[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AIM: Current guidelines recommend that mucocele-like lesions (MLL) of the breast diagnosed on needle core biopsy (NCB) should be categorized as a lesion of uncertain malignant potential (B3). However, data on the outcome of MLL diagnosed on NCB remains limited due to the rarity of this lesion. The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of pure MLL without atypia diagnosed on NCB using a large series of cases and a review of the literature to provide evidence that can guide management. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients who underwent diagnostic excision biopsy after a core biopsy diagnosis of MLL without atypia were identified from several centres. Two of 54 patients (4%) with MLL without atypia on core biopsy had ductal carcinoma in situ in the subsequent excision specimen. This is similar to the rate in previous studies of 4% (four of 106). If there is atypia in the core biopsy, previous studies found that the frequency of malignancy is much higher at 21% (seven of 33). CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide evidence that pure MLL without atypia diagnosed on NCB is usually associated with a benign outcome.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate whether the insertion of a gel-based marker at the time of stereotactic breast biopsy allows subsequent preoperative localization to be performed under ultrasound guidance.
One hundred consecutive women who underwent either a 10 G stereotactic vacuum-assisted breast biopsy or 14 G stereotactic core biopsy with marker placement, followed by wire localization and surgical excision were identified. All had mammographic abnormalities not initially visible with ultrasound. The method of preoperative localization was recorded and its success judged with reference to the wire position on the post-procedure films relative to the mammographic abnormality and the marker. Histopathology data were reviewed to ensure the lesion had been adequately excised.
Eighty-three women (83%) had a successful ultrasound-guided wire localization. Successful ultrasound-guided localization was more likely after stereotactic vacuum biopsy (86%) compared to stereotactic core biopsy (68%), although this did not quite reach statistical significance (p=0.06).
The routine placement of a gel-based marker after stereotactic breast biopsy facilitates preoperative ultrasound-guided localization.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine current practice in the UK of needle sampling of clinically and radiologically benign breast masses in young women.
A questionnaire regarding needle sampling practice in young women with clinically and radiologically benign breast masses was sent to 481 members of the Royal College of Radiologists Breast Group. This included questions on whether a written protocol is in place to allow avoidance of biopsy, and if so, the clinical and radiological criteria used.
Responses were available for analysis from 80 units. Forty-two (53%) units had no written policy in place, whilst 38 (47%) adhered to a written policy. Of those with a policy, an age criterion for safe avoidance of biopsy was present in 36 out of the 38 units (95%). The age limit used ranged from <25 years to <35 years. Twenty-seven (71%) written policies included clinical criteria but only four (10%) policies included a size criterion. Radiological criteria were present in all policies and the majority (74%) adhered to full Stavros criteria. Seven units (18%) used a revised form of the Stavros criteria and three units used their own criteria.
There is little concordance between symptomatic breast clinics regarding the criteria for avoidance of breast biopsy in this young patient group. Given the very low incidence of breast carcinoma in women less than 25 years old it is considered safe and feasible to adopt a standardized protocol across the UK and avoid the often-unnecessary benign biopsies in these patients.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To provide updated evidence of the outcome of breast lesions of uncertain malignant potential (B3) and suspicious of malignancy (B4) diagnosed on needle core biopsy (NCB) and analyse the outcome of the different types of intraductal epithelial atypia.
One-hundred and forty-nine B3 and 26 B4 NCBs diagnosed over a 2-year period (2007-2008) were compared with those diagnosed over a previous 2-year period (1998-2000). The proportion of B3 diagnoses increased from 3.1% to 4.5%, and the positive predictive value (PPV) of malignancy of a B3 core decreased from 25% to 10%. Increased diagnosis of radial scar and reductions in the PPV of lobular neoplasia and of atypical intraductal proliferation may explain the reduction in the PPV of the B3 group as a whole. There were no significant changes in the proportion of B4 diagnosis (1.1% and 0.8%) or the PPV of B4 (83% and 88%). Review of cores with intraductal atypia showed a wide range of PPVs, from 100% for suspicious of ductal carcinoma in situ, to 40% for atypical ductal hyperplasia categorized as B3, and 14% for isolated flat epithelial atypia.
The study has found a decrease in the PPV for a B3 diagnosis and suggests possible explanations.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the setting of breast cancer screening, 5-9% of needle core biopsies are diagnosed as lesions of uncertain malignant potential (B3). The management of these lesions is potentially problematic as the data on their outcome remains limited. In our study, we aim to assess the outcome of screen-detected lesions diagnosed as B3 in a large series to validate previous studies and to characterize the malignant lesions detected after a B3 diagnosis. Therefore, the results of 1,025 needle core biopsies of women screened over a 7-year period (1999-2006) in two different regions in the UK with B3 diagnoses who underwent surgical excision were reviewed and compared to the final excision histology. Final histology showed that 25% of cases were malignant (17% ductal carcinoma in situ and 8% invasive). Predictors of malignancy included calcification on imaging and epithelial atypia on needle core biopsy particularly atypical ductal hyperplasia [positive predictive value 50%]. Pure flat epithelial atypia showed the lowest positive predictive value amongst all epithelial atypia groups (21%). The positive predictive value was low for complex sclerosing lesions (9%) and papillary lesions (13%) without epithelial atypia. Malignant tumors detected after B3 diagnosis showed favorable histological features, the majority were in situ, and most belonged to the low grade breast neoplasia family that is associated with indolent behavior. The underlying radiological abnormality was calcification in 44% of cases and the imaging classification was malignant/suspicious in 38%. In conclusion, our results further emphasize the heterogeneity of B3 lesions and that the likelihood of malignancy varies substantially between different histological subtypes. Malignancy is particularly associated with epithelial atypia suggesting the use of two categories of with and without epithelial atypia. Radiological findings provided useful information regarding the nature and outcome of B3 lesions.
International Journal of Cancer 12/2010; 129(6):1417-24. · 6.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To establish the efficacy, complications, and patient satisfaction for vacuum-assisted biopsy (VAB) excision of fibroadenomas.
All patients referred for VAB of benign lesions from 11 December 2002 to 30 November 2006 were identified prospectively, and the following data were recorded: age, histology, lesion size, and completeness of excision. A questionnaire was sent at least a year after the procedure to assess pain, complications, residual palpable lesions, and cosmetic result.
One hundred and thirty-four patients were referred for VAB, 81 had fibroadenomas. Fifty-nine percent replied to the questionnaire. Fifty-four percent of patients reported no pain during the procedure, 8% rated their pain at > or =3/10. Thirty-two percent had no pain the week after the procedure, 55% had pain > or =3/10. Seventy-nine percent had no palpable mass at the site of the original lesion. Ninety-four percent would recommend the procedure to others and would prefer further VAB to surgery. Bruising was common, one patient required aspiration of a haematoma. Six percent developed infections, all resolved with antibiotic therapy. Eighty-five percent of patients were completely satisfied with the cosmetic result. Interval ultrasound was performed in 36 patients. A palpable mass was present in 11%, a non-palpable mass in 19%, and no mass in 70%.
VAB excision is well-tolerated, safe, and popular with a high initial success rate for fibroadenomas. Bruising and pain are common the week after the procedure.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess whether vacuum-assisted excision (VAE) is a safe alternative to surgery in the treatment of breast lesions of uncertain malignant potential (B3) in which no atypia is present on needle core biopsy (NCB). Forty two VAE procedures were performed for B3 lesions. Twenty four (57%) were papillary lesions. Eighteen (43%) were radial scars. Two patients (4.7%) were upgraded to carcinoma at VAE. Two patients with papillary lesions went on to develop cancer in the same breast (at 24 and 41 months post VAE). No cancer developed in the radial scar group. Eight patients (19%) had surgery - four for carcinoma, two for radial scars missed at VAE excision and two for symptomatic papillomatosis. Follow-up mammography after VAE of radial scars often showed residual distortion. VAE can be a safe alternative to surgery in the treatment of B3 lesions without atypia, providing thorough multidisciplinary discussion has taken place.
Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland) 10/2008; 17(6):546-9. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine whether bone scans (BS) can be avoided if pelvis was included in CT thorax and abdomen to detect bony metastases from breast cancer.
Results of 77 pairs of CT (thorax, abdomen, and pelvis) and BS in newly diagnosed patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) were compared prospectively for 12 months. Both scans were blindly assessed by experienced radiologists and discussed at multidisciplinary team meetings regarding the diagnosis of bone metastases.
CT detected metastatic bone lesions in 43 (98%) of 44 patients with bone metastases. The remaining patient had a solitary, asymptomatic bony metastasis in shaft of femur. BS was positive in all patients with bone metastases. There were 11 cases of false positive findings on BS.
Our findings suggest routine BS of patients presenting with MBC is not required if CT (thorax, abdomen, and pelvis) is performed.
The Breast 03/2008; 17(1):98-103. · 2.49 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this article is to show examples of the radiological (mammography and/or ultrasound) and pathological appearances of unusual benign breast lesions. The conditions covered are granular cell tumours, fibromatosis, nodular fasciitis, myofibroblastomas, haemangiomas, neurofibromas, and leiomyomas. The article includes the first published description of the ultrasound appearance of a myofibroblastoma. Knowledge of these appearances may help confirm or refute radiological-pathological concordance of percutaneous biopsy results during multidisciplinary assessment of these lesions and aid patient management.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of sublingual lorazepam provides a safe and effective means of reducing the risk of syncopal episodes during upright stereotactic breast biopsy. Sublingual lorazepam, 2-4mg, was received by 19 women undergoing a total of 20 stereotactic procedures. Of 14 women who had previously fainted during upright stereotactic biopsy, 13 had a successful repeat biopsy following administration of sublingual lorazepam. All 4 women who received lorazepam for significant anxiety had successful biopsies. Stereotactic guided wire localization also was performed in 2 cases.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To document the breast imaging findings of women with BRCA1 and BRCA2-associated breast carcinoma.
Family history clinic records identified 18 BRCA1 and 10 BRCA2 cases who collectively were diagnosed with 27 invasive breast carcinomas and four ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) lesions. All underwent pre-operative imaging (29 mammogram and 22 ultrasound examinations). All invasive BRCA-associated breast carcinoma cases were compared with age-matched cases of sporadic breast carcinoma.
Within the BRCA cases the age range was 26-62 years, mean 36 years. Two mammograms were normal and 27 (93%) abnormal. The most common mammographic features were defined mass (63%) and microcalcifications (37%). Thirty-four percent of women had a dense mammographic pattern, 59% mixed and 7% fatty. Ultrasound was performed in 22 patients and in 21 (95%) indicated a mass. This was classified as benign in 24%, indeterminate in 29% and malignant in 48%. Mammograms of BRCA1-associated carcinomas more frequently showed a defined mass compared with BRCA2-associated carcinomas, 72 versus 36% (73% control group) whilst mammograms of BRCA2-associated carcinomas more frequently showed microcalcification, 73 versus 12% (8% control group; p < 0.001). Thirty-six percent of the BRCA2-associated carcinomas were pure DCIS while none of the BRCA1 associated carcinomas were pure DCIS (p = 0.004). Of those patients undergoing regular mammographic screening, 100% of BRCA2-associated carcinomas were detected compared with 75% of BRCA1-associated carcinomas.
These data suggest that the imaging findings of BRCA1 and BRCA2-associated carcinomas differ from each other and from age-matched cases of sporadic breast carcinoma.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the metastatic pattern at presentation and the prognosis with metastases of 48 patients with carcinomas with tubular features (45 tubular mixed and three pure tubular) and 302 patients with tumours of ductal of no special type (DNST).
We carried out a retrospective study from a prospectively maintained database of all patients who developed metastatic disease from carcinoma of the breast in Nottingham, U.K., since 1997. We recorded site of first presentation with metastatic disease, radiological features, histological features and characteristics of the primary tumour.
The group of patients with tubular features were older at metastatic presentation (63.9 years vs 59.6 years; P=0.012), had a longer disease-free interval (87 months vs 34 months: P<0.001) and a longer survival with metastases (P<0.002). This group were less likely to have liver metastases (23% vs 41%; P=0.028), in particular multiple liver metastases (50% vs 71%; P=0.015) than the patients with DNST. Other factors known to be associated with prolonged survival, such as low histological grade of the primary invasive tumour and positive oestrogen receptor (ER) status, were more common in the group of patients with tumours with tubular features (Grade 1: 33% vs 3%; Grade 2: 42% vs 25%; Grade 3: 25% vs 72%; P<0.001), (ER positivity 76% vs 52%; P=0.009). When patients with grade 2 tumours were compared, the age at metastatic presentation, disease-free interval and the presence of multiple liver metastases were still significantly different between the two groups.
Patients with metastatic breast carcinoma with tubular features have a longer survival with metastases than patients with metastatic DNST carcinoma. This improved survival can be explained by better well-recognised prognostic features, such as metastatic site pattern, histological grade, ER status and disease-free interval.