Ian Tomlinson

University of Oxford, Oxford, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (439)4323.08 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: A rare germline duplication upstream of the bone morphogenetic protein antagonist GREM1 causes a Mendelian-dominant predisposition to colorectal cancer (CRC). The underlying disease mechanism is strong, ectopic GREM1 overexpression in the intestinal epithelium. Here, we confirm that a common GREM1 polymorphism, rs16969681, is also associated with CRC susceptibility, conferring ∼20% differential risk in the general population. We hypothesized the underlying cause to be moderate differences in GREM1 expression. We showed that rs16969681 lies in a region of active chromatin with allele- and tissue-specific enhancer activity. The CRC high-risk allele was associated with stronger gene expression, and higher Grem1 mRNA levels increased the intestinal tumor burden in Apc(Min) mice. The intestine-specific transcription factor CDX2 and Wnt effector TCF7L2 bound near rs16969681, with significantly higher affinity for the risk allele, and CDX2 overexpression in CDX2/GREM1-negative cells caused re-expression of GREM1. rs16969681 influences CRC risk through effects on Wnt-driven GREM1 expression in colorectal tumors.
    Cell reports. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The cis-regulatory effects responsible for cancer development have not been as extensively studied as the perturbations of the protein coding genome in tumorigenesis. To better characterize colorectal cancer (CRC) development we conducted an RNA-sequencing experiment of 103 matched tumour and normal colon mucosa samples from Danish CRC patients, 90 of which were germline-genotyped. By investigating allele-specific expression (ASE) we show that the germline genotypes remain important determinants of allelic gene expression in tumours. Using the changes in ASE in matched pairs of samples we discover 71 genes with excess of somatic cis-regulatory effects in CRC, suggesting a cancer driver role. We correlate genotypes and gene expression to identify expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) and find 1,693 and 948 eQTLs in normal samples and tumours, respectively. We estimate that 36% of the tumour eQTLs are exclusive to CRC and show that this specificity is partially driven by increased expression of specific transcription factors and changes in methylation patterns. We show that tumour-specific eQTLs are more enriched for low CRC genome-wide association study (GWAS) P values than shared eQTLs, which suggests that some of the GWAS variants are tumour specific regulatory variants. Importantly, tumour-specific eQTL genes also accumulate more somatic mutations when compared to the shared eQTL genes, raising the possibility that they constitute germline-derived cancer regulatory drivers. Collectively the integration of genome and the transcriptome reveals a substantial number of putative somatic and germline cis-regulatory cancer changes that may have a role in tumorigenesis.
    Nature 07/2014; · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) is an autosomal dominant condition in which susceptible individuals are at risk for the development of cutaneous leiomyomas, early onset multiple uterine leiomyomas and an aggressive form of type 2 papillary renal cell cancer. HLRCC is caused by germline mutations in the fumarate hydratase (FH) gene which inactivate the enzyme and alters the function of the tricarboxylic acid (Krebs) cycle. Issues surrounding surveillance and treatment for HLRCC-associated renal cell cancer were considered as part of a recent international symposium on HLRCC. The management protocol proposed in this article is based on a literature review and a consensus meeting. The lifetime renal cancer risk for FH mutation carriers is estimated to be 15 %. In view of the potential for early onset of RCC in HLRCC, periodic renal imaging and, when available, predictive testing for a FH mutation is recommended from 8 to 10 years of age. However, the small risk of renal cell cancer in the 10-20 years age range and the potential drawbacks of screening should be carefully discussed on an individual basis. Surveillance preferably consists of annual abdominal MRI. Treatment of renal tumours should be prompt and generally consist of wide-margin surgical excision and consideration of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. The choice for systemic treatment in metastatic disease should, if possible, be part of a clinical trial. Screening procedures in HLRCC families should preferably be evaluated in large cohorts of families.
    Familial Cancer 07/2014; · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mediator regulates transcription by connecting gene-specific transcription factors to the RNA polymerase II initiation complex. We recently discovered by exome sequencing that specific exon 2 mutations in mediator complex subunit 12 (MED12) are extremely common in uterine leiomyomas. Subsequent screening studies have focused on this mutational hot spot, and mutations have been detected in uterine leiomyosarcomas, extrauterine leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas, endometrial polyps, and colorectal cancers. All mutations have been missense changes or in-frame insertions/deletions. Here, we have analyzed 611 samples representing all above-mentioned tumor types for possible exon 1 mutations. Five mutations were observed, all of which were in-frame insertion/deletions in uterine leiomyomas. Transcriptome-wide expression data revealed that MED12 exon 1 and exon 2 mutations lead to the same unique global gene expression pattern with RAD51B being the most up-regulated gene. Immunoprecipitation and kinase activity assays showed that both exon 1 and exon 2 mutations disrupt the interaction between MED12 and Cyclin C and CDK8/19 and abolish the Mediator-associated CDK kinase activity. These results further emphasize the role of MED12 in uterine leiomyomas, show that exon 1 and exon 2 exert their tumorigenic effect in similar manner, and stress that exon 1 should be included in subsequent MED12 screenings. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Human Mutation 06/2014; · 5.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Candidate variant association studies have been largely unsuccessful in identifying common breast cancer susceptibility variants, although most studies have been underpowered to detect associations of a realistic magnitude. We assessed 41 common non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) for which evidence of association with breast cancer risk had been previously reported. Case-control data were combined from 38 studies of white European women (46,450 cases and 42,600 controls) and analysed using unconditional logistic regression. Strong evidence of association was observed for three nsSNPs: ATXN7-K264R at 3p21 (rs1053338, per-allele OR=1.07, 95%CI=1.04-1.10, P=2.9x10(-6)), AKAP9-M463I at 7q21 (rs6964587, OR=1.05, 95%CI=1.03-1.07, P=1.7x10(-6)) and NEK10-L513S at 3p24 (rs10510592, OR=1.10, 95%CI=1.07-1.12, P=5.1x10(-17)). The first two associations reached genome-wide statistical significance in a combined analysis of available data, including independent data from nine GWAS: for ATXN7-K264R, OR=1.07 (95%CI=1.05-1.10, P=1.0x10(-8)); for AKAP9-M463I, OR=1.05 (95%CI=1.04-1.07, P=2.0x10(-10)). Further analysis of other common variants in these two regions suggested that intronic SNPs nearby are more strongly associated with disease risk. We have thus identified a novel susceptibility locus at 3p21, and confirmed previous suggestive evidence that rs6964587 at 7q21 is associated with risk. The third locus, rs10510592, is located in an established breast cancer susceptibility region; the association was substantially attenuated after adjustment for the known genome-wide association study (GWAS) hit. Thus, each of the associated nsSNPs is likely to be a marker for another, non-coding, variant causally related to breast cancer risk. Further fine-mapping and functional studies are required to identify the underlying risk-modifying variants and the genes through which they act.
    Human Molecular Genetics 06/2014; · 7.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mitotic index is an important component of histologic grade and has an etiologic role in breast tumorigenesis. Several small candidate gene studies have reported associations between variation in mitotic genes and breast cancer risk. We measured associations between 2,156 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 194 mitotic genes and breast cancer risk, overall and by histologic grade, in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) iCOGS study (n=39,067 cases; n=42,106 controls). SNPs in TACC2 (rs17550038: odds ratio (OR)=1.24, 95% CI 1.16-1.33, p=4.2x10(-10)) and EIF3H (rs799890: OR=1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.11, p=8.7x10(-6)) were significantly associated with risk of low grade breast cancer. The TACC2 signal was retained (rs17550038: OR=1.15, 95% CI 1.07-1.23, p=7.9x10(-5)) after adjustment for breast cancer risk SNPs in the nearby FGFR2 gene, suggesting that TACC2 is a novel, independent genome-wide significant genetic risk locus for low grade breast cancer. While no SNPs were individually associated with high-grade disease, a pathway-level gene set analysis showed that variation across the 194 mitotic genes was associated with high grade breast cancer risk (p=2.1x10(-3)). These observations will provide insight into the contribution of mitotic defects to histological grade and the etiology of breast cancer.
    Human Molecular Genetics 06/2014; · 7.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that a tag single nucleotide polymorphism (rs10235235), which maps to the CYP3A locus (7q22.1), was associated with a reduction in premenopausal urinary estrone glucuronide levels and a modest reduction in risk of breast cancer in women age <=50 years.
    Breast cancer research: BCR 05/2014; 16(3):R51. · 5.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: If we were to summarize the rationale that underpins medical oncology in a Latin aphorism, it might be 'veneno ergo sum'; that is, I poison, therefore I am. The burden of chemotherapy-associated toxicity is well recognized, but we have relatively few tools that increase the precision of anticancer drug prescribing. We propose a shift in emphasis from the focussed study of polymorphisms in drug metabolic pathways in small sets of patients to broader agnostic analyses to systematically correlate germline genetic variants with adverse events in large, well-defined cancer populations. Thus, we propose the new science of 'toxgnostics' (that is, the systematic, agnostic study of genetic predictors of toxicity from anticancer therapy).
    Nature Reviews Cancer 05/2014; · 29.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The presence of multiple (5-100) colorectal adenomas suggests an inherited predisposition, but the genetic aetiology of this phenotype is undetermined if patients test negative for Mendelian polyposis syndromes such as familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP). We investigated whether 18 common colorectal cancer (CRC) predisposition single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could help to explain some cases with multiple adenomas who phenocopied FAP or MAP, but had no pathogenic APC or MUTYH variant. No multiple adenoma case had an outlying number of CRC SNP risk alleles, but multiple adenoma patients did have a significantly higher number of risk alleles than population controls (P=5.7 × 10(-7)). The association was stronger in those with ≥10 adenomas. The CRC SNPs accounted for 4.3% of the variation in multiple adenoma risk, with three SNPs (rs6983267, rs10795668, rs3802842) explaining 3.0% of the variation. In FAP patients, the CRC risk score did not differ significantly from the controls, as we expected given the overwhelming effect of pathogenic germline APC variants on the phenotype of these cases. More unexpectedly, we found no evidence that the CRC SNPs act as modifier genes for the number of colorectal adenomas in FAP patients. In conclusion, common colorectal tumour risk alleles contribute to the development of multiple adenomas in patients without pathogenic germline APC or MUTYH variants. This phenotype may have 'polygenic' or monogenic origins. The risk of CRC in relatives of multiple adenoma cases is probably much lower for cases with polygenic disease, and this should be taken into account when counselling such patients.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 7 May 2014; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.74.
    European journal of human genetics: EJHG 05/2014; · 3.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: httpjnci.oxfordjournals.orgcontentearly20140425jnci.dju086.full.pdf
    CancerSpectrum Knowledge Environment 04/2014; · 14.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines are used widely to investigate tumor biology, experimental therapy and biomarkers. However, to what extent these established cell lines represent and maintain the genetic diversity of primary cancers is uncertain. In this study, we profiled 70 CRC cell lines for mutations and DNA copy-number by whole-exome sequencing and SNP microarray analyses, respectively. Gene expression was defined using RNA-Seq. Cell line data was compared to that published for primary CRCs in the Cancer Genome Atlas. Notably, we found that exome mutation and DNA copy-number spectra in CRC cell lines closely resembled those seen in primary colorectal tumors. Similarities included the presence of two hypermutation phenotypes, as defined by signatures for defective DNA mismatch repair and DNA polymerase ε (POLE) proofreading deficiency, along with concordant mutation profiles in the broadly altered WNT, MAPK, PI3K, TGFβ and p53 pathways. Further, we documented mutations enriched in genes involved in chromatin remodeling (ARID1A, CHD6, SRCAP) and histone methylation or acetylation (ASH1L, EP300, EP400, MLL2, MLL3, PRDM2, TRRAP). Chromosomal instability was prevalent in non-hypermutated cases, with similar patterns of chromosomal gains and losses. While paired cell lines derived from the same tumor exhibited considerable mutation and DNA copy-number differences, in silico simulations suggest that these differences mainly reflected a pre-existing heterogeneity in the tumor cells. In conclusion, our results establish that human CRC lines are representative of the main subtypes of primary tumors at the genomic level, further validating their utility as tools to investigate CRC biology and drug responses.
    Cancer Research 04/2014; · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To identify common variants influencing colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, we performed a meta-analysis of five genome-wide association studies, comprising 5,626 cases and 7,817 controls of European descent. We conducted replication of top ranked SNPs in additional series totalling 14,037 cases and 15,937 controls, identifying a new CRC risk locus at 10q24.2 (rs1035209; OR=1.13, P=4.54x10(-11)). We also performed meta-analysis of our studies, with previously published data, of several recently purported CRC risk loci. We failed to find convincing evidence for a previously reported genome-wide association at rs11903757 (2q32.3). Of the three additional loci for which evidence of an association in Europeans has been previously described we failed to show an association between rs59336 (12q24.21) and CRC risk. However, for the other two SNPs, our analyses demonstrated new, formally-significant associations with CRC. These are rs3217810 intronic in CCND2 (12p13.32; OR=1.19, P=2.16x10(-10)) and rs10911251 near LAMC1 (1q25.3; OR=1.09, P=1.75x10(-8)). Additionally, we found some evidence to support a relationship between, rs647161, rs2423297 and rs10774214 and CRC risk originally identified in East Asians in our European datasets. Our findings provide further insights into the genetic and biological basis of inherited genetic susceptibility to CRC.
    Human Molecular Genetics 04/2014; · 7.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sufficiently powered case-control studies with next generation sequence (NGS) data remain prohibitively expensive for many investigators. If feasible, a more efficient strategy would be to include publicly available sequenced controls. However, these studies can be confounded by differences in sequencing platform; alignment, SNP and variant calling algorithms; read depth and selection thresholds. Assuming one can match cases and controls on the basis of ethnicity and other potential confounding factors, and one has access to the aligned reads in both groups, we investigate the effect of systematic differences in read depth and selection threshold when comparing allele frequencies between cases and controls. We propose a novel likelihood-based method, the robust variance score (RVS), that substitutes genotype calls by their expected values given observed sequence data. We show theoretically that the RVS eliminates read depth bias in the estimation of minor allele frequency. We also demonstrate that, using simulated and real NGS data, the RVS method controls Type I error and has comparable power to the 'gold standard' analysis with the true underlying genotypes for both common and rare variants. An RVS R script and instruction manual can be found at strug.research.sickkids.ca. lisa.strug@utoronto.ca SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available in a separate file.
    Bioinformatics 04/2014; · 5.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fluourouracil (FU) is a mainstay of chemotherapy, although toxicities are common. Genetic biomarkers have been used to predict these adverse events, but their utility is uncertain. We tested candidate polymorphisms identified from a systematic literature search for associations with capecitabine toxicity in 927 patients with colorectal cancer in the Quick and Simple and Reliable trial (QUASAR2). We then performed meta-analysis of QUASAR2 and 16 published studies (n = 4,855 patients) to examine the polymorphisms in various FU monotherapy and combination therapy regimens. Global capecitabine toxicity (grades 0/1/2 v grades 3/4/5) was associated with the rare, functional DPYD alleles 2846T>A and *2A (combined odds ratio, 5.51; P = .0013) and with the common TYMS polymorphisms 5`VNTR2R/3R and 3`UTR 6bp ins-del (combined odds ratio, 1.31; P = 9.4 × 10(-6)). There was weaker evidence that these polymorphisms predict toxicity from bolus and infusional FU monotherapy. No good evidence of association with toxicity was found for the remaining polymorphisms, including several currently included in predictive kits. No polymorphisms were associated with toxicity in combination regimens. A panel of genetic biomarkers for capecitabine monotherapy toxicity would currently comprise only the four DPYD and TYMS variants above. We estimate this test could provide 26% sensitivity, 86% specificity, and 49% positive predictive value-better than most available commercial kits, but suboptimal for clinical use. The test panel might be extended to include additional, rare DPYD variants functionally equivalent to *2A and 2846A, though insufficient evidence supports its use in bolus, infusional, or combination FU. There remains a need to identify further markers of FU toxicity for all regimens.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 04/2014; 32(10):1031-9. · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Invasive lobular breast cancer (ILC) accounts for 10-15% of all invasive breast carcinomas. It is generally ER positive (ER+) and often associated with lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). Genome-wide association studies have identified more than 70 common polymorphisms that predispose to breast cancer, but these studies included predominantly ductal (IDC) carcinomas. To identify novel common polymorphisms that predispose to ILC and LCIS, we pooled data from 6,023 cases (5,622 ILC, 401 pure LCIS) and 34,271 controls from 36 studies genotyped using the iCOGS chip. Six novel SNPs most strongly associated with ILC/LCIS in the pooled analysis were genotyped in a further 516 lobular cases (482 ILC, 36 LCIS) and 1,467 controls. These analyses identified a lobular-specific SNP at 7q34 (rs11977670, OR (95%CI) for ILC = 1.13 (1.09-1.18), P = 6.0×10-10; P-het for ILC vs IDC ER+ tumors = 1.8×10-4). Of the 75 known breast cancer polymorphisms that were genotyped, 56 were associated with ILC and 15 with LCIS at P<0.05. Two SNPs showed significantly stronger associations for ILC than LCIS (rs2981579/10q26/FGFR2, P-het = 0.04 and rs889312/5q11/MAP3K1, P-het = 0.03); and two showed stronger associations for LCIS than ILC (rs6678914/1q32/LGR6, P-het = 0.001 and rs1752911/6q14, P-het = 0.04). In addition, seven of the 75 known loci showed significant differences between ER+ tumors with IDC and ILC histology, three of these showing stronger associations for ILC (rs11249433/1p11, rs2981579/10q26/FGFR2 and rs10995190/10q21/ZNF365) and four associated only with IDC (5p12/rs10941679; rs2588809/14q24/RAD51L1, rs6472903/8q21 and rs1550623/2q31/CDCA7). In conclusion, we have identified one novel lobular breast cancer specific predisposition polymorphism at 7q34, and shown for the first time that common breast cancer polymorphisms predispose to LCIS. We have shown that many of the ER+ breast cancer predisposition loci also predispose to ILC, although there is some heterogeneity between ER+ lobular and ER+ IDC tumors. These data provide evidence for overlapping, but distinct etiological pathways within ER+ breast cancer between morphological subtypes.
    PLoS Genetics 04/2014; 10(4):e1004285. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    Human Molecular Genetics 04/2014; Hum Mol Genet.(23(7)):1934-46.. · 7.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Capecitabine is an oral 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) pro-drug commonly used to treat colorectal carcinoma and other tumours. About 35% of patients experience dose-limiting toxicity. The few proven genetic biomarkers of 5-FU toxicity are rare variants and polymorphisms, respectively, at candidate loci dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD) and thymidylate synthase (TYMS). We investigated 1456 polymorphisms and rare coding variants near 25 candidate 5-FU pathway genes in 968 UK patients from the QUASAR2 clinical trial. We identified the first common DPYD polymorphisms to be consistently associated with capecitabine toxicity, rs12132152 (toxicity allele frequency (TAF)=0.031, OR=3.83, p=4.31×10(-6)) and rs12022243 (TAF=0.196, OR=1.69, p=2.55×10(-5)). rs12132152 was particularly strongly associated with hand-foot syndrome (OR=6.1, p=3.6×10(-8)). The rs12132152 and rs12022243 associations were independent of each other and of previously reported DPYD toxicity variants. Next-generation sequencing additionally identified rare DPYD variant p.Ala551Thr in one patient with severe toxicity. Using functional predictions and published data, we assigned p.Ala551Thr as causal for toxicity. We found that polymorphism rs2612091, which lies within an intron of ENOSF1, was also associated with capecitabine toxicity (TAF=0.532, OR=1.59, p=5.28×10(-6)). ENSOF1 is adjacent to TYMS and there is a poorly characterised regulatory interaction between the two genes/proteins. Unexpectedly, rs2612091 fully explained the previously reported associations between capecitabine toxicity and the supposedly functional TYMS variants, 5'VNTR 2R/3R and 3'UTR 6 bp ins-del. rs2612091 genotypes were, moreover, consistently associated with ENOSF1 mRNA levels, but not with TYMS expression. DPYD harbours rare and common capecitabine toxicity variants. The toxicity polymorphism in the TYMS region may actually act through ENOSF1.
    Gut 03/2014; · 10.73 Impact Factor
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    Ellen Heitzer, Ian Tomlinson
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    ABSTRACT: Three DNA polymerases - Pol α, Pol δ and Pol ɛ - are essential for DNA replication. After initiation of DNA synthesis by Pol α, Pol δ or Pol ɛ take over on the lagging and leading strand respectively. Pol δ and Pol ɛ perform the bulk of replication with very high fidelity, which is ensured by Watson-Crick base pairing and 3'exonuclease (proofreading) activity. Yeast models have shown that mutations in the exonuclease domain of Pol δ and Pol ɛ homologues can cause a mutator phenotype. Recently, we identified germline exonuclease domain mutations (EDMs) in human POLD1 and POLE that predispose to 'polymerase proofreading associated polyposis' (PPAP), a disease characterised by multiple colorectal adenomas and carcinoma, with high penetrance and dominant inheritance. Moreover, somatic EDMs in POLE have also been found in sporadic colorectal and endometrial cancers. Tumors with EDMs are microsatellite stable and show an 'ultramutator' phenotype, with a dramatic increase in base substitutions.
    Current opinion in genetics & development 02/2014; 24C:107-113. · 8.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The common -652 6N del variant in the CASP8 promoter (rs3834129) has been described as a putative low-penetrance risk factor for different cancer types. In particular, some studies suggested that the deleted allele (del) was inversely associated with CRC risk while other analyses failed to confirm this. Hence, to better understand the role of this variant in the risk of developing CRC, we performed a multi-centric case-control study. In the study, the variant -652 6N del was genotyped in a total of 6,733 CRC cases and 7,576 controls recruited by six different centers located in Spain, Italy, USA, England, Czech Republic and the Netherlands collaborating to the international consortium COGENT (COlorectal cancer GENeTics). Our analysis indicated that rs3834129 was not associated with CRC risk in the full data set. However, the del allele was under-represented in one set of cases with a family history of CRC (per allele model OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.69-0.90) suggesting this allele might be a protective factor versus familial CRC. Since this multi-centric case-control study was performed on a very large sample size, it provided robust clarification of the effect of rs3834129 on the risk of developing CRC in Caucasians.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e85538. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: APC*I1307K (c.3920T>A) is an inherited variant associated with colorectal tumour risk found almost exclusively in those of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry. A single nucleotide substitution creates an oligo-adenine tract (A8) that appears to be inherently prone to further mis-pairing and slippage. The reported multiple tumor phenotype of carriers is not easily reconciled with molecular and population genetics data. We postulated that some c.3920T>A carriers with multiple adenomas have other unidentified APC germ line or somatic mutations. DNA from 82 colonic tumours and accompanying normal tissue collected from 29 carriers with multiple colorectal tumors was directly sequenced between codons 716 and 1604. We also assessed APC gene loss of heterozygosity. One patient (3.4%) was found to have an additional APC germ line mutation. Twenty-five of the tumours showed no significant somatic molecular change, 36 showed one change, 20 showed two, and one tumour showed more than 2 changes. Our data suggest a correlation between advancing histology and fewer beta-catenin binding sites remaining in the mutant proteins. There were no other common germ line variants identified within the region of the APC gene examined, suggesting that any effect from this region on tumour production is attributable to the c.3920T>A allele. Our findings further suggest the only somatic genetic change clearly attributable to the c.3920T>A mutation is the c.3924_3925insA.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e84498. · 3.53 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

18k Citations
4,323.08 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1993–2014
    • University of Oxford
      • • Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics
      • • Department of Public Health
      • • Nuffield Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
      • • Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
  • 2013
    • Herlev Hospital
      Herlev, Capital Region, Denmark
    • University of Queensland 
      • School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  • 2012–2013
    • University of Cambridge
      • • Department of Public Health and Primary Care
      • • Department of Oncology
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
    • German Cancer Research Center
      • Division of Cancer Epidemiology
      Heidelberg, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany
  • 2011–2013
    • Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncológicas
      • Human Cancer Genetics Programme
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
    • NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
    • University of Southern California
      • Department of Preventive Medicine
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
    • Queensland Institute of Medical Research
      Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
    • Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research
      La Jolla, California, United States
    • Mayo Clinic - Rochester
      • Department of Health Science Research
      Rochester, MN, United States
    • Royal Melbourne Hospital
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2002–2013
    • University of Birmingham
      Birmingham, England, United Kingdom
  • 2008–2012
    • The University of Edinburgh
      • MRC Human Genetics Unit
      Edinburgh, SCT, United Kingdom
    • Leiden University Medical Centre
      • Department of Human Genetics
      Leiden, South Holland, Netherlands
    • Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research Australia
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2003–2012
    • Medical Research Council (UK)
      • Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
    • St. Vincent Hospital
      Green Bay, Wisconsin, United States
  • 1998–2012
    • Institute of Cancer Research
      • Division of Genetics and Epidemiology
      Sutton, ENG, United Kingdom
    • University of Iowa
      • Department of Surgery
      Iowa City, IA, United States
  • 1993–2012
    • Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust
      • Department of Colorectal Surgery
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
  • 2004–2011
    • London Research Institute
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 1996–2011
    • University of Helsinki
      • Department of Medical Genetics
      Helsinki, Province of Southern Finland, Finland
  • 2010
    • Medical University of Graz
      • Institut für Humangenetik
      Graz, Styria, Austria
    • Erasmus MC
      • Department of Pathology
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2009–2010
    • Wellcome Trust
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • University of Nottingham
      • School of Molecular Medical Sciences
      Nottingham, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1996–2010
    • St. Mark's Hospital
      Harrow, England, United Kingdom
  • 2008–2009
    • Queen Mary, University of London
      • The Blizard Institute of Cell and Molecular Science
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2000–2009
    • Galway University Hospitals
      Gaillimh, Connaught, Ireland
  • 1999–2008
    • University College London
      • • Centre for Mathematics and Physics in the Life Sciences and Experimental Biology (CoMPLEX)
      • • Department of Computer Science
      • • Department of Pathology
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1996–2008
    • Cancer Research UK
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2007
    • Imperial College London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • IEO - Istituto Europeo di Oncologia
      • Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2004–2006
    • Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 2005
    • University of Wisconsin - La Crosse
      La Crosse, Wisconsin, United States
    • Beatson Institute for Cancer Research
      Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 2001
    • The Ohio State University
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Columbus, OH, United States
    • University of Sydney
      • School of Medical Sciences
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 1997–1998
    • Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States