Michael D Cabana

University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States

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Publications (184)821 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Importance: Many preschool children develop recurrent, severe episodes of lower respiratory tract illness (LRTI). Although viral infections are often present, bacteria may also contribute to illness pathogenesis. Strategies that effectively attenuate such episodes are needed. Objective: To evaluate if early administration of azithromycin, started prior to the onset of severe LRTI symptoms, in preschool children with recurrent severe LRTIs can prevent the progression of these episodes. Design, setting, and participants: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial conducted across 9 academic US medical centers in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's AsthmaNet network, with enrollment starting in April 2011 and follow-up complete by December 2014. Participants were 607 children aged 12 through 71 months with histories of recurrent, severe LRTIs and minimal day-to-day impairment. Intervention: Participants were randomly assigned to receive azithromycin (12 mg/kg/d for 5 days; n = 307) or matching placebo (n = 300), started early during each predefined RTI (child's signs or symptoms prior to development of LRTI), based on individualized action plans, over a 12- through 18-month period. Main outcomes and measures: The primary outcome measure was the number of RTIs not progressing to a severe LRTI, measured at the level of the RTI, that would in clinical practice trigger the prescription of oral corticosteroids. Presence of azithromycin-resistant organisms in oropharyngeal samples, along with adverse events, were among the secondary outcome measures. Results: A total of 937 treated RTIs (azithromycin group, 473; placebo group, 464) were experienced by 443 children (azithromycin group, 223; placebo group, 220), including 92 severe LRTIs (azithromycin group, 35; placebo group, 57). Azithromycin significantly reduced the risk of progressing to severe LRTI relative to placebo (hazard ratio, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.41-0.98], P = .04; absolute risk for first RTI: 0.05 for azithromycin, 0.08 for placebo; risk difference, 0.03 [95% CI, 0.00-0.06]). Induction of azithromycin-resistant organisms and adverse events were infrequently observed. Conclusions and relevance: Among young children with histories of recurrent severe LRTIs, the use of azithromycin early during an apparent RTI compared with placebo reduced the likelihood of severe LRTI. More information is needed on the development of antibiotic-resistant pathogens with this strategy. Trial registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01272635.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 11/2015; 314(19):2034. DOI:10.1001/jama.2015.13896 · 35.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and objectives: Respiratory illnesses are the leading cause of pediatric hospitalizations in the United States, and a major focus of efforts to improve quality of care. Understanding factors associated with poor outcomes will allow better targeting of interventions for improving care. The objective of this study was to identify patient and hospital factors associated with prolonged length of stay (LOS) or complications during pediatric hospitalizations for asthma or lower respiratory infection (LRI). Methods: Cross-sectional study of hospitalizations of patients <18 years with asthma or LRI (bronchiolitis, influenza, or pneumonia) by using the nationally representative 2012 Kids Inpatient Database. We used multivariable logistic regression models to identify factors associated with prolonged LOS (>90th percentile) or complications (noninvasive ventilation, mechanical ventilation, or death). Results: For asthma hospitalizations(n = 85 320), risks for both prolonged LOS and complications were increased with each year of age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.07; AOR 1.05, 95% CI 1.03-1.07, respectively for each outcome) and in children with chronic conditions (AOR 4.87, 95% CI 4.15-5.70; AOR 21.20, 95% CI 15.20-29.57, respectively). For LRI hospitalizations (n = 204 950), risks for prolonged LOS and complications were decreased with each year of age (AOR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.98; AOR 0.95, 95% CI 0.94-0.96, respectively) and increased in children with chronic conditions (AOR 9.86, 95% CI 9.03-10.76; AOR 56.22, 95% CI 46.60-67.82, respectively). Risks for prolonged LOS for asthma were increased in large hospitals (AOR 1.67, 95% CI 1.32-2.11) and urban-teaching hospitals (AOR 1.62, 95% CI 1.33-1.97). Conclusions: Older children with asthma, younger children with LRI, children with chronic conditions, and those hospitalized in large urban-teaching hospitals are more vulnerable to prolonged LOS and complications. Future research and policy efforts should evaluate and support interventions to improve outcomes for these high-risk groups (eg, hospital-based care coordination for children with chronic conditions).
    Hospital Pediatrics 09/2015; 5(9):461-73. DOI:10.1542/hpeds.2014-0246
  • M. Cabana · M. McKean · A. Caughey · R. Leong · A. Wong · J. Hilton · H. Boushey ·

    European Respiratory Journal 09/2015; 46(suppl 59):OA4770. DOI:10.1183/13993003.congress-2015.OA4770 · 7.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Asthma is a common condition affecting many children in child-care centers. The National Asthma Education and Prevention Program offers recommendations about creating an asthma-friendly child-care setting. However, no studies have investigated the extent to which child-care centers adhere to these recommendations. This study describes the development of a novel instrument to determine the ability of child-care centers to meet national recommendations for asthma. Methods: The Preparing for Asthma in Child Care (PACC) Instrument was developed using information from existing recommendations and standards, the peer-reviewed literature, site visits, and expert interviews. The survey questions were pilot-tested at 36 child-care centers throughout San Francisco. Results: The instrument is composed of 43 items across seven domains: smoking exposure, presence of a medical consultant and policies, management of ventilation and triggers, access to medication, presence of asthma action plans, staff training, and encouragement of physical activity. Discussion: The PACC Instrument is an evidence-based and comprehensive tool designed to identify areas to target to improve asthma care for children in child-care centers.
    Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology 05/2015; 28(2):150514124602003. DOI:10.1089/ped.2014.0471 · 0.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the timing of introduction and type of food introduced to infants with a family history of atopy. We conducted a secondary analysis of foods introduced each month to an interventional birth cohort of 149 infants at risk for atopy. Seven percent of infants received solid food prior to 4 months of age; 13% after 6 months of age. Hyperallergenic foods were introduced on average in the following order: wheat (8.7 months); eggs (11.2 months); soy (13.0 months); fish (13.4 months); peanut (20.2 months); tree nuts (21.8 months); and other seafood (21.8 months). Asian race (odds ratio 3.94; 95% CI 1.14-13.58) and maternal history of food allergy (odds ratio 3.86; 95% CI 1.29-11.56) were associated with late food introduction. Variation in timing of food introduction may reflect cultural preferences and/or previous experience with food allergy, as well as the ambiguous state of current recommendations. © The Author(s) 2015.
    Clinical Pediatrics 05/2015; 54(8). DOI:10.1177/0009922815584927 · 1.15 Impact Factor
  • Juliana Durack · Michael Cabana · Michelle McKean · Susan Lynch ·

    Gastroenterology 04/2015; 148(4):S-961. DOI:10.1016/S0016-5085(15)33284-4 · 16.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to systematically evaluate safety of probiotics and synbiotics in children ageing 0-18 years. This study is the third and final part in a safety trilogy and an update is provided using the most recent available clinical data (2008-2013) by means of the Common Terminology Clinical Adverse Events (CTCAE version 4.0) classification. Safety aspects are represented and related to number of participants per probiotic strain/culture, study duration, dosage, clinical condition and selected afflictions. Analysis of 74 clinical studies indicated that probiotic and/or synbiotic administration in children is safe with regard to the specific evaluated strains, dosages and duration. The population of children include healthy, immune compromised and obese subjects, as well as subjects with intestinal disorders, infections and inflammatory disorders. This study revealed no major safety concerns, as the adverse events (AEs) were unrelated, or not suspected to be related, to the probiotic or synbiotic product. In general the study products were well tolerated. Overall, AEs occurred more frequent in the control arm compared to children receiving probiotics and/or synbiotics. Furthermore, the results indicate inadequate reporting and classification of AEs in the majority of the studies. In addition, generalizability of conclusions are greatly limited by the inconsistent, imprecise and potentially incomplete reporting as well as the variation in probiotic strains, dosages, administration regimes, study populations and reported outcomes.
    Beneficial Microbes 03/2015; 1(-1):1-16. DOI:10.3920/BM2014.0157 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    Valerie J Flaherman · Jessica S Beiler · Michael D Cabana · Ian M Paul ·
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    ABSTRACT: Milk supply concern is the most common reason for breastfeeding discontinuation and maternal anxiety is also associated with reduced breastfeeding duration. Newborn excess weight loss (EWL) could trigger milk supply concern and anxiety and might be amenable to modification. Our objective was to determine the relationship between EWL and the development of milk supply concern and anxiety and the effect of such development on breastfeeding duration. We conducted a cohort analysis using data previously obtained from a randomised controlled trial comparing two post-hospital discharge follow-up strategies. For 1107 well, singleton infants born at ≥34 weeks, we extracted data on all inpatient infant weights. EWL was defined as the loss of ≥10% of birthweight. We surveyed mothers to obtain data on state anxiety and milk supply concern at birth and at 2 weeks. Our final outcome was breastfeeding at 6 months. Seventy (6.3%) infants developed EWL during the birth hospitalisation. At 2 weeks, milk supply concern and positive anxiety screen were more common (42% and 18%, respectively) among mothers whose infants had had EWL than among mothers whose infants had not had EWL (20% and 6%, respectively) (P < 0.001 for each comparison). Mothers with milk supply concern at 2 weeks were much less likely to be breastfeeding at 6 months, with odds ratio of 0.47 (0.30, 0.74) in multivariate analysis. EWL may increase milk supply concern and anxiety and these may reduce breastfeeding duration. Ameliorating EWL might alleviate milk supply concern and anxiety and improve breastfeeding duration. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Maternal and Child Nutrition 03/2015; DOI:10.1111/mcn.12171 · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    Laurence E Cheng · Michael D Cabana ·

    Pediatrics 02/2015; 135(3). DOI:10.1542/peds.2014-3911 · 5.47 Impact Factor
  • Nancy Tran · Harold S Bernstein · Michael D Cabana ·

    Pediatrics in Review 02/2015; 36(2):79-81. DOI:10.1542/pir.36-2-79 · 0.82 Impact Factor

  • Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 02/2015; 135(2):AB1. DOI:10.1016/j.jaci.2014.12.936 · 11.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Infant colic, or excessive crying of unknown cause in infants less than 3 months old, is common and burdensome. Its aetiology is undetermined, and consensus on its management is still lacking. Recent studies suggest a possible link between infant colic and gut microbiota, indicating probiotics to be a promising treatment. However, only a few strains have been tested, and results from randomised controlled trials are conflicting. It is important to clarify whether probiotics are effective for treating infant colic in general, and to identify whether certain subgroups of infants with colic would benefit from particular strains of probiotics. Through an individual participant data meta-analysis (IPDMA), we aim to identify whether the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 is effective in the management of infant colic, and to clarify whether its effects differ according to feeding method (breast vs formula vs combined), proton pump inhibitor exposure, and antibiotic exposure. The primary outcomes are infant crying duration and treatment success (at least 50% reduction in crying time from baseline) at 21 days postintervention. Individual participant data from all studies will be modelled simultaneously in multilevel generalised linear mixed-effects regression models to account for the nesting of participants within studies. Subgroup analyses of participant-level and intervention-level characteristics will be undertaken on the primary outcomes to assess if the intervention effect differs between certain groups of infants. Approved by the Royal Children's Hospital Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC 34081). Results will be reported in a peer-reviewed journal in 2015. PROSPERO CRD42014013210. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
    BMJ Open 12/2014; 4(12):e006475. DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-006475 · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence-based guidelines recommend smoking cessation treatment, including screening and counseling, for all smokers, including those with chronic diseases exacerbated by smoking. Physician treatment improves smoking cessation. Little data describes smoking treatment guideline uptake for patients with chronic cardiopulmonary smoking-sensitive diseases. Describe U.S. primary care physician (PCP) smoking cessation treatment during patient visits for chronic cardiopulmonary smoking-sensitive diseases. The National (Hospital) Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys captured PCP visits. We examined smoking screening and counseling time trends for smokers with chronic diseases. Multivariable logistic regression assessed factors associated with smoking counseling for smokers with chronic smoking-sensitive diseases. From 2001-2009 smoking screening and counseling for smokers with chronic smoking-sensitive cardiopulmonary diseases was unchanged. Among smokers with chronic smoking-sensitive diseases, 50%-72% received no counseling. Smokers with COPD (OR=6.54, CI95% 4.85-8.83) and peripheral vascular disease (OR=4.50, CI95% 1.72-11.75) were more likely to receive smoking counseling at chronic/preventive care visits, compared patients without smoking-sensitive diseases. Other factors associated with increased smoking counseling included non-private insurance, preventive and longer visits, and an established PCP. Asthma and cardiovascular disease showed no association with counseling. Smoking cessation counseling remains infrequent for smokers with chronic smoking-sensitive cardiopulmonary diseases. New strategies are needed to encourage smoking cessation counseling. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Preventive Medicine 11/2014; 71. DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.11.010 · 3.09 Impact Factor
  • Michael D Cabana · Naomi S Bardach ·

    Journal of Pediatrics 10/2014; 166(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.09.021 · 3.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For many asthma medications, pregnancy safety data remains insufficient. The omalizumab pregnancy registry, EXPECT, evaluates maternal, pregnancy, and infant outcomes after exposure to omalizumab, including incidence of congenital anomalies. EXPECT is a prospective, observational study of pregnant women exposed to ≥1 dose of omalizumab within 8 weeks prior to conception or at any time during pregnancy. Primary outcome measures include rates of live births, elective terminations, stillbirths, and congenital anomalies. Data were collected at enrollment, each trimester, birth, and every 6 months up to 18 months post-delivery. As of November 2012, 188 of 191 pregnant women were exposed to omalizumab during their first trimester. Of 169 pregnancies with known outcomes (median exposure during pregnancy, 8.8 months), there were 156 live births of 160 infants (4 twin pairs), 1 fetal death/stillbirth, 11 spontaneous abortions, and 1 elective termination. Among 152 singleton infants, 22 (14.5%) were born prematurely. Of 147 singleton infants with weight data, 16 (10.9%) were small for gestational age. Among 125 singleton full-term infants, 4 (3.2%) had low birth weights. Overall, 20 infants had congenital anomalies confirmed, 7 (4.4%) of whom had 1 major defect. No pattern of anomalies was observed. To date, proportions of major congenital anomalies, prematurity, low birth weight, and small size for gestational age observed in the EXPECT registry are not inconsistent with findings from other studies in this asthma population. Recognizing the small sample size available, no apparent increased birth prevalence of major anomalies or patterns of major anomalies has been observed. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 10/2014; 135(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jaci.2014.08.025 · 11.48 Impact Factor
  • Chelsea Young · Jodi Stookey · Curtis Chan · Anisha Patel · Jane Evans · Michael Cabana ·

    2014 American Academy of Pediatrics National Conference and Exhibition; 10/2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to systematically evaluate safety of probiotics and synbiotics in immune compromised adults (≥18 years). Safety was analysed using the Common Terminology Clinical Adverse Events (CTCAE version 4.0) classification, thereby providing an update on previous reports using the most recent available clinical data (2008- 2013). Safety aspects are represented and related to number of participants per probiotic strain/culture, study duration, dosage, clinical condition and selected afflictions. Analysis of 57 clinical studies indicates that probiotic and/or synbiotic administration in immune compromised adults is safe with regard to the current evaluated probiotic strains, dosages and duration. Individuals were considered immune compromised if HIV-infected, critically ill, underwent surgery or had an organ- or an autoimmune disease. There were no major safety concerns in the study, as none of the serious adverse events (AE)s were related, or suspected to be related, to the probiotic or synbiotic product and the study products were well tolerated. Overall, AEs occurred less frequent in immune compromised subjects receiving probiotics and/or synbiotics compared to the control group. In addition, the results demonstrated a flaw in precise reporting and classification of AE in most studies. Furthermore, generalisability of conclusions are greatly limited by the inconsistent, imprecise and potentially incomplete reporting as well as the variation in probiotic strains, dosages, administration regimes, study populations and reported outcomes. We argue that standardised reporting on adverse events (CTCAE) in 'food' studies should be obligatory, thereby improving reliability of data and re-enforcing the safety profile of probiotics.
    Beneficial Microbes 10/2014; 6(1):1-15. DOI:10.3920/BM2014.0079 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For mothers with breastfeeding difficulties, pumping can be recommended to help establish milk production. However, pumping may present some barriers to successful breastfeeding. Mothers with milk supply concern may be at higher risk of barriers to successful breastfeeding. No previous studies have described experiences of pumping among mothers with milk supply concern. We conducted 10 focus groups of 56 mothers who had milk supply concern in the first month after birth. A paid, trained facilitator led groups in a semi-structured approach. Sessions were audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were coded independently by two investigators and analysed using grounded theory. We identified five themes related to the experience of pumping among mothers with milk supply concern: (1) additional control over breastfeeding from pumping: ‘I would feed and then give him … whatever I could manage to pump to him’. (2) Painful experience: ‘The first time I pumped my boobs hurt so bad’. (3) Pumped volume affected milk supply concern: ‘Pump and there was hardly anything coming out that's when I started to worry’. (4) Pumping interfered with other nurturing activities: ‘While you're pumping, you can't touch the baby’. (5) Frustration from inconsistent provider advice: ‘They told me to pump … and then said, “That's going to cause your milk to increase too much” ’. Mothers had positive and negative experiences with pumping. Clinicians should assess a mother's experience shortly after she initiates pumping, as further management and counselling may be necessary to avoid barriers to successful breastfeeding.
    Maternal and Child Nutrition 09/2014; DOI:10.1111/mcn.12137 · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Importance In asthma and other diseases, vitamin D insufficiency is associated with adverse outcomes. It is not known if supplementing inhaled corticosteroids with oral vitamin D3 improves outcomes in patients with asthma and vitamin D insufficiency.Objective To evaluate if vitamin D supplementation would improve the clinical efficacy of inhaled corticosteroids in patients with symptomatic asthma and lower vitamin D levels.Design, Setting, and Participants The VIDA (Vitamin D Add-on Therapy Enhances Corticosteroid Responsiveness in Asthma) randomized, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled trial studying adult patients with symptomatic asthma and a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of less than 30 ng/mL was conducted across 9 academic US medical centers in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute’s AsthmaNet network, with enrollment starting in April 2011 and follow-up complete by January 2014. After a run-in period that included treatment with an inhaled corticosteroid, 408 patients were randomized.Interventions Oral vitamin D3 (100 000 IU once, then 4000 IU/d for 28 weeks; n = 201) or placebo (n = 207) was added to inhaled ciclesonide (320 µg/d). If asthma control was achieved after 12 weeks, ciclesonide was tapered to 160 µg/d for 8 weeks, then to 80 µg/d for 8 weeks if asthma control was maintained.Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was time to first asthma treatment failure (a composite outcome of decline in lung function and increases in use of β-agonists, systemic corticosteroids, and health care).Results Treatment with vitamin D3 did not alter the rate of first treatment failure during 28 weeks (28% [95% CI, 21%-34%] with vitamin D3 vs 29% [95% CI, 23%-35%] with placebo; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.9 [95% CI, 0.6-1.3]). Of 14 prespecified secondary outcomes, 9 were analyzed, including asthma exacerbation; of those 9, the only statistically significant outcome was a small difference in the overall dose of ciclesonide required to maintain asthma control (111.3 µg/d [95% CI, 102.2-120.4 µg/d] in the vitamin D3 group vs 126.2 µg/d [95% CI, 117.2-135.3 µg/d] in the placebo group; difference of 14.9 µg/d [95% CI, 2.1-27.7 µg/d]).Conclusions and Relevance Vitamin D3 did not reduce the rate of first treatment failure or exacerbation in adults with persistent asthma and vitamin D insufficiency. These findings do not support a strategy of therapeutic vitamin D3 supplementation in patients with symptomatic asthma.Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01248065
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 05/2014; 311(20):2083. DOI:10.1001/jama.2014.5052 · 35.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pediatricians play a key role in advancing child health research to best attain and improve the physical, mental, and social health and well-being of all infants, children, adolescents, and young adults. Child health presents unique issues that require investigators who specialize in pediatric research. In addition, the scope of the pediatric research enterprise is transdisciplinary and includes the full spectrum of basic science, translational, community-based, health services, and child health policy research. Although most pediatricians do not directly engage in research, knowledge of research methodologies and approaches promotes critical evaluation of scientific literature, the practice of evidence-based medicine, and advocacy for evidence-based child health policy. This statement includes specific recommendations to promote further research education and support at all levels of pediatric training, from premedical to continuing medical education, as well as recommendations to increase support and mentorship for research activities. Pediatric research is crucial to the American Academy of Pediatrics' goal of improving the health of all children. The American Academy of Pediatrics continues to promote and encourage efforts to facilitate the creation of new knowledge and ways to reduce barriers experienced by trainees, practitioners, and academic faculty pursuing research.
    Pediatrics 05/2014; 133(5):943-949. DOI:10.1542/peds.2014-0448 · 5.47 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

7k Citations
821.00 Total Impact Points


  • 2007-2015
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 2014
    • CSU Mentor
      Long Beach, California, United States
  • 2012
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • Department of Medicine
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
  • 2010
    • University of Louisville
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Louisville, Kentucky, United States
  • 2006-2007
    • University of Rochester
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Rochester, NY, United States
    • Texas A&M University - Galveston
      Galveston, Texas, United States
  • 2001-2006
    • University of Michigan
      • Division of General Pediatrics
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
  • 2005
    • Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
      Maryland, United States
  • 2000-2005
    • Concordia University–Ann Arbor
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
    • Johns Hopkins Medicine
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2004
    • Children's National Medical Center
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2002
    • Mental Health Center of Denver
      Denver, Colorado, United States
  • 1996-1998
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Department of Medicine
      Baltimore, MD, United States