Naoto Ueno

National Institute for Basic Biology, Okazaki, Aichi, Japan

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Publications (159)805.01 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: In the last several decades, developmental biology has clarified the molecular mechanisms of embryogenesis and organogenesis. In particular, it has demonstrated that the "tool-kit genes" essential for regulating developmental processes are not only highly conserved among species, but are also employed as systems at various times and places in an organism to control distinct developmental events. Therefore, mutations in many of these tool-kit genes may cause congenital diseases involving morphological abnormalities. This link between genes and abnormal morphological phenotypes underscores the importance of understanding how cells behave and contribute to morphogenesis as a result of gene function. Recent improvements in live imaging and in quantitative analyses of cellular dynamics will advance our understanding of the cellular pathogenesis of congenital diseases associated with aberrant morphologies. In these studies, it is critical to select an appropriate model organism for the particular phenomenon of interest.
    Congenital Anomalies 11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Gastrulation is a dynamic tissue-remodeling process occurring during early development and fundamental to the later organogenesis. It involves both chemical signals and physical factors. Although much is known about the molecular pathways involved, the roles of physical forces in regulating cellular behavior and tissue remodeling during gastrulation have just begun to be explored. Here, we characterized the force generated by the leading edge mesoderm (LEM) that migrates preceding axial mesoderm (AM), and investigated the contribution of LEM during Xenopus gastrulation. First, we constructed an assay system using micro-needle which could measure physical forces generated by the anterior migration of LEM, and estimated the absolute magnitude of the force to be 20-80nN. Second, laser ablation experiments showed that LEM could affect the force distribution in the AM (i.e. LEM adds stretch force on axial mesoderm along anterior-posterior axis). Third, migrating LEM was found to be necessary for the proper gastrulation cell movements and the establishment of organized notochord structure; a reduction of LEM migratory activity resulted in the disruption of mediolateral cell orientation and convergence in AM. Finally, we found that LEM migration cooperates with Wnt/PCP to form proper notochord. These results suggest that the force generated by the directional migration of LEM is transmitted to AM and assists the tissue organization of notochord in vivo independently of the regulation by Wnt/PCP. We propose that the LEM may have a mechanical role in aiding the AM elongation through the rearrangement of force distribution in the dorsal marginal zone.
    Developmental Biology 08/2013; · 3.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that whole-genome duplication (WGD) occurred twice during the evolutionary process of vertebrates around 450 and 500 million years ago, which contributed to an increase in the genomic and phenotypic complexities of vertebrates. However, little is still known about the evolutionary process of homoeologous chromosomes after WGD because many duplicate genes have been lost. Therefore, Xenopus laevis (2n=36) and Xenopus (Silurana) tropicalis (2n=20) are good animal models for studying the process of genomic and chromosomal reorganization after WGD because X. laevis is an allotetraploid species that resulted from WGD after the interspecific hybridization of diploid species closely related to X. tropicalis. We constructed a comparative cytogenetic map of X. laevis using 60 complimentary DNA clones that covered the entire chromosomal regions of 10 pairs of X. tropicalis chromosomes. We consequently identified all nine homoeologous chromosome groups of X. laevis. Hybridization signals on two pairs of X. laevis homoeologous chromosomes were detected for 50 of 60 (83%) genes, and the genetic linkage is highly conserved between X. tropicalis and X. laevis chromosomes except for one fusion and one inversion and also between X. laevis homoeologous chromosomes except for two inversions. These results indicate that the loss of duplicated genes and inter- and/or intrachromosomal rearrangements occurred much less frequently in this lineage, suggesting that these events were not essential for diploidization of the allotetraploid genome in X. laevis after WGD.Heredity advance online publication, 3 July 2013; doi:10.1038/hdy.2013.65.
    Heredity 07/2013; · 4.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have been suggested to arise from abnormalities in the canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways. However, a direct connection between a human variant in a Wnt pathway gene and ASD-relevant brain pathology has not been established. Prickle2 (Pk2) is a post-synaptic non-canonical Wnt signaling protein shown to interact with post-synaptic density 95 (PSD-95). Here, we show that mice with disruption in Prickle2 display behavioral abnormalities including altered social interaction, learning abnormalities and behavioral inflexibility. Prickle2 disruption in mouse hippocampal neurons led to reductions in dendrite branching, synapse number and PSD size. Consistent with these findings, Prickle2 null neurons show decreased frequency and size of spontaneous miniature synaptic currents. These behavioral and physiological abnormalities in Prickle2 disrupted mice are consistent with ASD-like phenotypes present in other mouse models of ASDs. In 384 individuals with autism, we identified two with distinct, heterozygous, rare, non-synonymous PRICKLE2 variants (p.E8Q and p.V153I) that were shared by their affected siblings and inherited paternally. Unlike wild-type PRICKLE2, the PRICKLE2 variants found in ASD patients exhibit deficits in morphological and electrophysiological assays. These data suggest that these PRICKLE2 variants cause a critical loss of PRICKLE2 function. The data presented here provide new insight into the biological roles of Prickle2, its behavioral importance, and suggest disruptions in non-canonical Wnt genes such as PRICKLE2 may contribute to synaptic abnormalities underlying ASDs.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 28 May 2013; doi:10.1038/mp.2013.71.
    Molecular psychiatry 05/2013; · 15.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The stable transgenesis of genes encoding functional or spatially localized proteins, fused to fluorescent proteins such as green fluorescent protein (GFP) or red fluorescent protein (RFP), is an extremely important research tool in cell and developmental biology. Transgenic organisms constructed with fluorescent labels for cell membranes, subcellular organelles, and functional proteins have been used to investigate cell cycles, lineages, shapes, and polarity, in live animals and in cells or tissues derived from these animals. Genes of interest have been integrated and maintained in generations of transgenic animals, which have become a valuable resource for the cell and developmental biology communities. Although the use of Xenopus laevis as a transgenic model organism has been hampered by its relatively long reproduction time (compared to Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans), its large embryonic cells and the ease of manipulation in early embryos have made it a historically valuable preparation that continues to have tremendous research potential. Here, we report on the Xenopus laevis transgenic lines our lab has generated and discuss their potential use in biological imaging.
    Embryologia 03/2013; · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The frequent comorbidity of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) with epilepsy suggests a shared underlying genetic susceptibility; several genes, when mutated, can contribute to both disorders. Recently, PRICKLE1 missense mutations were found to segregate with ASD. However, the mechanism by which mutations in this gene might contribute to ASD is unknown. To elucidate the role of PRICKLE1 in ASDs, we carried out studies in Prickle1(+/-) mice and Drosophila, yeast, and neuronal cell lines. We show that mice with Prickle1 mutations exhibit ASD-like behaviors. To find proteins that interact with PRICKLE1 in the central nervous system, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen with a human brain cDNA library and isolated a peptide with homology to SYNAPSIN I (SYN1), a protein involved in synaptogenesis, synaptic vesicle formation, and regulation of neurotransmitter release. Endogenous Prickle1 and Syn1 co-localize in neurons and physically interact via the SYN1 region mutated in ASD and epilepsy. Finally, a mutation in PRICKLE1 disrupts its ability to increase the size of dense-core vesicles in PC12 cells. Taken together, these findings suggest PRICKLE1 mutations contribute to ASD by disrupting the interaction with SYN1 and regulation of synaptic vesicles.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e80737. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: FADD is an adaptor protein that transmits apoptotic signals from death receptors. Additionally, FADD has been shown to play a role in various functions including cell proliferation. However, the physiological role of FADD during embryonic development remains to be delineated. Here, we show the novel roles FADD plays in development and the molecular mechanisms of these roles in Xenopus embryos. By whole-mount in situ hybridization and RT-PCR analysis, we observed that fadd is constantly expressed in early embryos. The upregulation or downregulation of FADD proteins by embryonic manipulation resulted in induction of apoptosis or size changes in the heart during development. Expression of a truncated form of FADD, FADDdd, which lacks pro-apoptotic activity, caused growth retardation of embryos associated with dramatic expressional fluctuations of genes that are regulated by NF-κB. Moreover, we isolated a homolog of mammalian cullin-4 (Cul4), a component of the ubiquitin E3 ligase family, as a FADDdd-interacting molecule in Xenopus embryos. Thus, our study shows that FADD has multiple functions in embryos; it plays a part in the regulation of NF-κB activation and heart formation, in addition to apoptosis. Furthermore, our findings provide new insights into how Cul4-based ligase is related to FADD signaling in embryogenesis.
    Genes to Cells 10/2012; 17(11):875-96. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During early development of the central nervous system, the neuroepithelial cells undergo dynamic changes in shape, cumulative action of which cause the neural plate to bend mediolaterally to form the neural tube. The apicobasal elongation changes the cuboidal cells into columnar ones, whereas apical constriction minimizes the cell apices, causing them to adopt wedge-like shapes. To achieve the morphological changes required for the formation of a hollow structure, these cellular changes must be controlled in time and space. To date, it is widely accepted that spatial and temporal changes of the cytoskeletal organization are fundamental to epithelial cell shape changes, and that noncetrosomal microtubules assembled along apicobasal axis and actin filaments and non-muscle myosin II at the apical side are central machineries of cell elongation and apical constriction, respectively. Hence, especially in the last decade, intracellular mechanisms regulating these cytoskeletons have been extensively investigated at the molecular level. As a result, several actin-binding proteins, Rho/ROCK pathway, and cell-cell adhesion molecules have been proven to be the central regulators of apical constriction, while the regulatory mechanisms of cell elongation remain obscure. In this review, we first describe the distribution and role of cytoskeleton in cell shape changes during neural tube closure, and then summarize the current knowledge about the intracellular proteins that directly modulate the cytoskeletal organization and thus the neural tube closure.
    Embryologia 04/2012; 54(3):266-76. · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In developing vertebrates, the neural tube forms from a sheet of neural ectoderm by complex cell movements and morphogenesis. Convergent extension movements and the apical constriction along with apical-basal elongation of cells in the neural ectoderm are thought to be essential for the neural tube closure (NTC) process. In addition, it is known that non-neural ectoderm also plays a crucial role in this process, as the neural tube fails to close in the absence of this tissue in chick and axolotl. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which it functions in NTC are as yet unclear. We demonstrate here that the non-neural superficial epithelium moves in the direction of tensile forces applied along the dorsal-ventral axis during NTC. We found that this force is partly attributable to the deep layer of non-neural ectoderm cells, which moved collectively towards the dorsal midline along with the superficial layer. Moreover, inhibition of this movement by deleting integrin β1 function resulted in incomplete NTC. Furthermore, we demonstrated that other proposed mechanisms, such as oriented cell division, cell rearrangement and cell-shape changes have no or only minor roles in the non-neural movement. This study is the first to demonstrate dorsally oriented deep-cell migration in non-neural ectoderm, and suggests that a global reorganization of embryo tissues is involved in NTC.
    Development 02/2012; 139(8):1417-26. · 6.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The chromosome passenger complex (CPC) consists of Aurora-B kinase and several other subunits. One of these, incenp, binds Aurora-B and regulates its kinase activity. During Xenopus oocyte maturation, incenp accumulates through translation, contributing to aurora-b activation. A previous study has demonstrated that inhibition of incenp translation during oocyte maturation diminishes aurora-b activation but does not interfere with oocyte maturation, characterized by normal maturation-specific cyclin-b phosphorylation, degradation, and resynthesis. Here we have extended these findings, showing that inhibition of incenp translation during oocyte maturation did not interfere with meiosis I or II, as indicated by the normal emission of the first polar body and metaphase II arrest, followed by the successful emission of the second polar body upon parthenogenetic egg activation. Most importantly, however, when transferred to host frogs and subsequently ovulated, the incenp-deficient eggs were fertilized but failed to undergo mitotic cleavage. Thus, translation of incenp during oocyte maturation appears to be part of oocyte cytoplasmic maturation, preparing the egg for the rapid mitosis following fertilization.
    Biology of Reproduction 02/2012; 86(5):161, 1-8. · 4.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The establishment of trophectoderm (TE) manifests as the formation of epithelium, and is dependent on many structural and regulatory components that are commonly found and function in many epithelial tissues. However, the mechanism of TE formation is currently not well understood. Prickle1 (Pk1), a core component of the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, is essential for epiblast polarization before gastrulation, yet the roles of Pk family members in early mouse embryogenesis are obscure. Here we found that Pk2(-/-) embryos died at E3.0-3.5 without forming the blastocyst cavity and not maintained epithelial integrity of TE. These phenotypes were due to loss of the apical-basal (AB) polarity that underlies the asymmetric redistribution of microtubule networks and proper accumulation of AB polarity components on each membrane during compaction. In addition, we found GTP-bound active form of nuclear RhoA was decreased in Pk2(-/-) embryos during compaction. We further show that the first cell fate decision was disrupted in Pk2(-/-) embryos. Interestingly, Pk2 localized to the nucleus from the 2-cell to around the 16-cell stage despite its cytoplasmic function previously reported. Inhibiting farnesylation blocked Pk2's nuclear localization and disrupted AB cell polarity, suggesting that Pk2 farnesylation is essential for its nuclear localization and function. The cell polarity phenotype was efficiently rescued by nuclear but not cytoplasmic Pk2, demonstrating the nuclear localization of Pk2 is critical for its function.
    Developmental Biology 02/2012; 364(2):138-48. · 3.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Comparative genome analysis of non-avian reptiles and amphibians provides important clues about the process of genome evolution in tetrapods. However, there is still only limited information available on the genome structures of these organisms. Consequently, the protokaryotypes of amniotes and tetrapods and the evolutionary processes of microchromosomes in tetrapods remain poorly understood. We constructed chromosome maps of functional genes for the Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis), the Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis), and the Western clawed frog (Xenopus tropicalis) and compared them with genome and/or chromosome maps of other tetrapod species (salamander, lizard, snake, chicken, and human). This is the first report on the protokaryotypes of amniotes and tetrapods and the evolutionary processes of microchromosomes inferred from comparative genomic analysis of vertebrates, which cover all major non-avian reptilian taxa (Squamata, Crocodilia, Testudines). The eight largest macrochromosomes of the turtle and chicken were equivalent, and 11 linkage groups had also remained intact in the crocodile. Linkage groups of the chicken macrochromosomes were also highly conserved in X. tropicalis, two squamates, and the salamander, but not in human. Chicken microchromosomal linkages were conserved in the squamates, which have fewer microchromosomes than chicken, and also in Xenopus and the salamander, which both lack microchromosomes; in the latter, the chicken microchromosomal segments have been integrated into macrochromosomes. Our present findings open up the possibility that the ancestral amniotes and tetrapods had at least 10 large genetic linkage groups and many microchromosomes, which corresponded to the chicken macro- and microchromosomes, respectively. The turtle and chicken might retain the microchromosomes of the amniote protokaryotype almost intact. The decrease in number and/or disappearance of microchromosomes by repeated chromosomal fusions probably occurred independently in the amphibian, squamate, crocodilian, and mammalian lineages.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(12):e53027. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The formation of the dorsal-ventral (DV) and anterior-posterior (AP) axes, fundamental to the body plan of animals, is regulated by several groups of polypeptide growth factors including the TGF-β, FGF, and Wnt families. In order to ensure the establishment of the body plan, the processes of DV and AP axis formation must be linked and coordinately regulated. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for these interactions remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the forkhead box transcription factor FoxB1, which is upregulated by the neuralizing factor Oct-25, plays an important role in the formation of the DV and AP axes. Overexpression of FoxB1 promoted neural induction and inhibited BMP-dependent epidermal differentiation in ectodermal explants, thereby regulating the DV patterning of the ectoderm. In addition, FoxB1 was also found to promote the formation of posterior neural tissue in both ectodermal explants and whole embryos, suggesting its involvement in embryonic AP patterning. Using knockdown analysis, we found that FoxB1 is required for the formation of posterior neural tissues, acting in concert with the Wnt and FGF pathways. Consistent with this, FoxB1 suppressed the formation of anterior structures via a process requiring the function of XWnt-8 and eFGF. Interestingly, while downregulation of FoxB1 had little effect on neural induction, we found that it functionally interacted with its upstream factor Oct-25 and plays a supportive role in the induction and/or maintenance of neural tissue. Our results suggest that FoxB1 is part of a mechanism that fine-tunes, and leads to the coordinated formation of, the DV and AP axes during early development.
    Developmental Biology 09/2011; 360(1):11-29. · 3.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epilepsy is heritable, yet few causative gene mutations have been identified, and thus far no human epilepsy gene mutations have been found to produce seizures in invertebrates. Here we show that mutations in prickle genes are associated with seizures in humans, mice, and flies. We identified human epilepsy patients with heterozygous mutations in either PRICKLE1 or PRICKLE2. In overexpression assays in zebrafish, prickle mutations resulted in aberrant prickle function. A seizure phenotype was present in the Prickle1-null mutant mouse, two Prickle1 point mutant (missense and nonsense) mice, and a Prickle2-null mutant mouse. Drosophila with prickle mutations displayed seizures that were responsive to anti-epileptic medication, and homozygous mutant embryos showed neuronal defects. These results suggest that prickle mutations have caused seizures throughout evolution.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 02/2011; 88(2):138-49. · 11.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Brachyury plays a pivotal role in the notochord formation in ascidian embryos. Ciona intestinalis Noto4 (Ci-Noto4) was isolated as a gene downstream of Ci-Bra. This gene encodes a 307 amino-acid protein with a C-terminal phosphotyrosine interaction domain (PTB/PID). Expression of Ci-Noto4 commences at the neural plate stage and is specific to notochord cells. Suppression of Ci-Noto4 levels with specific antisense morpholino oligonucleotides resulted in the formation of two rows of notochord cells owing to a lack of midline intercalation between the bilateral populations of progenitor cells. In contrast, overexpression of Ci-Noto4 by injection of a Ci-Bra(promoter):Ci-Noto4-EGFP construct into fertilized eggs disrupted the localization of notochord cells. Ci-Noto4 overexpression did not affect cellular differentiation in the notochord, muscle, mesenchyme, or nervous system. Analysis of Ci-Noto4 regions that are responsible for its function suggested significant roles for the PTB/PID and a central region, an area with no obvious sequence similarity to other known proteins. These results suggested that PTB/PID-containing Ci-Noto4 is essential for midline intercalation of notochord cells in chordate embryos.
    The International journal of developmental biology 09/2010; 55(1):11-8. · 2.16 Impact Factor
  • Naoto Ueno
    Differentiation 09/2010; · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Closure of the neural tube requires both the change and maintenance of cell shape. The change occurs mainly through two coordinated morphogenetic events: cell elongation and apical constriction. How cytoskeletal elements, including microtubules, are regulated in this process in vivo is largely unknown. Here, we show that neural tube closure in Xenopus depends on orthologs of two proteins: MID1, which is responsible for Opitz G/BBB syndrome in humans, and its paralog MID2. Depletion of the Xenopus MIDs (xMIDs) by morpholino-mediated knockdown disrupted epithelial morphology in the neural plate, leading to neural tube defects. In the xMID-depleted neural plate, the normal epithelial organization was perturbed without affecting neural fate. Furthermore, the xMID knockdown destabilized and caused the disorganization of microtubules, which are normally apicobasally polarized, accounting for the abnormal phenotypes. We also found that the xMIDs and their interacting protein Mig12 were coordinately required for microtubule stabilization during remodeling of the neural plate. Finally, we showed that the xMIDs are required for the formation of multiple epithelial organs. We propose that similar MID-governed mechanisms underlie the normal morphogenesis of epithelial tissues and organs, including the tissues affected in patients with Opitz G/BBB syndrome.
    Development 07/2010; 137(14):2329-39. · 6.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neural tube formation is one of the most dynamic morphogenetic processes of vertebrate development. However, the molecules regulating its initiation are mostly unknown. Here, we demonstrated that nectin-2, an immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecule, is involved in the neurulation of Xenopus embryos in cooperation with N-cadherin. First, we found that, at the beginning of neurulation, nectin-2 was strongly expressed in the superficial cells of neuroepithelium. The knockdown of nectin-2 impaired neural fold formation by attenuating F-actin accumulation and apical constriction, a cell-shape change that is required for neural tube folding. Conversely, the overexpression of nectin-2 in non-neural ectoderm induced ectopic apical constrictions with accumulated F-actin. However, experiments with domain-deleted nectin-2 revealed that the intracellular afadin-binding motif, which links nectin-2 and F-actin, was not required for the generation of the ectopic apical constriction. Furthermore, we found that nectin-2 physically interacts with N-cadherin through extracellular domains, and they cooperatively enhanced apical constriction by driving the accumulation of F-actin at the apical cell surface. Interestingly, the accumulation of N-cadherin at the apical surface of neuroepithelium was dependent on the presence of nectin-2, but that of nectin-2 was not affected by depletion of N-cadherin. We propose a novel mechanism of neural tube morphogenesis regulated by the two types of cell adhesion molecules.
    Development 04/2010; 137(8):1315-25. · 6.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) induce ectopic bone formation in muscle tissue in vivo and convert myoblasts such that they differentiate into osteoblastic cells in vitro. We report here that constitutively active Smad1 induced osteoblastic differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts in cooperation with Smad4 or Runx2. In floxed Smad4 mice-derived cells, Smad4 ablation partially suppressed BMP-4-induced osteoblast differentiation. In contrast, the BMP-4-induced inhibition of myogenesis was lost by Smad4 ablation and restored by Smad4 overexpression. A nuclear zinc finger protein, E4F1, was identified as a possible component of the Smad4 complex that suppresses myogenic differentiation in response to BMP signaling. In the presence of Smad4, E4F1 stimulated the expression of Ids. Taken together, these findings suggest that the Smad signaling pathway may play a dual role in the BMP-induced conversion of myoblasts to osteoblastic cells.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2010; 285(20):15577-86. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Brachyury, a T-box transcription factor, is expressed in ascidian embryos exclusively in primordial notochord cells and plays a pivotal role in differentiation of notochord cells. Previously, we identified approximately 450 genes downstream of Ciona intestinalis Brachyury (Ci-Bra), and characterized the expression profiles of 45 of these in differentiating notochord cells. In this study, we looked for cisregulatory sequences in minimal enhancers of 20 Ci-Bra downstream genes by electroporating region within approximately 3 kb upstream of each gene fused with lacZ. Eight of the 20 reporters were expressed in notochord cells. The minimal enchancer for each of these eight genes was narrowed to a region approximately 0.5-1.0-kb long. We also explored the genome-wide and coordinate regulation of 43 Ci-Bra-downstream genes. When we determined their chromosomal localization, it became evident that they are not clustered in a given region of the genome, but rather distributed evenly over 13 of the 14 pairs of chromosomes, suggesting that gene clustering does not contribute to coordinate control of the Ci-Bra downstream gene expression. Our results might provide Insights Into the molecular mechanisms underlying notochord formation in chordates.
    ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 02/2010; 27(2):110-8. · 1.08 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

7k Citations
805.01 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1998–2013
    • National Institute for Basic Biology
      Okazaki, Aichi, Japan
  • 2005–2012
    • Kyoto University
      • • Graduate School of Biostudies
      • • Department of Zoology
      Kyoto, Kyoto-fu, Japan
    • University of Hyogo
      • Department of Life Science
      Kōbe-shi, Hyogo-ken, Japan
  • 1998–2010
    • The Graduate University for Advanced Studies
      • • Department of Basic Biology
      • • School of Life Science
      Miura, Kanagawa-ken, Japan
  • 2004–2008
    • Himeji Institute of Technology
      • Graduate School of Science
      Himezi, Hyōgo, Japan
    • Tokyo Medical and Dental University
      • Department of Molecular Cell Biology
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2005–2007
    • University of California, Irvine
      • Department of Developmental and Cell Biology
      Irvine, CA, United States
  • 1994–2006
    • Hokkaido University
      • • Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      • • Department of Molecular Biology
      • • Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Sapporo-shi, Hokkaido, Japan
    • The University of Tokushima
      Tokusima, Tokushima, Japan
  • 1999
    • National Institute of Genetics
      • Laboratory of Invertebrate Genetics
      Мисима, Shizuoka, Japan
  • 1996–1999
    • Nagoya University
      Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
  • 1997
    • The University of Tokyo
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1994–1996
    • Leidos Biomedical Research
      Maryland, United States
  • 1990–1996
    • University of Tsukuba
      • • Institute of Applied Biochemistry
      • • Institute of Basic Medical Sciences
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan