Takashi Onaka

The University of Tokyo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (515)978.25 Total impact

  • P Pilleri · C Joblin · F Boulanger · T Onaka ·
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    ABSTRACT: Context: A chemical scenario was proposed for photon-dominated regions (PDRs) according to which UV photons from nearby stars lead to the evaporation of very small grains (VSGs) and the production of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Aims: Our goal is to achieve better insight into the composition and evolution of evaporating very small grains (eVSGs) and PAHs through analyzing the infrared (IR) aliphatic and aromatic emission bands. Methods: We combined spectro-imagery in the near- and mid-IR to study the spatial evolution of the emission bands in the prototypical PDR NGC 7023. We used near-IR spectra obtained with the IRC instrument onboard AKARI to trace the evolution of the 3.3 μm and 3.4 μm bands, which are associated with aromatic and aliphatic C-H bonds on PAHs. The spectral fitting involved an additional broad feature centered at 3.45 μm that is often referred to as the plateau. Mid-IR observations obtained with the IRS instrument onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope were used to distinguish the signatures of eVSGs and neutral and cationic PAHs. We correlated the spatial evolution of all these bands with the intensity of the UV field given in units of the Habing field G 0 to explore how their carriers are processed. Results: The intensity of the 3.45 μm plateau shows an excellent correlation with that of the 3.3 μm aromatic band (correlation coefficient R = 0.95) and a relatively poor correlation with the aliphatic 3.4 μm band (R=0.77). This indicates that the 3.45 μm feature is dominated by the emission from aromatic bonds. We show that the ratio of the 3.4 μm and 3.3 μm band intensity (I 3.4/I 3.3) decreases by a factor of 4 at the PDR interface from the more UV-shielded layers (G 0 ~ 150, I 3.4/I 3.3 = 0.13) to the more exposed layers (G 0 > 1 × 10(4), I 3.4/I 3.3 = 0.03). The intensity of the 3.3 μm band relative to the total neutral PAH intensity shows an overall increase with G 0, associated with an increase of both the hardness of the UV field and the H abundance. In contrast, the intensity of the 3.4 μm band relative to the total neutral PAH intensity decreases with G 0, showing that their carriers are actively destroyed by UV irradiation and are not efficiently regenerated. The transition region between the aliphatic and aromatic material is found to correspond spatially with the transition zone between neutral PAHs and eVSGs. Conclusions: We conclude that the photo-processing of eVSGs leads to the production of PAHs with attached aliphatic sidegroups that are revealed by the 3.4 μm emission band. Our analysis provides evidence for the presence of very small grains of mixed aromatic and aliphatic composition in PDRs.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 11/2015; 577. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aims to elucidate a possible link between chemical properties of ices in star-forming regions and environmental characteristics of the host galaxy. We performed 3--4 micron spectroscopic observations toward nine embedded high-mass YSOs in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) with the ISAAC at the VLT. Additionally, we analyzed archival ISAAC data of two LMC YSOs. As a result, we detected absorption bands due to solid H2O and CH3OH as well as the 3.47 micron absorption band. The 3.53 micron CH3OH ice absorption band for the LMC YSOs is found to be absent or very weak compared to that seen toward Galactic sources. The result suggests the low abundance of CH3OH ice in the LMC. The 3.47 micron absorption band is detected toward six out of eleven LMC YSOs. We found that the 3.47 micron band and the H2O ice band correlate similarly between the LMC and Galactic samples, but the LMC sources seem to require a slightly higher H2O ice threshold for the appearance of the 3.47 micron band. For the LMC sources with relatively large H2O ice optical depths, we found that the strength ratio of the 3.47 micron band relative to the water ice band is only marginally lower than those of the Galactic sources. We propose that grain surface reactions at a relatively high dust temperature (warm ice chemistry) are responsible for the observed characteristics of ice chemical compositions in the LMC. We suggest that this warm ice chemistry is one of the important characteristics of interstellar and circumstellar chemistry in low metallicity environments. The low abundance of CH3OH in the solid phase implies that formation of complex organic molecules from methanol-derived species is less efficient in the LMC. For the 3.47 micron band, the observed difference in the water ice threshold may suggest that a more shielded environment is necessary for the formation of the 3.47 micron band carrier in the LMC.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 11/2015; DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201526559 · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    Ryou Ohsawa · Takashi Onaka · Chikako Yasui ·
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    ABSTRACT: The disk fraction, the percentage of stars with disks in a young cluster, is widely used to investigate the lifetime of the protoplanetary disk, which can impose an important constraint on the planet formation mechanism. The relationship between the decay timescale of the disk fraction and the mass dissipation timescale of an individual disk, however, remains unclear. Here we investigate the effect of the disk mass function (DMF) on the evolution of the disk fraction. We show that the time variation in the disk fraction depends on the spread of the DMF and the detection threshold of the disk. In general, the disk fraction decreases more slowly than the disk mass if a typical initial DMF and a detection threshold are assumed. We find that, if the disk mass decreases exponentially, {the mass dissipation timescale of the disk} can be as short as $1\,{\rm Myr}$ even when the disk fraction decreases with the time constant of ${\sim}2.5\,{\rm Myr}$. The decay timescale of the disk fraction can be an useful parameter to investigate the disk lifetime, but the difference between the mass dissipation of an individual disk and the decrease in the disk fraction should be properly appreciated to estimate the timescale of the disk mass dissipation.
    Publications- Astronomical Society of Japan 09/2015; DOI:10.1093/pasj/psv094 · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This work proposes deuteronated PAH (DPAH+ ) molecules as a potential carrier of the 4.4 and 4.65 {\mu}m mid infrared emission bands that have been observationally detected towards the Orion and M17 regions. Density Functional Theory calculations have been carried out on DPAH+ molecules to see the variations in the spectral behaviour from that of a pure PAH. DPAH+ molecules show features that arise due to the stretching of the aliphatic C-D bond. Deuterated PAHs have been previously reported as carriers for such features. However, preferred conditions of ionization of PAHs in the interstellar medium (ISM) indicates the possibility of the formation of DPAH+ molecules. Comparison of band positions of DPAH+ s shows reasonable agreement with the observations. We report the effect of size of the DPAH+ molecules on band positions and intensities. This study also reports a D/H ratio ([D/H]sc ; the ratio of C-D stretch and C-H stretch bands per [D/H]num ) that is decreasing with the increasing size of DPAH+ s. It is noted that large DPAH+ molecules (no. of C atoms ~ 50) match the D/H ratio that has been estimated from observations. This ratio offers prospects to study the deuterium abundance and depletion in the ISM.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 08/2015; 454(1). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stv1946 · 5.11 Impact Factor
  • J. Rho · M. Andersen · A. Tappe · H. Gomez · M. Smith · J. P. Bernard · T. Onaka · J. Cami ·
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    ABSTRACT: Supernovae (SNe) produce, fragment and destroy dust, molecules and nucleosynthetic elements, and reshape and modify the ISM. I will review recent infrared observations of supernova remnants (SNRs) and SNe which show that SNe are important sites of dust and molecule formation and are major dust creators in the Universe. Detection of carbon monoxide (CO) fundamental band from the young SNR Cas A indicates that astrochemical processes in SNRs interacting with molecular clouds provide astrophysical laboratories to study evolution of the ISM returning material from dense clouds into the more diffuse medium and galactic halo. Two dozen SNRs are known to be interacting with molecular clouds using H2 and millimeter observations. Recent Spitzer, Herschel and SOFIA observations along with ground-based observations have greatly advanced our understanding shock processing and astrochemistry of dust, H2, high J CO, and other neutral and ionized molecules and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Ionized molecules and warm layer of molecules that are excited by UV radiation, X-rays, or cosmic rays will be described. Finally I will discuss how astrochemical processes of dust and molecules in SNRs impact the large scale structures in the ISM.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 08/2015; 10(H16):583-585. DOI:10.1017/S1743921314012277
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    ABSTRACT: The near-infrared (NIR) spectral range (2-5 μm) contains a number of interesting features for the study of the interstellar medium. In particular, the aromatic and aliphatic components in carbonaceous dust can be investigated most efficiently with the NIR spectroscopy. We analyze NIR spectra of the diffuse Galactic emission taken with the Infrared Camera onboard AKARI and find that the aliphatic to aromatic emission band ratio decreases toward the ionized gas, which suggests processing of the band carriers in the ionized region.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 08/2015; 10(H16):703-704. DOI:10.1017/S1743921314012976
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    ABSTRACT: We present infrared multi-epoch observations of the dust forming nova V1280 Sco over $\sim$2000 days from the outburst. The temporal evolution of the infrared spectral energy distributions at 1272, 1616 and 1947 days can be explained by the emissions produced by amorphous carbon dust of mass (6.6--8.7)$\times$10$^{-8}$M$_{\odot}$ with a representative grain size of 0.01$~\mu$m and astronomical silicate dust of mass (3.4--4.3)$\times$10$^{-7}$M$_{\odot}$ with a representative grain size of 0.3--0.5$~\mu$m. Both of these dust species travel farther away from the white dwarf without an apparent mass evolution throughout those later epochs. The dust formation scenario around V1280 Sco suggested from our analyses is that the amorphous carbon dust is formed in the nova ejecta followed by the formation of silicate dust in the expanding nova ejecta or as a result of the interaction between the nova wind and the circumstellar medium.
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    ABSTRACT: We report CO2/H2O ice abundance ratios in seven nearby star-forming galaxies based on the AKARI near-infrared (2.5-5.0 μm) spectra. The CO2/H2O ice abundance ratios show clear variations between 0.05 and 0.2 with the averaged value of 0.14 ± 0.01. The previous study on M82 revealed that the CO2/H2O ice abundance ratios strongly correlate with the intensity ratios of the hydrogen recombination Brα line to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) 3.3 μm feature. In the present study, however, we find no correlation for the seven galaxies as a whole due to systematic differences in the relation between CO2/H2O ice abundance and Brα/PAH 3.3 μm intensity ratios from galaxy to galaxy. This result suggests that there is another parameter that determines the CO2/H2O ice abundance ratios in a galaxy in addition to the Brα/PAH 3.3 μm ratios. We find that the CO2/H2O ice abundance ratios positively correlate with the specific star formation rates of the galaxies. From these results, we conclude that CO2/H2O ice abundance ratios tend to be high in young star-forming galaxies. © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.
    The Astrophysical Journal 07/2015; 807(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/807/1/29 · 5.99 Impact Factor
  • M. Hammonds · T. Mori · F. Usui · T. Onaka ·
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    ABSTRACT: A wealth of near infrared spectroscopic data for a large number of galactic objects was recorded with AKARI during its active lifetime. The hydrocarbon emission features around are modelled here as a series of 6 Voigt profiles arising due to hydrogen atoms found in different molecular structures within the emitting spectroscopic carriers. This model is compared and contrasted with a model consisting of 3 Gaussian profiles and found to produce a superior fit to AKARI data. Analysis of the 6 Voigt model shows that the aromatic hydrocarbon band is well described by two components at and . We confirm that the band is due to emission from aromatic molecules, and find a good correlation between the and bands, assigned to bay-hydrogen sites and linking methylene groups respectively. Results are discussed in terms of molecular processing and dust formation.
    Planetary and Space Science 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pss.2015.05.010 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We performed near-infrared line mapping of the supernova remnant IC 443 with the IRSF 1.4-m telescope, using the narrow-band filters tuned for [Fe II] 1.257 μm, [Fe II] 1.644 μm, and Paβ. We detected the [Fe II] and Paβ emissions from a very wide area of the observed region ( ). These line intensity maps reveal a global correlation between [Fe II] and Paβ. Kokusho et al. (2013) found that the [Fe II] emission is notably strong while dust emission is faint in inner regions of IC 443. These results indicate that the abundant Fe+ is likely to be of interstellar origins through shock destruction of dust, rather than of ejecta origins. From the X-ray intensity map of the 6.7 keV Fe-K line obtained with Suzaku, we find that highly-ionized He-like Fe ions exist in the inner regions of IC 443, toward which Fe+ is detected. The presence of the He-like Fe ions and the faint dust emission indicates that Fe is likely to be interacting with X-ray plasma for a time long enough to be highly ionized. We discuss the implications of the detection of the lowly-ionized Fe ions in such regions for the processing and composition of dust in the interstellar environment around IC 443.
    Planetary and Space Science 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pss.2015.04.009 · 1.88 Impact Factor
  • Takashi Onaka · Tamami I. Mori · Yoko Okada ·
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    ABSTRACT: Dust processing in the Carina nebula is investigated based on mid- to far-infrared spectroscopy with Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). Mapping observations over a central area of the nebula with PHT-S, SWS, and LWS onboard ISO not only reveal spectroscopically that the mid-infrared unidentified infrared (UIR) bands at 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 μm are absent in the ionized region, but also indicate that the 11.3 μm may behave differently from the other three UIR bands near the edge of the ionized region, suggesting a variation either in the size distribution or in the ionization fraction of the band carriers. The correlation of [NII]122 μm and [SiII]35 μm line emissions observed with SWS and LWS are reinvestigated based on the recent atomic data as well as the latest cosmic abundance, suggesting that a large fraction ( %), if not all, of silicon returns to the gas phase in the Carina nebula, suggesting that silicates cannot survive in harsh conditions, such as massive star-forming regions. The present observations clearly show dust processing taking place in active regions in the Galaxy.
    Planetary and Space Science 04/2015; 116. DOI:10.1016/j.pss.2015.03.025 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the evolutionary path of interstellar medium inquiry, many new species of interstellar dust have been modeled and discovered. The modes by which these species interact and evolve are beginning to be understood, but in recent years a peculiar new feature has appeared in microwave surveys. Anomalous microwave emission (AME), appearing between 10 and 90 GHz, has been correlated with thermal dust emission, leading to the popular suggestion that this anomaly is electric dipole emission from spinning dust. The observed frequencies suggest that spinning grains should be on the order of 10nm in size, hinting at poly-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules. We present data from AKARI/Infrared Camera (IRC), due to the effective PAH/Unidentified Infrared Band (UIR) coverage of its 9 micron survey to investigate their role within a few regions showing strong AME in the Planck low frequency data. We include the well studied Perseus and rho Ophiuchi clouds . We use the IRAS/IRIS 100 micron data to account for the overall dust temperature. We present our results as abundance maps for dust emitting around 9 micron, and 100 micron. Part of the AME in these regions may actually be attributed to thermal dust emission, or the star forming nature of these targets is masking the vibrational modes of PAHs which should be present there, suggesting further investigation for various galactic environments.
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    ABSTRACT: We imaged circumstellar disks around 22 Herbig Ae/Be stars at 25 \mu m using Subaru/COMICS and Gemini/T-ReCS. Our sample consists of equal numbers of objects belonging to the two categories defined by Meeus et al. (2001); 11 group I (flaring disk) and II (at disk) sources. We find that group I sources tend to show more extended emission than group II sources. Previous studies have shown that the continuous disk is hard to be resolved with 8 meter class telescopes in Q-band due to the strong emission from the unresolved innermost region of the disk. It indicates that the resolved Q-band sources require a hole or gap in the disk material distribution to suppress the contribution from the innermost region of the disk. As many group I sources are resolved at 25 \mu m, we suggest that many, not all, group I Herbig Ae/Be disks have a hole or gap and are (pre-)transitional disks. On the other hand, the unresolved nature of many group II sources at 25 \mu m supports that group II disks have continuous at disk geometry. It has been inferred that group I disks may evolve into group II through settling of dust grains to the mid-plane of the proto-planetary disk. However, considering growing evidence for the presence of a hole or gaps in the disk of group I sources, such an evolutionary scenario is unlikely. The difference between groups I and II may reflect different evolutionary pathways of protoplanetary disks.
    The Astrophysical Journal 03/2015; 804(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/804/2/143 · 5.99 Impact Factor
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    P. Pilleri · C. Joblin · F. Boulanger · T. Onaka ·
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    ABSTRACT: In photon-dominated regions (PDRs), UV photons from nearby stars lead to the evaporation of very small grains (VSGs) and the production of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Our goal is to get further insights into the composition and evolution of evaporating very small grains (eVSGs) and PAHs through the analysis of the infrared (IR) aliphatic and aromatic emission bands. We combine spectro-imagery in the near- and mid-IR to study the spatial evolution of the emission bands in the prototypical PDR NGC 7023. We use near-IR spectra obtained with AKARI to trace the evolution of the 3.3$\mu$m and 3.4$\mu$m bands that are associated with aromatic and aliphatic C-H bonds on PAHs, respectively. The spectral fitting involves an additional broad feature centred at 3.45$\mu$m. Mid-IR observations obtained with Spitzer are used to discriminate the signatures of eVSGs, neutral and cationic PAHs. We correlate the spatial evolution of all these bands with the intensity of the UV field to explore the processing of their carriers. The intensity of the 3.45$\mu$m plateau shows an excellent correlation with that of the 3.3$\mu$m aromatic band (correlation coefficient R = 0.95), indicating that the plateau is dominated by the emission from aromatic bonds. The ratio of the 3.4$\mu$m and 3.3$\mu$m band intensity ($I_{3.4}/I_{3.3}$) decreases by a factor of 4 at the PDR interface from the more UV-shielded to the more exposed layers. The transition region between the aliphatic and aromatic material corresponds spatially with the transition zone between neutral PAHs and eVSGs. We conclude that the photo-processing of eVSGs leads to the production of PAHs with attached aliphatic sidegroups that are revealed by the 3.4$\mu$m emission band. Our analysis provides evidence for the presence of very small grains of mixed aromatic/aliphatic composition in PDRs.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 02/2015; 577. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201425590 · 4.38 Impact Factor

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    ABSTRACT: A model is described that can be used to estimate the bulk polarization of large rotating meteoroids in the magnetic field of a neutron star. The results of this model are applicable to the Supernova Neutrino Amino Acid Processing model, which describes on possible way in which the amino acids, known in nearly all cases to exhibit supramolecular chirality, could have become enantiomeric.
    Symmetry 11/2014; Volume 6, p. 909(4). DOI:10.3390/sym6040909 · 0.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The infrared (IR) emission from interstellar dust grains is a powerful tool to trace star-formation activities in galaxies. Beyond such star-formation tracers, spectral information on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and large grains, or even their photometric intensity ratios, has deep physical implications for understanding the properties of the interstellar medium. With the AKARI satellite launched in 2006, we have performed a systematic study of interstellar dust grains in various environments of galaxies including our Galaxy. Because of its unique capabilities, such as mid-/far-IR all-sky surveys and near-/far-IR spectroscopy, AKARI has provided new knowledge on the processing of dust, particularly carbonaceous grains including PAHs, in the interstellar space. For example, the near-IR spectroscopy has revealed structural changes of hydrocarbon grains in harsh environments of galaxies. In this paper, we focus on the properties of the PAH emission obtained by the AKARI mid-IR all-sky survey and near-IR spectroscopy.
    Planetary and Space Science 10/2014; 100. DOI:10.1016/j.pss.2014.01.017 · 1.88 Impact Factor

  • The Astrophysical Journal 08/2014; 792(1):80. DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/792/1/80 · 5.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have carried out the trial production of small format (n=5) image slicer aiming to obtain the technical verification of the Integral Field Unit (IFU) that can be equipped to the next generation infrared instruments such as TMT/MICHI and SPICA/SMI. Our goal is to achieve stable pseudo slit image with high efficiency. Here we report the results of the assembly of the image slicer unit and the non-cryogenic evaluation system of the pseudo slit image quality in the infrared.
    SPIE Astronomical Telescopes + Instrumentation; 08/2014
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    ABSTRACT: The Japanese SPace Infrared telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics, SPICA, aims to provide astronomers with a truly new window on the universe. With a large -3 meter class- cold -6K- telescope, the mission provides a unique low background environment optimally suited for highly sensitive instruments limited only by the cosmic background itself. SAFARI, the SpicA FAR infrared Instrument SAFARI, is a Fourier Transform imaging spectrometer designed to fully exploit this extremely low far infrared background environment. The SAFARI consortium, comprised of European and Canadian institutes, has established an instrument reference design based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer stage with outputs directed to three extremely sensitive Transition Edge Sensor arrays covering the 35 to 210 μm domain. The baseline instrument provides R > 1000 spectroscopic imaging capabilities over a 2’ by 2’ field of view. A number of modifications to the instrument to extend its capabilities are under investigation. With the reference design SAFARI’s sensitivity for many objects is limited not only by the detector NEP but also by the level of broad band background radiation – the zodiacal light for the shorter wavelengths and satellite baffle structures for the longer wavelengths. Options to reduce this background are dedicated masks or dispersive elements which can be inserted in the optics as required. The resulting increase in sensitivity can directly enhance the prime science goals of SAFARI; with the expected enhanced sensitivity astronomers would be in a better position to study thousands of galaxies out to redshift 3 and even many hundreds out to redshifts of 5 or 6. Possibilities to increase the wavelength resolution, at least for the shorter wavelength bands, are investigated as this would significantly enhance SAFARI’s capabilities to study star and planet formation in our own galaxy.
    SPIE Astronomical Telescopes + Instrumentation; 08/2014

Publication Stats

4k Citations
978.25 Total Impact Points


  • 2-2015
    • The University of Tokyo
      • Department of Astronomy
      Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2013
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 1984-2010
    • National Astronomical Observatory of Japan
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2003
    • Kitasato University
      • Center for Natural Sciences
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1999-2000
    • Nagoya University
      • Division of Cell Science
      Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
    • Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Utrecht
      Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
  • 1998
    • University of Texas at Austin
      • Department of Astronomy
      Austin, Texas, United States
  • 1989-1998
    • University of Amsterdam
      • Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek
      Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 1994
    • Seikei University
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1984-1987
    • The University of Electro-Communications
      • Department of Applied Physics and Chemistry
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan