Yudo Tanno

The Jikei University School of Medicine, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (34)86.69 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We herein report a refractory case of subclinical antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) due to anti-HLA-DQ antibody in a kidney transplant patient. A 45-year-old man was admitted for a protocol biopsy; he had a serum creatinine (S-Cr) level of 1.8 mg/dL 3 years following primary kidney transplantation. Histological examination revealed moderate to severe inflammatory cell infiltration in the peritubular capillaries. Thorough laboratory examination showed that the patient had donor-specific antibodies (DSAbs) to DR9 and DQ9. Considering both the histological and laboratory findings, we diagnosed acute antibody-mediated rejection. The patient underwent 3 days of consecutive steroid pulse therapy, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and plasma exchange. We also administered rituximab (200 mg/body). Six months after the treatment, a second allograft biopsy revealed the progression of interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy and persistence of mild peritubular capillaritis. Further analysis showed that the anti-DR9 antibodies had disappeared, but that the mean fluorescence intensity value of the anti-DQ9 antibodies had increased. Therefore, we repeated the plasma exchange and IVIG. Allograft function was stable throughout the course of treatment, and the S-Cr level remained at 1.8 mg/dL. This case report demonstrates the difficulty of treating AMR due to the presence of anti-DQ DSAbs and the necessity for subsequent therapies in refractory cases. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.
    Nephrology 07/2015; 20 Suppl 2(S2):81-5. DOI:10.1111/nep.12453 · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Herein, we report a complicated case of acute T-cell-mediated rejection (ACR) accompanied by C4d-negative acute antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) and cell debris in tubulus. A 32 year-old male was admitted for an episode biopsy with a serum creatinine (S-Cr) level of 1.83 mg/dL and pyuria (20-29 white blood cells per high power field) 49 days following kidney transplantation. Histological features included three distinct entities, mainly, in one of the three specimens: 1) focal aggressive tubulointerstitial inflammatory cell infiltration with moderate tubulitis, 2) inflammatory cell infiltration in peritubular capillaries (including neutrophils) and glomerular capillaries, and 3) cell debris consisting mainly of neutrophils in tubulus. Laboratory examination revealed evidence of non-human leukocyte antigen donor-specific antibodies. However, urinary culture and gram staining were negative. Considering both the histological and laboratory findings, the patient was diagnosed with ACR accompanied by C4d-negative AMR and suspicion of a urinary tract infection (UTI). The patient was treated for three consecutive days with steroid pulse therapy. The patient's S-Cr level decreased to ∼1.5 mg/dL following treatment and did not increase thereafter. A second biopsy 133 days following kidney transplantation showed an excellent response to treatment and revealed no evidence of rejection. This case report demonstrates the difficulty in the diagnosis of, and therapy for, the complicated pathological findings of ACR, AMR and suspicion of a UTI. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.
    Nephrology 07/2015; 20 Suppl 2(S2):70-4. DOI:10.1111/nep.12466 · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report a case of probable C4d-negative accelerated acute antibody-mediated rejection due to non-HLA antibodies. A 44 year-old male was admitted to our hospital for a kidney transplant. The donor, his wife, was an ABO minor mismatch (blood type O to A) and had Gitelman syndrome. Graft function was delayed; his serum creatinine level was 10.1 mg/dL at 3 days after transplantation. Open biopsy was performed immediately; no venous thrombosis was observed during surgery. Histology revealed moderate peritubular capillaritis and mild glomerulitis without C4d immunoreactivity. Flow cytometric crossmatching was positive, but no panel-reactive antibodies against HLA or donor-specific antibodies (DSAbs) to major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A (MICA) were detected. Taken together, we diagnosed him with probable C4d-negative accelerated antibody-mediated rejection due to non-HLA, non-MICA antibodies, the patient was treated with steroid pulse therapy (methylprednisolone 500 mg/day for 3 days), plasma exchange, intravenous immunoglobulin (40 g/body), and rituximab (200 mg/body) were performed. Biopsy at 58 days after transplantation, at which time S-Cr levels were 1.56 mg/dL, found no evidence of rejection. This case, presented with a review of relevant literature, demonstrates that probable C4d-negative accelerated acute AMR can result from non-HLA antibodies. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.
    Nephrology 07/2015; 20 Suppl 2(S2):75-8. DOI:10.1111/nep.12467 · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that a donor/recipient body weight mismatch affects long-term graft survival and graft function after kidney transplantation. However, the mechanisms are not fully understood. To address the mechanisms, we compared the pathological and physiological features between patients with a donor/recipient body weight mismatch and those without a mismatch 1 yr after kidney transplantation. Furthermore, we investigated the correlation with the donor/recipient body weight ratio. We examined allograft biopsy specimens from 10 recipients with stable kidney function, with body weight mismatch (donor/recipient body weight ratio [D/R BWR] < 0.9), and compared them with samples from 13 patients without mismatch. We measured glomerular volume (GV) using the Weibel-Gomez method and glomerular density (GD) defined by nonsclerotic glomerular number/renal cortical area as pathological findings. The physiological parameters included estimated glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria (mg/day). These data were evaluated to identify a correlation with D/R BWR. The pathological features showed that GV and GD were identical in the two groups. However, when glomerular enlargement was defined by ΔGV (GV at the 1-yr biopsy minus GV at baseline biopsy), ΔGV was higher in mismatch cases compared with that in cases without a mismatch (10.6 ± 4.6 vs. 5.5 ± 7.1 × 10(5) μm(3) ; P = 0.049). Furthermore, D/R BWR was significantly correlated with ΔGV (P = 0.03, r = -0.436). eGFR values were physiologically identical between the two groups, but the mismatch cases had significantly higher proteinuria levels than that of the cases without a mismatch at 1 yr after kidney transplantation. A donor/recipient body weight mismatch could affect glomerular enlargement and increased proteinuria 1 yr after kidney transplantation. How these two features affect long-term graft survival and function must be addressed in the future. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.
    Nephrology 07/2015; 20 Suppl 2(S2):36-9. DOI:10.1111/nep.12470 · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Both immunological and non-immunological etiologies affect graft function after kidney transplantation, including acute rejection, calcineurin inhibitor toxicity, and a recurrence of glomerulonephritis. Glomerular enlargement or glomerular sclerosis due to glomerular hyperfiltration related to increased renal blood flow is another cause. Although the glomerular volume in baseline biopsies predicts late allograft function, the relationship between allograft function and the annual changes in glomerular volume after kidney transplantation are unclear.AimWe investigated changes in glomerular volume after kidney transplantation and their clinicopathological relationship.Methods We enrolled 23 patients with stable kidney function without an episode of rejection or any complication resulting in a functional decrease in the graft. We measured glomerular volume (GV) using the Weibel–Gomez method and glomerular density (GD) using 0,1 h biopsy samples as baseline controls and 1 yr biopsy samples and investigated the association between the changes in them and clinical parameters, including graft function, proteinuria, and renal hemodynamic markers, including effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and filtration fraction (FF). The ERPF was calculated from a 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) renogram.ResultsThe GV and ERPF increased significantly 1 yr after kidney transplantation. In contrast, proteinuria decreased significantly and Δproteinuria (1 yr – 1 month after transplantation) was correlated with ΔGV (P < 0.05, rs = –0.467).Conclusion Glomerular enlargement 1 yr after transplantation may be related to improved proteinuria. It is possible that glomerular enlargement serves as a renal adaptation after kidney transplantation.
    Nephrology 07/2015; 20(S2). DOI:10.1111/nep.12463 · 1.86 Impact Factor
  • Kidney International 06/2015; 87(6):1259-1260. DOI:10.1038/ki.2015.56 · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Baroreflex failure syndrome is a rare disorder which causes labile blood pressure, headache, flushing, diaphoresis and emotional lability. It is caused by history of trauma or radiotherapy in the cervical legion, bilateral carotid-body tumor or resection of glossopharyngeal nerve. We experienced a case of hemodialysis patient who had difficulty in controlling blood pressure during dialysis because of his baroreflex failure syndrome and successfully controlled his blood pressure by adjusting dialysate temperature.
    BMC Nephrology 09/2014; 15(1):151. DOI:10.1186/1471-2369-15-151 · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report a case of acute vascular rejection occurring during antituberculosis therapy in a patient who had received a kidney transplant. A 29 year-old man was admitted for a protocol biopsy; he had a serum creatinine (S-Cr) level of 1.5 mg/dL 1 year after primary kidney transplantation. Histological examination yielded no evidence of rejection but a routine chest CT scan revealed typical lung tuberculosis and his serum was positive for QFT. We commenced antituberculosis therapy, including rifampicin, on June 29 2012. We paid close attention to the weekly trough tacrolimus (TAC) level but the S-Cr concentration increased to 3.7 mg/dL on October 16 2012, and he was admitted for biopsy. Histological examination revealed, first, a diffuse aggressive infiltration of tubulointerstitial inflammatory cells accompanied by severe tubulitis and mild intimal arteritis and, second, peritubular capillary infiltration by inflammatory cells (including neutrophils). Laboratory data revealed that our patient did not express donor-specific antibody and the peritubular capillaries did not exhibit C4d immunoreactivity. Upon consideration of both histological and laboratory findings, we diagnosed acute vascular rejection of Banff 2007 class ACR IIA. We commenced 3-day sessions of intravenous steroid pulse therapy twice weekly and adjusted the trough TAC level to 5-8 ng/mL by varying the TAC dose. We next performed an allograft biopsy and found no evidence of rejection (the S-Cr level was 2.7 mg/dL on April 1 2013). The present case report demonstrates the difficulties associated with management of TAC-based regimens in kidney transplant patients undergoing antituberculosis therapy. We also review the relevant literature.
    Nephrology 06/2014; 19 Suppl 3:27-30. DOI:10.1111/nep.12244 · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report a case of plasma cell-rich rejection accompanied by acute antibody-mediated rejection in a patient with ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation. A 33-year-old man was admitted for an episode biopsy; he had a serum creatinine (S-Cr) level of 5.7 mg/dL 1 year following primary kidney transplantation. Histological features included two distinct entities: (1) a focal, aggressive tubulointerstitial inflammatory cell (predominantly plasma cells) infiltration with moderate tubulitis; and (2) inflammatory cell infiltration (including neutrophils) in peritubular capillaries. Substantial laboratory examination showed that the patient had donor-specific antibodies for DQ4 and DQ6. Considering both the histological and laboratory findings, we diagnosed him with plasma cell-rich rejection accompanied by acute antibody-mediated rejection. We started 3 days of consecutive steroid pulse therapy three times every 2 weeks for the former and plasma exchange with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) for the latter histological feature. One month after treatment, a second allograft biopsy showed excellent responses to treatment for plasma cell-rich rejection, but moderate, acute antibody-mediated rejection remained. Therefore, we added plasma exchange with IVIG again. After treatment, allograft function was stable, with an S-Cr level of 2.8 mg/dL. This case report demonstrates the difficulty of the diagnosis of, and treatment for, plasma cell-rich rejection accompanied by acute antibody-mediated rejection in a patient with ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation. We also include a review of the related literature.
    Nephrology 06/2014; 19 Suppl 3:31-4. DOI:10.1111/nep.12245 · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the successful management of BK virus nephropathy (BKVN) using therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of mycophenolic acid (MPA). A 40-year-old woman was admitted for a protocol biopsy 3 months following primary kidney transplantation. Histological features were distributed in mainly two sections: the corticomedullary junction and cortical area. In the former, massive interstitial mononuclear cell infiltration and mild to moderate tubulitis with nuclear inclusion bodies were found. SV40 staining was positive in the injured tubules. These findings were compatible with BKVN. In the latter, focal interstitial inflammation and severe tubulitis without cytopathic changes were identified outside of SV40-positive areas. Based on the histological findings, we diagnosed BKVN and we also suspected of the complication with acute T-cell-mediated rejection. We started steroid pulse therapy and reduced the dosage of immunosuppressive therapy under careful monitoring, using not only a trough level of tacrolimus but also a 12-h area under the curve (AUC0-12 ) of MPA. After the treatment, the patient maintained kidney function. This case report demonstrates the usefulness of MPA AUC0-12 for more accurate adjustment of immunosuppressive therapy and the difficulty of pathological differentiation of BKVN and acute cellular rejection.
    Nephrology 06/2014; 19 Suppl 3:37-41. DOI:10.1111/nep.12249 · 1.86 Impact Factor
  • Kidney International 03/2014; 85(3):710. DOI:10.1038/ki.2013.509 · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a serious complication that occurs in patients with long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD). Investigation of risk factors that contribute to EPS in patients on long-term PD therapy is needed. In a retrospective, observational study, data were collected for 107 patients treated with PD therapy for more than 5 years. Fifty cases of EPS were compared with 57 cases of non-EPS. To evaluate the impact of PD-associated peritonitis in EPS, univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were applied. Episodes of peritonitis, number of peritonitis episodes and the duration of peritonitis were included as explanatory variables in addition to previously reported risk factors. D/P Cr and serum β2MG levels in the EPS and non-EPS groups were: 0.82 ± 0.10 and 0.67 ± 0.12 (P < 0.01), and 33.8 ± 8.54 and 29.2 ± 8.18 mg/L (P < 0.01), respectively. Episodes of peritonitis, number of peritonitis episodes and the duration of peritonitis was 68% and 42% (P < 0.01), 1.80 ± 2.19 and 0.75 ± 1.07 times (P < 0.01), and 18.1 ± 15.3 and 10.2 ± 4.90 days (P < 0.01), in the EPS and non-EPS groups, respectively. Furthermore, multivariate logistic regression models demonstrated that both D/P Cr and the duration of peritonitis were independently associated with EPS (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). In patients on long-term PD therapy, D/P Cr and the duration of peritonitis are independently associated with EPS. Earlier treatment to promote an early recovery from PD-associated peritonitis could be critical in preventing EPS.
    Therapeutic apheresis and dialysis: official peer-reviewed journal of the International Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy 02/2014; 18(1):68-73. DOI:10.1111/1744-9987.12048 · 1.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We aimed to examine associations among serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels, 1,25-dihyroxyvitamin D (1,25OHD) levels, vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms, and renal function based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in patients with type 2 diabetes. In a cross-sectional study of 410 patients, chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage assessed by eGFR was compared with 25OHD, 1,25OHD, and VDR FokI (rs10735810) polymorphisms by an ordered logistic regression model adjusted for the following confounders: disease duration, calendar month, use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers or statins, and serum calcium, phosphate, and intact parathyroid hormone levels. 1,25OHD levels, rather than 25OHD levels, showed seasonal oscillations; peak levels were seen from May to October and the lowest levels were seen from December to February. These findings were evident in patients with CKD stage 3∼5 but not stage 1∼2. eGFR was in direct proportion to both 25OHD and 1,25OHD levels (P<0.0001), but it had stronger linearity with 1,25OHD (r = 0.73) than 25OHD (r = 0.22) levels. Using multivariate analysis, 1,25OHD levels (P<0.001), but not 25OHD levels, were negatively associated with CKD stage. Although FokI polymorphisms by themselves showed no significant associations with CKD stage, a significant interaction between 1,25OHD and FokITT was observed (P = 0.008). The positive association between 1,25OHD and eGFR was steeper in FokICT and CC polymorphisms (r = 0.74) than FokITT polymorphisms (r = 0.65). These results suggest that higher 1,25OHD levels may be associated with better CKD stages in patients with type 2 diabetes and that this association was modified by FokI polymorphisms.
    PLoS ONE 12/2012; 7(12):e51171. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0051171 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 31-year-old man underwent living-related kidney transplantation in 2004 as a consequence of primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Four years after the transplantation, we confirmed nephrotic syndrome caused by recurrent FSGS. We performed plasmapheresis and low-density lipoprotein adsorption. We also combined steroid therapy with a reduction in the dose of tacrolimus and an increased dose of mycophenolate mofetil. The nephrotic syndrome improved dramatically with this combined therapeutic approach. However, 10 months after these treatments, he revisited our hospital because of altered consciousness. We detected multiple tumor masses in his brain that were ring enhanced on contrast magnetic resonance imaging. Consequently, we suspected primary central nervous system post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (CNS-PTLD). We performed a craniotomy to biopsy the brain tumors. The biopsy specimen showed Epstein-Barr virus-associated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. There is no definitive treatment for CNS-PTLD. Therefore, we treated the primary CNS-PTLD successfully with whole-brain radiation and discontinuation of immunosuppression therapy.
    Transplant Infectious Disease 08/2012; 14(5):E102-6. DOI:10.1111/j.1399-3062.2012.00781.x · 1.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The BK virus is a double-stranded DNA virus to which 90% of adults have been exposed. BK virus infections typically result in an oral or respiratory infection; however, BK virus reactivation is an infectious disease of concern in kidney transplant recipients. The prevalence of BK virus nephropathy (BKN) in kidney transplant recipients is approximately 5%, and most cases occur within one yr after kidney transplantation. Graft survival of BKN is reported to be 30-60%, and the standard treatment strategy for BKN is reducing immunosuppressive therapy and close monitoring for rejection. Viral infection is most common in the early post-transplantation phase, and BKN or acute rejection is one of the major factors involved in graft loss. However, in this report, we describe the successful management of BKN and cytomegalovirus infection concurrent with plasma cell-rich acute rejection.
    Clinical Transplantation 07/2012; 26 Suppl 24:49-53. DOI:10.1111/j.1399-0012.2012.01646.x · 1.49 Impact Factor
  • Kidney International 07/2012; 82(2):244-5. DOI:10.1038/ki.2012.85 · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The angiogenic response is partly involved in the progression of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS). However, the details of the angiogenic response, especially for lymphatic vessels in patients with EPS, remain unclear. In addition, because of technical limitations, morphology studies reported to date have examined only the parietal peritoneum. The morphologies of parietal and visceral lymphatic vessels in patients with EPS both need to be analyzed.♢ METHODS: We examined peritoneal samples from 18 patients with EPS who underwent enterolysis of the visceral peritoneum and compared them with samples from 17 autopsy cases (controls). To examine the angiogenic response, we performed immunohistochemistry for the endothelial markers CD34 (blood vessels) and podoplanin (lymphatic vessels) and for the cell proliferation marker Ki-67. Immunogold electron microscopy analysis for podoplanin was also performed. In 7 of 18 cases, we compared differences in the angiogenic response of the parietal and visceral peritoneal membranes.♢ RESULTS: Angiogenic responses were more frequent in the compact zone than in regenerated layers. The number of capillaries positive for anti-CD34 and anti-podoplanin monoclonal antibodies per unit area of visceral peritoneal tissue was, respectively, 41.1 ± 29.3/mm(2) in EPS patients and 2.7 ± 4.4/mm(2) in controls (p ≤ 0.01) and 48.1±43.9/mm(2) in EPS patients and 4.1±5.4/mm(2) in controls (p ≤ 0.01). The percentage of capillaries positive for anti-Ki-67, CD34, and podoplanin was 4.6% in EPS patients (p ≤ 0.01) and 0.8% in controls (p = 0.09). The immunogold electron microscopy analysis revealed that podoplanin was localized to endothelial cells with anchoring filaments, a specific feature of lymphatic vessels. Furthermore, compared with parietal peritoneal membrane, visceral peritoneal membrane had a more prominent podoplanin-positive capillary profile, but not a prominent CD34-positive capillary profile. In addition, fibroblast-like cells double-positive for podoplanin and smooth muscle actin were markedly increased in the degenerated layer, as previously reported.♢ CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that lymphatic vessels are increased in the visceral peritoneum of patients with EPS.
    06/2012; 32(6). DOI:10.3747/pdi.2011.00096
  • Kidney International 04/2012; 81(8):800-1; author reply 801. DOI:10.1038/ki.2011.491 · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    Kidney International 03/2012; 81(6):595. DOI:10.1038/ki.2011.390 · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Here, we report the successful treatment of a 38-yr-old Japanese man diagnosed with recurrent immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) with chronic active antibody-mediated rejection (CAAMR), three yr after undergoing living-related donor kidney transplantation. Immediately after transplantation, the allograft function was well maintained with a serum creatinine (S-Cr) level of <1.8 mg/dL. About three yr after transplantation, urine protein excretion had reached 4.59 g/d, and the S-Cr level had increased to more than 2.0 mg/dL. Based on the allograft biopsy, we diagnosed nephrotic syndrome because of recurrence of IgAN with CAAMR. Subsequently, we performed a tonsillectomy, administered three sessions of steroid pulse therapy, and added losartan for the recurrence of IgAN. We also changed his immunosuppressant from mizoribine to mycophenolate mofetil to treat the CAAMR. The nephrotic syndrome improved with the multiple therapeutic approaches; however, the S-Cr level did not decrease below 2.0 mg/dL. We possibly could have performed additional treatments such as rituximab and intravenous immunoglobulin for the CAAMR, but therapeutic strategies for CAAMR have not yet been established.
    Clinical Transplantation 07/2011; 25 Suppl 23:28-33. DOI:10.1111/j.1399-0012.2011.01456.x · 1.49 Impact Factor