Wibke Reinhard

University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg, Bavaria, Germany

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Publications (30)199.32 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Myocardial infarction, a leading cause of death in the Western world, usually occurs when the fibrous cap overlying an atherosclerotic plaque in a coronary artery ruptures. The resulting exposure of blood to the atherosclerotic material then triggers thrombus formation, which occludes the artery. The importance of genetic predisposition to coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction is best documented by the predictive value of a positive family history. Next-generation sequencing in families with several affected individuals has revolutionized mutation identification. Here we report the segregation of two private, heterozygous mutations in two functionally related genes, GUCY1A3 (p.Leu163Phefs*24) and CCT7 (p.Ser525Leu), in an extended myocardial infarction family. GUCY1A3 encodes the α1 subunit of soluble guanylyl cyclase (α1-sGC), and CCT7 encodes CCTη, a member of the tailless complex polypeptide 1 ring complex, which, among other functions, stabilizes soluble guanylyl cyclase. After stimulation with nitric oxide, soluble guanylyl cyclase generates cGMP, which induces vasodilation and inhibits platelet activation. We demonstrate in vitro that mutations in both GUCY1A3 and CCT7 severely reduce α1-sGC as well as β1-sGC protein content, and impair soluble guanylyl cyclase activity. Moreover, platelets from digenic mutation carriers contained less soluble guanylyl cyclase protein and consequently displayed reduced nitric-oxide-induced cGMP formation. Mice deficient in α1-sGC protein displayed accelerated thrombus formation in the microcirculation after local trauma. Starting with a severely affected family, we have identified a link between impaired soluble-guanylyl-cyclase-dependent nitric oxide signalling and myocardial infarction risk, possibly through accelerated thrombus formation. Reversing this defect may provide a new therapeutic target for reducing the risk of myocardial infarction.
    Nature 11/2013; · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Both short and long self-reported sleep duration (SDSR) has been linked to increased mortality. Our analysis tested the hypothesis that long SDSR is paralleled by impaired objective sleep efficiency (SEPSG) measured by polysomnography (PSG) and that impaired SEPSG is a risk factor for death in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). METHODS: SDSR and SEPSG were assessed by standardized questionnaire and PSG in 188 consecutive CHF patients (age range, 63±10year; left ventricular ejection fraction, 34±10%) admitted to the Sleep Center of the University Hospital Regensburg between 1/2002 and 12/2009. The mean follow-up period was 44±26months. RESULTS: SEPSG in CHF patients from the highest quintile of SDSR (⩾9h) was significantly lower compared with the middle quintile (7.25-8h; 71±15% vs 77%±11%; p=0.032) and similar to the lowest quintile (⩽5.75h; 71±15% vs 71±16%, p=0.950). SEPSG is an independent predictor for death in the multivariable model after accounting for the significant confounders age, left ventricular ejection fraction, cause of CHF, and NYHA class (hazard ratio [HR] per 5% increase, 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77-0.93; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Data indicate that subjective long sleepers with CHF have poor sleep efficiency. Objectively measured SEPSG strongly predicts mortality in CHF patients, underscoring the importance of objective assessment of sleep.
    Sleep Medicine 04/2013; · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Genome-wide association studies identified a risk haplotype on chromosome 9p21.3 to be associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial infarction (MI). Since this region does not contain a clear candidate gene with known pathophysiology, we performed a haplotype-specific expression study in human macrophages during pro-inflammatory stimulation to investigate the locus-dependent expression patterns in a model of atherosclerosis, the underlying cause for CAD and MI. METHODS: Blood samples were taken from 40 male stable MI patients either homozygous for 9p21.3 risk (n = 20) or non-risk haplotype (n = 20) as well as from 28 healthy male individuals (n = 14 for each haplotype). Monocytes were isolated by density gradient centrifugation followed by differentiation into macrophages via M-CSF. Macrophages were either incubated with a pro-inflammatory IFNγ-LPS cocktail or kept untreated as controls. After 24 h, RNA was isolated and applied to Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 ST Arrays. RESULTS: Macrophages from MI patients and controls stratified for 9p21.3 haplotypes, exhibited marked differences in gene expression. Most pronounced differences were found in inflammatory mediators, like the chemokines CCL8 and CCL2 and the lectines CLEC4E and CLEC5A. Differences in expression changes could be seen most obviously during inflammatory stimulation for both, the interleukins IL12B and IL1B, and members of metallothionein gene family. CONCLUSION: These findings show that gene expression is different in 9p21.3 haplotype-stratified macrophages. While these effects are relatively small in our in vitro model of atherosclerosis, these biological effects may contribute to a long term effect in risk haplotype carriers increasing susceptibility to CAD and MI.
    Atherosclerosis 01/2013; · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The early repolarization pattern (ERP) is common and associated with risk of sudden cardiac death. ERP is heritable, and mutations have been described in syndromatic cases. To conduct a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies to identify common genetic variants influencing ERP. We ascertained ERP on the basis of electrocardiograms in 3 large community-based cohorts from Europe and the United States: the Framingham Heart Study, the Health 2000 Study, and the KORA F4 Study. We analyzed genome-wide association studies in participants with and without ERP by logistic regression assuming an additive genetic model and meta-analyzed individual cohort results. We then sought to strengthen support for findings that reached P ≤ 1 × 10(-5) in independent individuals by direct genotyping or in-silico analysis of genome-wide data. We meta-analyzed the results from both stages. Of 7482 individuals in the discovery stage, 452 showed ERP (ERP positive: mean age 46.9 ± 8.9 years, 30.3% women; ERP negative: 47.5 ± 9.4 years, 54.2% women). After meta-analysis, 8 single nucleotide polymorphisms reached P ≤ 1 × 10(-5): The most significant finding was intergenic rs11653989 (odds ratio 0.47; 95% confidence interval 0.36-0.61; P = 6.9 × 10(-9)). The most biologically relevant finding was intronic to KCND3: rs17029069 (odds ratio 1.46; 95% confidence interval 1.25-1.69; P = 8.5 × 10(-7)). In the replication step (7151 individuals), none of the 8 variants replicated, and combined meta-analysis results failed to reach genome-wide significance. In a genome-wide association study, we were not able to reliably identify genetic variants predisposing to ERP, presumably due to insufficient statistical power and phenotype heterogeneity. The reported heritability of ERP warrants continued investigation in larger well-phenotyped populations.
    Heart rhythm: the official journal of the Heart Rhythm Society 06/2012; 9(10):1627-34. · 4.56 Impact Factor
  • Circulation Cardiovascular Genetics 10/2011; 4(5):e21. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: eQTL analyses are important to improve the understanding of genetic association results. We performed a genome-wide association and global gene expression study to identify functionally relevant variants affecting the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). In a genome-wide association analysis of 2078 CAD cases and 2953 control subjects, we identified 950 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were associated with CAD at P<10(-3). Subsequent in silico and wet-laboratory replication stages and a final meta-analysis of 21 428 CAD cases and 38 361 control subjects revealed a novel association signal at chromosome 10q23.31 within the LIPA (lysosomal acid lipase A) gene (P=3.7×10(-8); odds ratio, 1.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.07 to 1.14). The association of this locus with global gene expression was assessed by genome-wide expression analyses in the monocyte transcriptome of 1494 individuals. The results showed a strong association of this locus with expression of the LIPA transcript (P=1.3×10(-96)). An assessment of LIPA SNPs and transcript with cardiovascular phenotypes revealed an association of LIPA transcript levels with impaired endothelial function (P=4.4×10(-3)). The use of data on genetic variants and the addition of data on global monocytic gene expression led to the identification of the novel functional CAD susceptibility locus LIPA, located on chromosome 10q23.31. The respective eSNPs associated with CAD strongly affect LIPA gene expression level, which was related to endothelial dysfunction, a precursor of CAD.
    Circulation Cardiovascular Genetics 05/2011; 4(4):403-12. · 6.73 Impact Factor
  • International journal of cardiology 03/2011; 147(2):309-11. · 6.18 Impact Factor
  • Clinical Research in Cardiology 01/2011; 100(1):93-5. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Early repolarization (ER), defined by J-point elevation in 12-lead ECG, was recently associated with increased risk for idiopathic ventricular fibrillation and cardiovascular mortality. The determinants of ER are unknown. We investigated its heritability in a large, family-based cohort. The study sample comprised 1877 individuals from 505 white nuclear families representative of the British general population. Standard 12-lead ECGs were evaluated for the presence of ER, defined as J-point elevation of ≥0.1 mV in at least 2 adjacent inferior (II, III, and aVF) or anterolateral (I, aVL, and V(4) through V(6)) leads. Narrow sense heritability estimates were computed adjusting for age, age(2), and sex. The prevalence of ER was 7.7% (n=145) in the whole cohort, 5.9% (n=56) in parents, and 9.6% (n=89) in offspring. Heritability estimate for the presence of ER was calculated at h(2)=0.49 (standard error=0.14; P=2.7*10(-4)) and was higher when restricted to its presence in inferior leads (h(2)=0.61, standard error=0.18, P=4.3*10(-4)) or for the notching ER morphology (h(2)=0.81, standard error=0.19, P=2.4*10(-5)). Individuals with at least 1 affected parent had a 2.5-fold increased risk for presenting with ER on ECG (odds ratio, 2.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.33 to 4.84; P=0.005). Familial transmission was more frequent when the mother was affected (odds ratio, 3.84; 95% confidence interval, 1.41 to 10.43; P=0.008) than when the father was affected (odds ratio, 1.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.82 to 4.03; P=0.141), although this difference was not statistically significant (P=0.18). ER is a heritable phenotype. Offspring of ER-positive parents have a 2.5-fold increased risk of presenting with ER on their ECG.
    Circulation Cardiovascular Genetics 01/2011; 4(2):134-8. · 6.73 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Electrocardiology - J ELECTROCARDIOL. 01/2011; 44(2).
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    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 11/2010; 56(19):1552–1563. · 14.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We sought to replicate the association between the kinesin-like protein 6 (KIF6) Trp719Arg polymorphism (rs20455), and clinical coronary artery disease (CAD). Recent prospective studies suggest that carriers of the 719Arg allele in KIF6 are at increased risk of clinical CAD compared with noncarriers. The KIF6 Trp719Arg polymorphism (rs20455) was genotyped in 19 case-control studies of nonfatal CAD either as part of a genome-wide association study or in a formal attempt to replicate the initial positive reports. A total of 17,000 cases and 39,369 controls of European descent as well as a modest number of South Asians, African Americans, Hispanics, East Asians, and admixed cases and controls were successfully genotyped. None of the 19 studies demonstrated an increased risk of CAD in carriers of the 719Arg allele compared with noncarriers. Regression analyses and fixed-effects meta-analyses ruled out with high degree of confidence an increase of ≥2% in the risk of CAD among European 719Arg carriers. We also observed no increase in the risk of CAD among 719Arg carriers in the subset of Europeans with early-onset disease (younger than 50 years of age for men and younger than 60 years of age for women) compared with similarly aged controls as well as all non-European subgroups. The KIF6 Trp719Arg polymorphism was not associated with the risk of clinical CAD in this large replication study.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 10/2010; 56(19):1552-63. · 14.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Early repolarization pattern (ERP) on electrocardiogram was associated with idiopathic ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac arrest in a case-control study and with cardiovascular mortality in a Finnish community-based sample. We sought to determine ERP prevalence and its association with cardiac and all-cause mortality in a large, prospective, population-based case-cohort study (Monitoring of Cardiovascular Diseases and Conditions [MONICA]/KORA [Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg]) comprised of individuals of Central-European descent. Electrocardiograms of 1,945 participants aged 35-74 y, representing a source population of 6,213 individuals, were analyzed applying a case-cohort design. Mean follow-up was 18.9 y. Cause of death was ascertained by the 9th revision of the International Classification of Disease (ICD-9) codes as documented in death certificates. ERP-attributable effects on mortality were determined by a weighted Cox proportional hazard model adjusted for covariables. Prevalence of ERP was 13.1% in our study. ERP was associated with cardiac and all-cause mortality, most pronounced in those of younger age and male sex; a clear ERP-age interaction was detected (p = 0.005). Age-stratified analyses showed hazard ratios (HRs) for cardiac mortality of 1.96 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-3.68, p = 0.035) for both sexes and 2.65 (95% CI 1.21-5.83, p = 0.015) for men between 35-54 y. An inferior localization of ERP further increased ERP-attributable cardiac mortality to HRs of 3.15 (95% CI 1.58-6.28, p = 0.001) for both sexes and to 4.27 (95% CI 1.90-9.61, p<0.001) for men between 35-54 y. HRs for all-cause mortality were weaker but reached significance. We found a high prevalence of ERP in our population-based cohort of middle-aged individuals. ERP was associated with about a 2- to 4-fold increased risk of cardiac mortality in individuals between 35 and 54 y. An inferior localization of ERP was associated with a particularly increased risk. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
    PLoS Medicine 07/2010; 7(7):e1000314. · 15.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a structural heart disease with strong genetic background. Monogenic forms of DCM are observed in families with mutations located mostly in genes encoding structural and sarcomeric proteins. However, strong evidence suggests that genetic factors also affect the susceptibility to idiopathic DCM. To identify risk alleles for non-familial forms of DCM, we carried out a case-control association study, genotyping 664 DCM cases and 1,874 population-based healthy controls from Germany using a 50K human cardiovascular disease bead chip covering more than 2,000 genes pre-selected for cardiovascular relevance. After quality control, 30,920 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were tested for association with the disease by logistic regression adjusted for gender, and results were genomic-control corrected. The analysis revealed a significant association between a SNP in HSPB7 gene (rs1739843, minor allele frequency 39%) and idiopathic DCM (p = 1.06 × 10⁻⁶, OR  = 0.67 [95% CI 0.57-0.79] for the minor allele T). Three more SNPs showed p < 2.21 × 10⁻⁵. De novo genotyping of these four SNPs was done in three independent case-control studies of idiopathic DCM. Association between SNP rs1739843 and DCM was significant in all replication samples: Germany (n =564, n = 981 controls, p = 2.07 × 10⁻³, OR = 0.79 [95% CI 0.67-0.92]), France 1 (n = 433 cases, n = 395 controls, p =3.73 × 10⁻³, OR  = 0.74 [95% CI 0.60-0.91]), and France 2 (n = 249 cases, n = 380 controls, p = 2.26 × 10⁻⁴, OR  = 0.63 [95% CI 0.50-0.81]). The combined analysis of all four studies including a total of n = 1,910 cases and n = 3,630 controls showed highly significant evidence for association between rs1739843 and idiopathic DCM (p = 5.28 × 10⁻¹³, OR= 0.72 [95% CI 0.65-0.78]). None of the other three SNPs showed significant results in the replication stage.This finding of the HSPB7 gene from a genetic search for idiopathic DCM using a large SNP panel underscores the influence of common polymorphisms on DCM susceptibility.
    PLoS Genetics 01/2010; 6(10):e1001167. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: We sought to replicate the association between the kinesin-like protein 6 (KIF6) Trp719Arg polymorphism (rs20455), and clinical coronary artery disease (CAD). BACKGROUND: Recent prospective studies suggest that carriers of the 719Arg allele in KIF6 are at increased risk of clinical CAD compared with noncarriers. METHODS: The KIF6 Trp719Arg polymorphism (rs20455) was genotyped in 19 case-control studies of nonfatal CAD either as part of a genome-wide association study or in a formal attempt to replicate the initial positive reports. RESULTS: A total of 17,000 cases and 39,369 controls of European descent as well as a modest number of South Asians, African Americans, Hispanics, East Asians, and admixed cases and controls were successfully genotyped. None of the 19 studies demonstrated an increased risk of CAD in carriers of the 719Arg allele compared with noncarriers. Regression analyses and fixed-effects meta-analyses ruled out with high degree of confidence an increase of >/=2% in the risk of CAD among European 719Arg carriers. We also observed no increase in the risk of CAD among 719Arg carriers in the subset of Europeans with early-onset disease (younger than 50 years of age for men and younger than 60 years of age for women) compared with similarly aged controls as well as all non-European subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: The KIF6 Trp719Arg polymorphism was not associated with the risk of clinical CAD in this large replication study
    J.Am.Coll.Cardiol. 01/2010; 56(19).
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    ABSTRACT: The adipocyte-derived protein adiponectin is highly heritable and inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and coronary heart disease (CHD). We meta-analyzed 3 genome-wide association studies for circulating adiponectin levels (n = 8,531) and sought validation of the lead single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 5 additional cohorts (n = 6,202). Five SNPs were genome-wide significant in their relationship with adiponectin (P< or =5x10(-8)). We then tested whether these 5 SNPs were associated with risk of T2D and CHD using a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P< or =0.011 to declare statistical significance for these disease associations. SNPs at the adiponectin-encoding ADIPOQ locus demonstrated the strongest associations with adiponectin levels (P-combined = 9.2x10(-19) for lead SNP, rs266717, n = 14,733). A novel variant in the ARL15 (ADP-ribosylation factor-like 15) gene was associated with lower circulating levels of adiponectin (rs4311394-G, P-combined = 2.9x10(-8), n = 14,733). This same risk allele at ARL15 was also associated with a higher risk of CHD (odds ratio [OR] = 1.12, P = 8.5x10(-6), n = 22,421) more nominally, an increased risk of T2D (OR = 1.11, P = 3.2x10(-3), n = 10,128), and several metabolic traits. Expression studies in humans indicated that ARL15 is well-expressed in skeletal muscle. These findings identify a novel protein, ARL15, which influences circulating adiponectin levels and may impact upon CHD risk.
    PLoS Genetics 12/2009; 5(12):e1000768. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies revealed an increasing prevalence of and a steep increase in obesity, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Because significant influence of a polymorphism, rs7566605, near the INSIG2 gene on BMI has been shown in the general population and in obesity cohorts, we hypothesized that this polymorphism might also act through an elevated BMI on the development of coronary artery disease (CAD) or myocardial infarction (MI). We pursued two strategies: First, the polymorphism rs7566605 was investigated for association with BMI, CAD/MI, and cardiovascular risk factors in a large German cohort at high risk for CAD and MI (n = 1,460 MI patients) as compared to unrelated healthy controls (n = 1,215); second, we extended our analyses on the families of MI patients and performed family-based association testing (n = 5,390 individuals). The polymorphism rs7566605 was analyzed using TaqMan technology. No deviation from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium could be observed, and the call rate was 98.2%. No significant associations of rs7566605 with CAD/MI, BMI, and classical cardiovascular risk factors could be detected in the full sample size or in the subgroups. A total of 6,878 individuals were investigated in a population of German MI patients and their family members. Although the number of individuals was large enough, no influence of the rs7566605 INSIG2 polymorphism was detected on BMI and CAD/MI. We therefore conclude that in our sample the SNP rs7566605 near the INSIG2 gene does not influence BMI and is not associated directly with CAD/MI or indirectly through cardiovascular risk factors.
    Obesity 02/2009; 17(7):1390-1395. · 3.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The adipocyte-derived protein adiponectin is highly heritable and inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and coronary heart disease (CHD). We meta-analyzed 3 genome-wide association studies for circulating adiponectin levels (n = 8,531) and sought validation of the lead single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 5 additional cohorts (n = 6,202). Five SNPs were genome-wide significant in their relationship with adiponectin (P< or =5x10(-8)). We then tested whether these 5 SNPs were associated with risk of T2D and CHD using a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P< or =0.011 to declare statistical significance for these disease associations. SNPs at the adiponectin-encoding ADIPOQ locus demonstrated the strongest associations with adiponectin levels (P-combined = 9.2x10(-19) for lead SNP, rs266717, n = 14,733). A novel variant in the ARL15 (ADP-ribosylation factor-like 15) gene was associated with lower circulating levels of adiponectin (rs4311394-G, P-combined = 2.9x10(-8), n = 14,733). This same risk allele at ARL15 was also associated with a higher risk of CHD (odds ratio [OR] = 1.12, P = 8.5x10(-6), n = 22,421) more nominally, an increased risk of T2D (OR = 1.11, P = 3.2x10(-3), n = 10,128), and several metabolic traits. Expression studies in humans indicated that ARL15 is well-expressed in skeletal muscle. These findings identify a novel protein, ARL15, which influences circulating adiponectin levels and may impact upon CHD risk
    PLoS.Genet. 01/2009; 5(12).
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, a large meta-analysis including over 28,000 participants identified nine different loci with association to serum uric acid (UA) levels. Since elevated serum UA levels potentially cause gout and are a possible risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial infarction (MI), we performed two large case-control association analyses with participants from the German MI Family Study. In the first study, we assessed the association of the qualitative trait gout and ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) markers that showed association to UA serum levels. In the second study, the same genetic polymorphisms were analyzed for association with CAD. A total of 683 patients suffering from gout and 1,563 healthy controls from the German MI Family Study were genotyped. Nine SNPs were identified from a recently performed genome-wide meta-analysis on serum UA levels (rs12129861, rs780094, rs734553, rs2231142, rs742132, rs1183201, rs12356193, rs17300741 and rs505802). Additionally, the marker rs6855911 was included which has been associated with gout in our cohort in a previous study. SNPs rs734553 and rs6855911, located in SLC2A9, and SNP rs2231142, known to be a missense polymorphism in ABCG2, were associated with gout (p=5.6*10(-7), p=1.1*10(-7), and p=1.3*10(-3), respectively). Other SNPs in the genes PDZK1, GCKR, LRRC16A, SLC17A1-SLC17A3, SLC16A9, SLC22A11 and SLC22A12 failed the significance level. None of the ten markers were associated with risk to CAD in our study sample of 1,473 CAD cases and 1,241 CAD-free controls. SNP markers in SLC2A9 and ABCG2 genes were found to be strongly associated with the phenotype gout. However, not all SNP markers influencing serum UA levels were also directly associated with the clinical manifestation of gout in our study sample. In addition, none of these SNPs showed association with the risk to CAD in the German MI Family Study.
    PLoS ONE 01/2009; 4(11):e7729. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Myocardial infarction (MI) is a complex disease. Multiple genes and their interaction with various environmental factors influence the pathogenesis of MI that is thought to be tightly regulated by inflammatory pathways. Recent progress in genetic analysis includes the use of large-scale genome-wide association studies that have proven to be powerful tools even in the analysis of multifactorial phenotypes. However, certain genes are only sparsely represented on the available gene chips and additional candidate gene approaches are necessary. One such example is the CNR2 gene, encoding the cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2), which has been implicated in mediating anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic effects in vivo. We therefore hypothesized that genetic variations within the CNR2 gene are associated with the development of MI or classic cardiovascular risk factors. In a large case-control study, 1,968 individuals from the German MI family study were examined with 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering CNR2 and the adjacent genes. The association of these SNPs with MI or cardiovascular risk factors, such as arterial hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes mellitus, was determined. In allelic and genotypic models, none of the SNPs showed a significant association with MI. Separate analyses for men and women revealed no gender-specific relationship between common genetic variations within the CNR2 gene and MI. Moreover, no significant association between CNR2 gene variants and common cardiovascular risk factors was observed. We therefore provide evidence in a large German population that common polymorphisms within the CNR2 gene confer no susceptibility to MI or to cardiovascular risk factors.
    International Journal of Molecular Medicine 08/2008; 22(2):165-74. · 1.96 Impact Factor