after each breastfeeding and discontinued when mature milk production began) or control (continued exclusive breastfeeding). Our outcomes were breastfeeding and formula use at 1 week and 1, 2, and 3 months.RESULTS:Among infants randomly assigned to ELF during the birth hospitalization, 2 (10%) of 20 used formula at 1 week of age, compared with 9 (47%) of 19 control infants assigned during the birth hospitalization to continue exclusive breastfeeding (P = .01). At 3 months, 15 (79%) of 19 infants assigned to ELF during the birth hospitalization were breastfeeding exclusively, compared with 8 (42%) of 19 controls (P = .02).CONCLUSIONS:Early limited formula may reduce longer-term formula use at 1 week and increase breastfeeding at 3 months for some infants. ELF may be a successful temporary coping strategy for mothers to support breastfeeding newborns with early weight loss. ELF has the potential for increasing rates of longer-term breastfeeding without supplementation based on findings from this RCT.
    PEDIATRICS 05/2013; 131(6). DOI:10.1542/peds.2012-2809 · 5.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Much has been written regarding poor physician adherence to the National Asthma Education, Prevention Program (NAEPP) guidelines, but no data are available regarding nurse practitioners (NP) adherence. This descriptive study compared NP adherence to figures reported for medical doctors (MDs) in the 2001 and 2007 analyses by Cabana and colleagues. A national, cross-sectional survey approach was used to assess NP knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding the NAEPP guidelines. The survey was adapted from Cabana's 48-item questionnaire. NPs provided more prescriptions of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) to patients with daily symptoms than did physicians (NPs, 79%; MDs, 54%). Overall, compared with MDs, NPs reported higher adherence on three of the four NAEPP guideline components surveyed, two of which were statistically significant. This survey suggests that NPs have greater adherence to prescribing ICSs than do MDs. However, improved adherence still needs to be a goal for all providers because prescription of ICSs is the cornerstone of management of persistent asthma.
    Journal of Pediatric Health Care 03/2013; 27(2):e17-24. DOI:10.1016/j.pedhc.2011.07.005 · 1.97 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

6k Citations
542.80 Total Impact Points


  • 2007–2015
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics
      San Francisco, California, United States
    • Cook County Hospital
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2014
    • CSU Mentor
      Long Beach, California, United States
  • 2012
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
  • 2010
    • University of Louisville
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Louisville, Kentucky, United States
  • 2001–2010
    • University of Michigan
      • • Center for Managing Chronic Disease
      • • Division of General Pediatrics
      Ann Arbor, MI, United States
  • 2006–2007
    • University of Rochester
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Rochester, NY, United States
    • Boston Children's Hospital
      • Division of Adolescent Medicine
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2005
    • Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
      Maryland, United States
  • 2001–2005
    • Concordia University–Ann Arbor
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
  • 2000–2001
    • Johns Hopkins Medicine
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Baltimore, MD, United States
  • 1996
    • Johns Hopkins University
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States