[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Baroreflex failure syndrome is a rare disorder which causes labile blood pressure, headache, flushing, diaphoresis and emotional lability. It is caused by history of trauma or radiotherapy in the cervical legion, bilateral carotid-body tumor or resection of glossopharyngeal nerve. We experienced a case of hemodialysis patient who had difficulty in controlling blood pressure during dialysis because of his baroreflex failure syndrome and successfully controlled his blood pressure by adjusting dialysate temperature.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the successful management of BK virus nephropathy (BKVN) using therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of mycophenolic acid (MPA). A 40-year-old woman was admitted for a protocol biopsy 3 months following primary kidney transplantation. Histological features were distributed in mainly two sections: the corticomedullary junction and cortical area. In the former, massive interstitial mononuclear cell infiltration and mild to moderate tubulitis with nuclear inclusion bodies were found. SV40 staining was positive in the injured tubules. These findings were compatible with BKVN. In the latter, focal interstitial inflammation and severe tubulitis without cytopathic changes were identified outside of SV40-positive areas. Based on the histological findings, we diagnosed BKVN and we also suspected of the complication with acute T-cell-mediated rejection. We started steroid pulse therapy and reduced the dosage of immunosuppressive therapy under careful monitoring, using not only a trough level of tacrolimus but also a 12-h area under the curve (AUC0-12 ) of MPA. After the treatment, the patient maintained kidney function. This case report demonstrates the usefulness of MPA AUC0-12 for more accurate adjustment of immunosuppressive therapy and the difficulty of pathological differentiation of BKVN and acute cellular rejection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a case of acute vascular rejection occurring during antituberculosis therapy in a patient who had received a kidney transplant. A 29 year-old man was admitted for a protocol biopsy; he had a serum creatinine (S-Cr) level of 1.5 mg/dL 1 year after primary kidney transplantation. Histological examination yielded no evidence of rejection but a routine chest CT scan revealed typical lung tuberculosis and his serum was positive for QFT. We commenced antituberculosis therapy, including rifampicin, on June 29 2012. We paid close attention to the weekly trough tacrolimus (TAC) level but the S-Cr concentration increased to 3.7 mg/dL on October 16 2012, and he was admitted for biopsy. Histological examination revealed, first, a diffuse aggressive infiltration of tubulointerstitial inflammatory cells accompanied by severe tubulitis and mild intimal arteritis and, second, peritubular capillary infiltration by inflammatory cells (including neutrophils). Laboratory data revealed that our patient did not express donor-specific antibody and the peritubular capillaries did not exhibit C4d immunoreactivity. Upon consideration of both histological and laboratory findings, we diagnosed acute vascular rejection of Banff 2007 class ACR IIA. We commenced 3-day sessions of intravenous steroid pulse therapy twice weekly and adjusted the trough TAC level to 5-8 ng/mL by varying the TAC dose. We next performed an allograft biopsy and found no evidence of rejection (the S-Cr level was 2.7 mg/dL on April 1 2013). The present case report demonstrates the difficulties associated with management of TAC-based regimens in kidney transplant patients undergoing antituberculosis therapy. We also review the relevant literature.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a case of plasma cell-rich rejection accompanied by acute antibody-mediated rejection in a patient with ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation. A 33-year-old man was admitted for an episode biopsy; he had a serum creatinine (S-Cr) level of 5.7 mg/dL 1 year following primary kidney transplantation. Histological features included two distinct entities: (1) a focal, aggressive tubulointerstitial inflammatory cell (predominantly plasma cells) infiltration with moderate tubulitis; and (2) inflammatory cell infiltration (including neutrophils) in peritubular capillaries. Substantial laboratory examination showed that the patient had donor-specific antibodies for DQ4 and DQ6. Considering both the histological and laboratory findings, we diagnosed him with plasma cell-rich rejection accompanied by acute antibody-mediated rejection. We started 3 days of consecutive steroid pulse therapy three times every 2 weeks for the former and plasma exchange with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) for the latter histological feature. One month after treatment, a second allograft biopsy showed excellent responses to treatment for plasma cell-rich rejection, but moderate, acute antibody-mediated rejection remained. Therefore, we added plasma exchange with IVIG again. After treatment, allograft function was stable, with an S-Cr level of 2.8 mg/dL. This case report demonstrates the difficulty of the diagnosis of, and treatment for, plasma cell-rich rejection accompanied by acute antibody-mediated rejection in a patient with ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation. We also include a review of the related literature.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a serious complication that occurs in patients with long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD). Investigation of risk factors that contribute to EPS in patients on long-term PD therapy is needed. In a retrospective, observational study, data were collected for 107 patients treated with PD therapy for more than 5 years. Fifty cases of EPS were compared with 57 cases of non-EPS. To evaluate the impact of PD-associated peritonitis in EPS, univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were applied. Episodes of peritonitis, number of peritonitis episodes and the duration of peritonitis were included as explanatory variables in addition to previously reported risk factors. D/P Cr and serum β2MG levels in the EPS and non-EPS groups were: 0.82 ± 0.10 and 0.67 ± 0.12 (P < 0.01), and 33.8 ± 8.54 and 29.2 ± 8.18 mg/L (P < 0.01), respectively. Episodes of peritonitis, number of peritonitis episodes and the duration of peritonitis was 68% and 42% (P < 0.01), 1.80 ± 2.19 and 0.75 ± 1.07 times (P < 0.01), and 18.1 ± 15.3 and 10.2 ± 4.90 days (P < 0.01), in the EPS and non-EPS groups, respectively. Furthermore, multivariate logistic regression models demonstrated that both D/P Cr and the duration of peritonitis were independently associated with EPS (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). In patients on long-term PD therapy, D/P Cr and the duration of peritonitis are independently associated with EPS. Earlier treatment to promote an early recovery from PD-associated peritonitis could be critical in preventing EPS.
Therapeutic apheresis and dialysis: official peer-reviewed journal of the International Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy 02/2014; 18(1):68-73. · 1.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 31-year-old man underwent living-related kidney transplantation in 2004 as a consequence of primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Four years after the transplantation, we confirmed nephrotic syndrome caused by recurrent FSGS. We performed plasmapheresis and low-density lipoprotein adsorption. We also combined steroid therapy with a reduction in the dose of tacrolimus and an increased dose of mycophenolate mofetil. The nephrotic syndrome improved dramatically with this combined therapeutic approach. However, 10 months after these treatments, he revisited our hospital because of altered consciousness. We detected multiple tumor masses in his brain that were ring enhanced on contrast magnetic resonance imaging. Consequently, we suspected primary central nervous system post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (CNS-PTLD). We performed a craniotomy to biopsy the brain tumors. The biopsy specimen showed Epstein-Barr virus-associated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. There is no definitive treatment for CNS-PTLD. Therefore, we treated the primary CNS-PTLD successfully with whole-brain radiation and discontinuation of immunosuppression therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The BK virus is a double-stranded DNA virus to which 90% of adults have been exposed. BK virus infections typically result in an oral or respiratory infection; however, BK virus reactivation is an infectious disease of concern in kidney transplant recipients. The prevalence of BK virus nephropathy (BKN) in kidney transplant recipients is approximately 5%, and most cases occur within one yr after kidney transplantation. Graft survival of BKN is reported to be 30-60%, and the standard treatment strategy for BKN is reducing immunosuppressive therapy and close monitoring for rejection. Viral infection is most common in the early post-transplantation phase, and BKN or acute rejection is one of the major factors involved in graft loss. However, in this report, we describe the successful management of BKN and cytomegalovirus infection concurrent with plasma cell-rich acute rejection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The angiogenic response is partly involved in the progression of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS). However, the details of the angiogenic response, especially for lymphatic vessels in patients with EPS, remain unclear. In addition, because of technical limitations, morphology studies reported to date have examined only the parietal peritoneum. The morphologies of parietal and visceral lymphatic vessels in patients with EPS both need to be analyzed.♢ METHODS: We examined peritoneal samples from 18 patients with EPS who underwent enterolysis of the visceral peritoneum and compared them with samples from 17 autopsy cases (controls). To examine the angiogenic response, we performed immunohistochemistry for the endothelial markers CD34 (blood vessels) and podoplanin (lymphatic vessels) and for the cell proliferation marker Ki-67. Immunogold electron microscopy analysis for podoplanin was also performed. In 7 of 18 cases, we compared differences in the angiogenic response of the parietal and visceral peritoneal membranes.♢ RESULTS: Angiogenic responses were more frequent in the compact zone than in regenerated layers. The number of capillaries positive for anti-CD34 and anti-podoplanin monoclonal antibodies per unit area of visceral peritoneal tissue was, respectively, 41.1 ± 29.3/mm(2) in EPS patients and 2.7 ± 4.4/mm(2) in controls (p ≤ 0.01) and 48.1±43.9/mm(2) in EPS patients and 4.1±5.4/mm(2) in controls (p ≤ 0.01). The percentage of capillaries positive for anti-Ki-67, CD34, and podoplanin was 4.6% in EPS patients (p ≤ 0.01) and 0.8% in controls (p = 0.09). The immunogold electron microscopy analysis revealed that podoplanin was localized to endothelial cells with anchoring filaments, a specific feature of lymphatic vessels. Furthermore, compared with parietal peritoneal membrane, visceral peritoneal membrane had a more prominent podoplanin-positive capillary profile, but not a prominent CD34-positive capillary profile. In addition, fibroblast-like cells double-positive for podoplanin and smooth muscle actin were markedly increased in the degenerated layer, as previously reported.♢ CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that lymphatic vessels are increased in the visceral peritoneum of patients with EPS.
Peritoneal dialysis international : journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis. 06/2012;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to examine associations among serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels, 1,25-dihyroxyvitamin D (1,25OHD) levels, vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms, and renal function based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in patients with type 2 diabetes.
In a cross-sectional study of 410 patients, chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage assessed by eGFR was compared with 25OHD, 1,25OHD, and VDR FokI (rs10735810) polymorphisms by an ordered logistic regression model adjusted for the following confounders: disease duration, calendar month, use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers or statins, and serum calcium, phosphate, and intact parathyroid hormone levels.
1,25OHD levels, rather than 25OHD levels, showed seasonal oscillations; peak levels were seen from May to October and the lowest levels were seen from December to February. These findings were evident in patients with CKD stage 3∼5 but not stage 1∼2. eGFR was in direct proportion to both 25OHD and 1,25OHD levels (P<0.0001), but it had stronger linearity with 1,25OHD (r = 0.73) than 25OHD (r = 0.22) levels. Using multivariate analysis, 1,25OHD levels (P<0.001), but not 25OHD levels, were negatively associated with CKD stage. Although FokI polymorphisms by themselves showed no significant associations with CKD stage, a significant interaction between 1,25OHD and FokITT was observed (P = 0.008). The positive association between 1,25OHD and eGFR was steeper in FokICT and CC polymorphisms (r = 0.74) than FokITT polymorphisms (r = 0.65).
These results suggest that higher 1,25OHD levels may be associated with better CKD stages in patients with type 2 diabetes and that this association was modified by FokI polymorphisms.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(12):e51171. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here, we report the successful treatment of a 38-yr-old Japanese man diagnosed with recurrent immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) with chronic active antibody-mediated rejection (CAAMR), three yr after undergoing living-related donor kidney transplantation. Immediately after transplantation, the allograft function was well maintained with a serum creatinine (S-Cr) level of <1.8 mg/dL. About three yr after transplantation, urine protein excretion had reached 4.59 g/d, and the S-Cr level had increased to more than 2.0 mg/dL. Based on the allograft biopsy, we diagnosed nephrotic syndrome because of recurrence of IgAN with CAAMR. Subsequently, we performed a tonsillectomy, administered three sessions of steroid pulse therapy, and added losartan for the recurrence of IgAN. We also changed his immunosuppressant from mizoribine to mycophenolate mofetil to treat the CAAMR. The nephrotic syndrome improved with the multiple therapeutic approaches; however, the S-Cr level did not decrease below 2.0 mg/dL. We possibly could have performed additional treatments such as rituximab and intravenous immunoglobulin for the CAAMR, but therapeutic strategies for CAAMR have not yet been established.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although peritoneal dialysis (PD) is recommended as the first-line treatment for end-stage renal disease, limitations exist to achieving good clinical status when the residual renal function (RRF) has declined. Combined therapy with PD and hemodialysis (HD) is the treatment of choice for patients who cannot control body fluid status and/or cannot obtain adequate solute removal by PD alone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of this combined therapy.
In this retrospective study, 53 patients on PD and diagnosed with underdialysis and/or overhydration with declining RRF were recruited. Parameters of volume control, uremic solute removal, anemia, and predictors for encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) were compared before and 1 year after combined therapy.
The patients' hydration status improved significantly with reductions in atrial natriuretic peptide and blood pressure. Serum creatinine and beta2 microglobulin also decreased significantly. The hemoglobin level increased remarkably from 8.2 ± 1.6 to 10.7 ± 1.2 g/dl (p < 0.01) and the reticulocyte count also increased significantly, even though at the same time the dose of recombinant human erythropoietin decreased significantly. The dialysate to plasma creatinine ratio obtained from the fast peritoneal equilibration test (PET) decreased significantly from 0.65 ± 0.11 to 0.59 ± 0.13, and the level of interleukin 6 in PET drainage also significantly decreased. Furthermore, serum C-reactive protein and fibrinogen decreased significantly.
Combined therapy with PD and HD is an effective way to control fluid status and to correct inadequate solute removal, leading to improvement in inflammation, peritoneal function and anemia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 31-yr-old Japanese man with end-stage kidney disease caused by primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) underwent living related kidney transplantation at the age of 26 yr. The allograft functioned well immediately after surgery, and we did not observe histological findings of rejection and recurrent FSGS in protocol biopsies at two months and one yr after transplantation. Four years after transplantation, the urine protein excretion reached 11 g/d, and the serum creatinine increased over 2.5 mg/dL. We diagnosed nephrotic syndrome due to recurrent FSGS with graft dysfunction and confirmed FSGS lesions with severe endothelial injury with an allograft biopsy, associated with calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) nephrotoxicity. Thereafter, we performed plasmapheresis and steroid therapy with subsequent low-density lipoprotein adsorption, combined with the reduction of tacrolimus. The nephrotic syndrome improved dramatically with the multiple therapeutic approaches. Primary FSGS recurs frequently in patients immediately after kidney transplantation. Post-transplant FSGS has various causes, such as recurrent primary disease, obesity, hyperfiltration, donor-related nephrosclerosis, and CNI-induced arteriolopathy. In the case of nephrotic syndrome after kidney transplantation, we should consider not only recurrent FSGS, but also CNI-induced nephrotoxicity to determine the optimal treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypertension is a common complication after kidney transplantation and adversely affects graft and patient survival. Strategies for anti-hypertensive therapy in an allograft from a hypertensive donor with arteriolosclerosis and the target blood pressure have not been clearly defined. Here, we report the case of deteriorating transplanted kidney function after anti-hypertensive treatment. A 40-yr-old man had received a kidney transplant from a living relative donor (his 69-yr-old father), who was hypertensive and had severe arteriolosclerosis. The recipient showed good allograft function immediately (s-Cr 1.8 mg/dL); however, blood pressure and proteinuria increased markedly two wk after transplantation (blood pressure 180/90, urinary protein 3.4 g/d). We then started anti-hypertensive agents (a calcium channel blocker and an angiotensin II receptor blocker). Blood pressure and proteinuria were corrected to the normal range within two wk of starting the treatment (blood pressure 130/80, urinary protein 0.3 g/d). However, his kidney function continued to deteriorate (s-Cr 2.7 mg/dL). A biopsy, performed at that time, revealed glomerular collapse, advanced interstitial fibrosis and severe arteriolosclerosis, with no evidence of rejection. These findings could have been the result of renal allograft hypoperfusion. We then reduced the anti-hypertensive agents on day 45 after transplantation and observed improved allograft function within a week (s-Cr 1.6 mg/dL). This case suggests that renal hemodynamic responses may be impaired and renal perfusion may not be appropriately maintained in an allograft with severe arteriolosclerosis at a blood pressure level suitable for the recipient. Anti-hypertensive treatment should be performed carefully when the allograft is from an elderly hypertensive donor.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Henoch–Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) frequently recurs in patients following kidney transplantation, and pregnancy has been reported to be an exacerbating factor. However, little is known about the recurrence of HSPN during pregnancy in patients with superimposed pre-eclampsia having excellent graft function who had experienced kidney transplantation. Here, we report a case of recurrent HSPN complicating severe pre-eclampsia six yr after transplantation. A 31-yr-old woman who had received a living-related kidney transplant at age 25 became pregnant. The cause of her end-stage renal disease was biopsy-proven HSPN. She had an excellent clinical course after transplantation, with good allograft function (serum creatinine <0.9 mg/dL, no proteinuria or hematuria, no episode of rejection), and normal blood pressure. We discontinued the angiotensin II receptor blocker that had been prescribed to prevent glomerular hyperfiltration. After week 17 of pregnancy, proteinuria and blood pressure increased markedly, and then her kidney function deteriorated progressively with intermittent mild microhematuria. At week 28 of pregnancy, umbilical blood flow and fetal growth were impaired, prompting preterm cesarean delivery. Subsequently, her blood pressure and serum creatinine normalized immediately, although the urinary protein excretion decreased insufficiently from 6.0 to 1.0 g/d at six months postpartum. In general, hematuria has a predictive value for the recurrence of HSPN. Clinically, we considered this case to be superimposed pre-eclampsia, not recurrent HSPN. However, a biopsy conducted seven months postpartum suggested recurrent HSPN on her renal allograft. In addition, focal segmental membranous nephropathy with C1q deposition was observed. It was difficult to determine when the HSPN and membranous lesions occurred. This case suggests that a pathological evaluation is important in HSPN patients after transplantation to reduce adverse risks during and after pregnancy.