[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MHC haplotypes have a remarkable influence on whether tumors form following infection of chickens with oncogenic Marek's disease herpesvirus. Although resistance to tumor formation has been mapped to a subregion of the chicken MHC-B region, the gene or genes responsible have not been identified. A full gene map of the subregion has been lacking. We have expanded the MHC-B region gene map beyond the 92-kb core previously reported for another haplotype revealing the presence of 46 genes within 242 kb in the Red Jungle Fowl haplotype. Even though MHC-B is structured differently, many of the newly revealed genes are related to loci typical of the MHC in other species. Other MHC-B loci are homologs of genes found within MHC paralogous regions (regions thought to be derived from ancient duplications of a primordial immune defense complex where genes have undergone differential silencing over evolutionary time) on other chromosomes. Still others are similar to genes that define the NK complex in mammals. Many of the newly mapped genes display allelic variability and fall within the MHC-B subregion previously shown to affect the formation of Marek's disease tumors and hence are candidates for genes conferring resistance.
The Journal of Immunology 07/2007; 178(11):7162-72. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most of the previously studied teleost MHC class I molecules can be classified into two broad lineages: "U" and "Z/ZE." However, database reports on genes in cyprinid and salmonid fishes show that there is a third major lineage, which lacks detailed analysis so far. We designated this lineage "L" because of an intriguing linkage characteristic. Namely, one zebrafish L locus is closely linked with MHC class II loci, despite the extensively documented nonlinkage of teleost class I with class II. The L lineage consists of highly variable, nonclassical MHC class I genes, and has no apparent orthologues outside teleost fishes. Characteristics that distinguish the L lineage from most other MHC class I are (1) absence of two otherwise highly conserved tryptophan residues W51 and W60 in the alpha1 domain, (2) a low GC content of the alpha1 and alpha2 exons, and (3) an HINLTL motif including a possible glycosylation site in the alpha3 domain. In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) we analyzed several intact L genes in detail, including their genomic organization and transcription pattern. The gene Onmy-LAA is quite different from the genes Onmy-LBA, Onmy-LCA, Onmy-LDA, and Onmy-LEA, while the latter four are similar and categorized as "Onmy-LBA-like." Whereas the Onmy-LAA gene is organized like a canonical MHC class I gene, the Onmy-LBA-like genes are processed and lack all introns except intron 1. Onmy-LAA is predominantly expressed in the intestine, while the Onmy-LBA-like transcripts display a rather homogeneous tissue distribution. To our knowledge, this is the first description of an MHC class I lineage with multiple copies of processed genes, which are intact and transcribed. The present study significantly improves the knowledge of MHC class I variation in teleosts.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The construction of a cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis, Mafa) BAC library for genomic comparison between rhesus and cynomolgus macaques is necessary to promote the cynomolgus macaque as one of the important experimental animals for future medical and biological research. In this paper, we constructed a cynomolgus macaque BAC library and a map of the MHC (Mafa) genomic region for comparison of the genomic organization and nucleotide similarities between the human, the chimpanzee, and the rhesus macaque. The BAC library consists of 221,184 clones with an average insert size of 83 kb, providing a sixfold coverage of the haploid genome. A total of 114 BAC clones and 54 PCR primer sets were used to construct a 4.3-Mb contig of the MHC region. Diversity analysis of genomic sequence from selected subregions of the MHC revealed that the cynomolgus sequence varied compared to rhesus macaque, human, and chimpanzee sequences by 0.48, 4.15, and 4.10%, respectively. From these findings, we conclude that the BAC library and Mafa genomic map are useful tools for genome analysis and will have important applications for comparative genomics and identifying regions of consequence in medical research.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A plausible explanation for many MHC-linked diseases is lacking. Sequencing of the MHC class I region (coding units or full contigs) in several human and nonhuman primate haplotypes allowed an analysis of single nucleotide variations (SNV) across this entire segment. This diversity was not evenly distributed. It was rather concentrated within two gene-rich clusters. These were each centered, but importantly not limited to, the antigen-presenting HLA-A and HLA-B/-C loci. Rapid evolution of MHC-I alleles, as evidenced by an unusually high number of haplotype-specific (hs) and hypervariable (hv) (which could not be traced to a single species or haplotype) SNVs within the classical MHC-I, seems to have not only hitchhiked alleles within nearby genes, but also hitchhiked deleterious mutations in these same unrelated loci. The overrepresentation of a fraction of these hvSNV (hv1SNV) along with hsSNV, as compared to those that appear to have been maintained throughout primate evolution (trans-species diversity; tsSNV; included within hv2SNV) tends to establish that the majority of the MHC polymorphism is de novo (species specific). This is most likely reminiscent of the fact that these hsSNV and hv1SNV have been selected in adaptation to the constantly evolving microbial antigenic repertoire.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sharks are members of the taxonomic class Chondrichthyes, the oldest living jawed vertebrates. Genomic studies of this group, in comparison to representative species in other vertebrate taxa, will allow us to theorize about the fundamental genetic, developmental, and functional characteristics in the common ancestor of all jawed vertebrates.
In order to obtain mapping and sequencing data for comparative genomics, we constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library for the nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum.
The BAC library consists of 313,344 clones with an average insert size of 144 kb, covering ~4.5 x 1010 bp and thus providing an 11-fold coverage of the haploid genome. BAC end sequence analyses revealed, in addition to LINEs and SINEs commonly found in other animal and plant genomes, two new groups of nurse shark-specific repetitive elements, NSRE1 and NSRE2 that seem to be major components of the nurse shark genome. Screening the library with single-copy or multi-copy gene probes showed 6-28 primary positive clones per probe of which 50-90% were true positives, demonstrating that the BAC library is representative of the different regions of the nurse shark genome. Furthermore, some BAC clones contained multiple genes, making physical mapping feasible.
We have constructed a deep-coverage, high-quality, large insert, and publicly available BAC library for a cartilaginous fish. It will be very useful to the scientific community interested in shark genomic structure, comparative genomics, and functional studies. We found two new groups of repetitive elements specific to the nurse shark genome, which may contribute to the architecture and evolution of the nurse shark genome.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Salmonid fishes are among the few animal taxa with a probable recent tetraploid ancestor. The present study is the first to compare large (>100 kb) duplicated genomic sequence fragments in such species. Two contiguous stretches with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I genes were detected in a rainbow trout BAC library, mapped and sequenced. The MHC class I duplicated regions, mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), were shown to be located on different metaphase chromosomes, Chr 14 and 18. Gene organization in both duplications is similar to that in other fishes, in that the class I loci are tightly linked with the PSMB8, PSMB9, PSMB10 and ABCB3 genes. Whereas one region, Onmy-IA, has a classical MHC class I locus (UBA), Onmy-IB encodes only non-classical class Ib proteins. The nucleotide diversity between the Onmy-IA and Onmy-IB noncoding regions is about 14%. This suggests that the MHC class I duplication event has occurred about 60 mya close to the time of an hypothesized ancestral tetraploid event. The present article is the first convincing report on the co-existence of two closely related MHC class I core regions on two different chromosomes. The interchromosomal duplication and the homology levels are supportive of the tetraploid model.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite their high degree of genomic similarity, reminiscent of their relatively recent separation from each other ( approximately 6 million years ago), the molecular basis of traits unique to humans vs. their closest relative, the chimpanzee, is largely unknown. This report describes a large-scale single-contig comparison between human and chimpanzee genomes via the sequence analysis of almost one-half of the immunologically critical MHC. This 1,750,601-bp stretch of DNA, which encompasses the entire class I along with the telomeric part of the MHC class III regions, corresponds to an orthologous 1,870,955 bp of the human HLA region. Sequence analysis confirms the existence of a high degree of sequence similarity between the two species. However, and importantly, this 98.6% sequence identity drops to only 86.7% taking into account the multiple insertions/deletions (indels) dispersed throughout the region. This is functionally exemplified by a large deletion of 95 kb between the virtual locations of human MICA and MICB genes, which results in a single hybrid chimpanzee MIC gene, in a segment of the MHC genetically linked to species-specific handling of several viral infections (HIV/SIV, hepatitis B and C) as well as susceptibility to various autoimmune diseases. Finally, if generalized, these data suggest that evolution may have used the mechanistically more drastic indels instead of the more subtle single-nucleotide substitutions for shaping the recently emerged primate species.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2003; 100(13):7708-13. · 9.74 Impact Factor