[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Outgrowth of Porphyromonas gingivalis within the inflammatory subgingival plaque is associated with periodontitis characterized by periodontal tissue destruction, loss of alveolar bone, periodontal pocket formation and eventually tooth loss. Potential virulence factors of P. gingivalis are peptidylarginine deiminase (PPAD), an enzyme modifying free or peptide-bound arginine to citrulline, and the bacterial proteases referred to as gingipains (Rgp and Kgp). Chemokines attract leukocytes during inflammation. However, posttranslational modification (PTM) of chemokines by proteases or human peptidylarginine deiminases may alter their biological activities. Since chemokine processing may be important in microbial defense mechanisms, we investigated whether PTM of chemokines occurs by P. gingivalis enzymes. Upon incubation of interleukin-8 (IL-8/CXCL8) with PPAD, only minor enzymatic citrullination was detected. In contrast, Rgp rapidly cleaved CXCL8 in vitro. Subsequently, different P. gingivalis strains were incubated with the chemokines CXCL8 or CXCL10 and their PTM were investigated. No significant CXCL8 citrullination was detected for the tested strains. Interestingly, although considerable differences in efficiency of CXCL8 degradation were observed with full cultures of various strains, similar rates of chemokine proteolysis were exerted by cell-free culture supernatants. Sequencing of CXCL8 incubated with supernatant or bacteria showed that CXCL8 is processed into its more potent 6-77 and 9-77 forms. In contrast, CXCL10 was entirely and rapidly degraded by P. gingivalis with no transient chemokine forms being observed. In conclusion, this study demonstrates PTM of CXCL8 and CXCL10 by gingipains of P. gingivalis and that strain differences may particularly affect the activity of these bacterial membrane-associated proteases.
Infection and immunity 03/2014; · 4.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CXC chemokines influence a variety of biological processes, such as angiogenesis, both in a physiological and pathological context. Platelet factor-4 (PF-4)/CXCL4 and its variant PF-4var/CXCL4L1 are known to favor angiostasis by inhibiting endothelial cell proliferation and chemotaxis. CXCL4L1 in particular is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis with anti-tumoral characteristics, both through regulation of neovascularization and through attraction of activated lymphocytes. However, its underlying signaling pathways remain to be elucidated. Here, we have identified various intracellular pathways activated by CXCL4L1 in comparison with other CXCR3 ligands, including CXCL4 and interferon-γ-induced protein 10/CXCL10. Signaling experiments show involvement of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family in CXCR3A-transfected cells, activated lymphocytes and human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC). In CXCR3A transfectants, CXCL4 and CXCL4L1 activated p38 MAPK, as well as Src kinase within 30 and 5 min, respectively. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation occured in activated lymphocytes, yet was inhibited in microvascular and lymphatic endothelial cells. CXCL4L1 and CXCL4 counterbalanced the angiogenic chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1/CXCL12 in both endothelial cell types. Notably, inhibition of ERK signaling by CXCL4L1 and CXCL4 in lymphatic endothelial cells implies that these chemokines might also regulate lymphangiogenesis. Furthermore, CXCL4, CXCL4L1 and CXCL10 slightly enhanced forskolin-stimulated cAMP production in HMVEC. Finally, CXCL4, but not CXCL4L1, induced activation of p70S6 kinase within 5 min in HMVEC. Our findings confirm that the angiostatic chemokines CXCL4L1 and CXCL4 activate both CXCR3A and CXCR3B and bring new insights into the complexity of their signaling cascades.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In vivo leukocyte recruitment is not fully understood and may result from interactions of chemokines with glycosaminoglycans/GAGs. We previously showed that chlorite-oxidized oxyamylose/COAM binds the neutrophil chemokine GCP-2/CXCL6. Here, mouse chemokine binding by COAM was studied systematically and binding affinities of chemokines to COAM versus GAGs were compared. COAM and heparan sulphate bound the mouse CXC chemokines KC/CXCL1, MIP-2/CXCL2, IP-10/CXCL10 and I-TAC/CXCL11 and the CC chemokine RANTES/CCL5 with affinities in the nanomolar range, whereas no binding interactions were observed for mouse MCP-1/CCL2, MIP-1α/CCL3 and MIP-1β/CCL4. The affinities of COAM-interacting chemokines were similar to or higher than those observed for heparan sulphate. Although COAM did not display chemotactic activity by itself, its co-administration with mouse GCP-2/CXCL6 and MIP-2/CXCL2 or its binding of endogenous chemokines resulted in fast and cooperative peritoneal neutrophil recruitment and in extravasation into the cremaster muscle in vivo. These local GAG mimetic features by COAM within tissues superseded systemic effects and were sufficient and applicable to reduce LPS-induced liver-specific neutrophil recruitment and activation. COAM mimics glycosaminoglycans and is a nontoxic probe for the study of leukocyte recruitment and inflammation in vivo.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(8):e104107. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anti-angiogenic therapy has been recognized as a powerful potential strategy for impeding the growth of various tumors. However no major therapeutic effects have been observed to date, mainly because of the emergence of several resistance mechanisms. Among novel strategies to target tumor vasculature, some oncolytic viruses open up new prospects. In this context, we addressed the question whether the rodent parvovirus H-1PV can target endothelial cells. We show that cultures of human normal (HUVEC) and immortalized (KS-IMM) endothelial cells sustain an abortive viral cycle upon infection with H-1PV and are sensitive to H-1PV cytotoxicity. H-1PV significantly inhibits infected KS-IMM tumor growth. This effect may be traced back by the virus ability to both kill proliferating endothelial cells and inhibit VEGF production Recombinant H-1PV vectors can also transduce tumor cells with chemokines endowed with anti-angiogenesis properties, and warrant further validation for the treatment of highly vascularized tumors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen presenting cells, described as the initiators of adaptive immune responses. Immature monocyte-derived DCs (MDDC) showed decreased CD14 expression, increased cell surface markers DC-SIGN and CD1a and enhanced levels of receptors for the chemokines CCL3 (CCR1/CCR5) and CXCL8 (CXCR1/CXCR2) compared with human CD14(+) monocytes. After further MDDC maturation by LPS, the markers CD80 and CD83 and the chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR7 were upregulated, whereas CCR1, CCR2 and CCR5 expression was reduced. CCL3 dose-dependently synergized with CXCL8 or CXCL12 in chemotaxis of immature MDDC. CXCL12 augmented the CCL3-induced ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation in immature MDDC, although the synergy between CCL3 and CXCL12 in chemotaxis of immature MDDC was dependent on the Akt signaling pathway but not on ERK1/2 phosphorylation. CCL2 also synergized with CXCL12 in immature MDDC migration. Moreover, two CXC chemokines not sharing receptors (CXCL12 and CXCL8) cooperated in immature MDDC chemotaxis, whereas two CC chemokines (CCL3 and CCL7) sharing CCR1 did not. Further, the non-chemokine G protein-coupled receptor ligands chemerin and fMLP synergized with respectively CCL7 and CCL3 in immature MDDC signaling and migration. Finally, CXCL12 and CCL3 did not cooperate, but CXCL12 synergized with CCL21 in mature MDDC chemotaxis. Thus, chemokine synergy in immature and mature MDDC migration is dose-dependently regulated by chemokines via alterations in their chemokine receptor expression pattern according to their role in immune responses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ESb-MP T-cell line is a highly ma- lignant murine lymphoma, which preferentially metastasizes toward the kidney. This could be a result of the local production of monocyte che- moattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and regulated on activation, normal T expressed and secreted (RANTES), which are chemotactic for ESb-MP cells. Here, we demonstrate that ESb-MP cells are already responsive to the chemotactic activity of macrophage inflammatory protein-1 (MIP-1) and MIP-1 from 1 ng/ml onward. Moreover, upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or virus, ESb-MP cells themselves produce significant amounts of MIP-1 (200 ng/ml). Indeed, the ma- jor autocrine chemoattractants, isolated from ESb-MP cells, were intact MIP-1 and MIP-1. Pretreatment with LPS or addition of MIP-1 inhib- ited the in vitro migration of ESb-MP cells toward various chemokines. Moreover, compared with un- treated lymphoma cells, LPS-treated cells pro- duced significantly less metastasis in mice. The re- sults represented here suggest that the role of che- mokines in attracting tumor cells at secondary sites depends on a balance between autocrine-produced and tissue-derived chemokines. This delicate balance should be considered in the design of an- tichemokine strategies in different tumor types. J. Leukoc. Biol. 72: 780-789; 2002.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytokines and chemokines represent two important groups of proteins that control the human immune system. Dysregulation of the network in which these immunomodulators function can result in uncontrolled inflammation, leading to various diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), characterized by chronic inflammation and bone erosion. Potential triggers of RA include autoantibodies, cytokines and chemokines. The tight regulation of cytokine and chemokine production, and biological activity is important. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is abundantly present in RA patients' serum and the arthritic synovium. This review, therefore, discusses first the role and regulation of the major proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α, in particular the regulation of TNF-α production, post-translational processing and signaling of TNF-α and its receptors. Owing to the important role of TNF-α in RA, the TNF-α-producing cells and the dynamics of its expression, the direct and indirect action of this cytokine and possible biological therapy for RA are described.Immunology and Cell Biology advance online publication, 30 April 2013; doi:10.1038/icb.2013.15.
Immunology and Cell Biology 04/2013; · 3.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytokines and chemokines represent two important groups of proteins that control the immune system. Dysregulation of the network in which these immunomodulators function can result in uncontrolled inflammation leading to various diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, characterized by chronic inflammation and bone erosion. Chemokine activity is regulated at multiple levels, such as post-translational modification (PTM) of chemokines and their receptors by specific enzymes including proteases and peptidylarginine deiminases. Many in vitro experiments underscore the importance of post-translational processing of human chemokines. PTMs may enhance or reduce chemokine activity or may alter the receptor specificity of chemokine ligands. However, identification of chemokine isoforms in physiological in vivo settings forms the ultimate proof that PTM of chemokines is relevant in regulating the biological activity of these molecules. This review summarizes current knowledge on the in vivo role for PTMs in the regulation of chemokine activity.Immunology and Cell Biology advance online publication, 30 April 2013; doi:10.1038/icb.2013.16.
Immunology and Cell Biology 04/2013; · 3.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed at examining the presence and role of chemokines (angiogenic CCL2/MCP-1 and angiostatic CXCL4/PF-4, CXCL9/Mig, CXCL10/IP-10) in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Regulated chemokine production in human retinal microvascular cells (HRMEC) and chemokine levels in vitreous samples from 40 PDR and 29 non-diabetic patients were analyzed. MCP-1, PF-4, Mig, IP-10 and VEGF levels in vitreous fluid from PDR patients were significantly higher than in controls. Except for IP-10, cytokine levels were significantly higher in PDR with active neovascularization and PDR without traction retinal detachment (TRD) than those in inactive PDR, PDR with TRD and control subjects. Exploratory regression analysis identified associations between higher levels of IP-10 and inactive PDR and PDR with TRD. VEGF levels correlated positively with MCP-1 and IP-10. Significant positive correlations were observed between MCP-1 and IP-10 levels. In line with these clinical findings Western blot analysis revealed increased PF-4 expression in diabetic rat retinas. HRMEC produced MCP-1, Mig and IP-10 after stimulation with IFN-γ, IL-1β or lipopolysaccharide. IFN-γ synergistically enhanced Mig and IP-10 production in response to IL-1β or lipopolysaccharide. MCP-1 was produced by HRMEC in response to VEGF treatment and activated HRMEC via the ERK and Akt/PKB pathway. On the other hand, phosphorylation of ERK induced by VEGF and MCP-1 was inhibited by PF-4, Mig and IP-10. In accordance with inhibition of angiogenic signal transduction pathways, PF-4 inhibited in vitro migration of HRMEC. Thus, regulatory roles for chemokines in PDR were demonstrated. In particular, IP-10 might be associated with the resolution of active PDR and the development of TRD.
Experimental Eye Research 01/2013; · 3.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bovine serum is a rich source of cytokines and growth factors supporting in vitro cell culture. Here, a novel bovine monocyte chemotactic factor (boMCF-1) was isolated from commercial bovine serum by a four step purification procedure including adsorption to silicic acid, heparin affinity and cation-exchange chromatography and reversed phase HPLC. Homogeneous boMCF-1 was characterized as a 7717Da protein by mass spectrometry and identified by Edman degradation as the predicted product of bovine macrophage inflammatory protein-1α gene (boMIP-1α/CCL3) isoform 2 (lacking three NH(2)-terminal amino acids), belonging to the MIP subfamily of CC chemokines. Monocyte chemotactic activity of boCCL3 isoform 2 was completely desensitized by human CCL3 and CCL5, partially by CCL7 and not by CCL2. Its activity was better inhibited by CCR1 than by CCR5 blockade. BoCCL3 isoform 2, present in bovine serum at about 10ng/ml, functioned as a most potent chemoattractant for immature (but not mature) dendritic cells with a minimal effective concentration of 0.03ng/ml and a maximal chemotactic index of 30 at 0.3ng/ml. Its chemotactic activity on immature dendritic cells was significantly desensitized by human CCL3, CCL5 and CCL7. Blockade of CCR5 rather than CCR1 partially prevented chemotactic activity, whereas blockade of both further enhanced this inhibition. BoCCL3 isoform 2 was not chemokinetic but, like human CCL3, synergized with CXCL12 in monocytic cell chemotaxis. Since it cannot be deduced which is the exact human homolog of boCCL3 isoform 2, further research is required to study the biology of other boCCL3 family members.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemokines are low molecular mass chemotactic proteins that signal through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). Chemokine activity is regulated at multiple levels including posttranslational modification (PTM). Proteolytic processing of chemokines at the NH2-terminus by metalloproteases and serine proteases has been reported to severely affect chemokine activity. In addition, COOH-terminal truncation and glycosylation has been detected on some chemokines. Recently, the inflammatory chemokines CXCL8 and CXCL10 were observed in deiminated or citrullinated forms. Citrullination of CXC chemokines significantly reduces their inflammatory activity. Peptidylarginine deiminases (PAD) are the enzymes converting peptidylarginine into peptidylcitrulline. The human PAD family consists of five distinct members with a specific tissue distribution and substrate specificity. PAD regulates the biological function of different proteins by citrullination. Therefore, PAD plays an important role in homeostatic processes such as the development of hair, skin, the myelin sheath and embryogenesis as well as in gene transcription. PAD also has a key role in inflammation as it is essential for the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and citrullinates chemokines. PAD misexpression, however, may be involved in the development of several diseases such as cancer and auto-immune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Therefore, PAD is suggested to be a potential new drug target.
Drug Discovery Today Technologies 11/2012; 9(4):e261-e280.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Neutrophil influx is an important sign of hyperacute neuroinflammation, whereas the entry of activated lymphocytes into the brain parenchyma is a hallmark of chronic inflammatory processes, as observed in multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Clinically approved or experimental therapies for neuroinflammation act by blocking leukocyte penetration of the blood brain barrier. However, in view of unsatisfactory results and severe side effects, complementary therapies are needed. We have examined the effect of chlorite-oxidized oxyamylose (COAM), a potent antiviral polycarboxylic acid on EAE. METHODS: EAE was induced in SJL/J mice by immunization with spinal cord homogenate (SCH) or in IFN-gamma-deficient BALB/c (KO) mice with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide (MOG35-55). Mice were treated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with COAM or saline at different time points after immunization. Clinical disease and histopathology were compared between both groups. IFN expression was analyzed in COAM-treated MEF cell cultures and in sera and peritoneal fluids of COAM-treated animals by quantitative PCR, ELISA and a bioassay on L929 cells. Populations of immune cell subsets in the periphery and the central nervous system (CNS) were quantified at different stages of disease development by flow cytometry and differential cell count analysis. Expression levels of selected chemokine genes in the CNS were determined by quantitative PCR. RESULTS: We discovered that COAM (2 mg i.p. per mouse on days 0 and 7) protects significantly against hyperacute SCH-induced EAE in SJL/J mice and MOG35-55-induced EAE in IFN-gamma KO mice. COAM deviated leukocyte trafficking from the CNS into the periphery. In the CNS, COAM reduced four-fold the expression levels of the neutrophil CXC chemokines KC/CXCL1 and MIP-2/CXCL2. Whereas the effects of COAM on circulating blood and splenic leukocytes were limited, significant alterations were observed at the COAM injection site. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate novel actions of COAM as an anti-inflammatory agent with beneficial effects on EAE through cell deviation. Sequestration of leukocytes in the non-CNS periphery or draining of leukocytes out of the CNS with the use of the chemokine system may thus complement existing treatment options for acute and chronic neuroinflammatory diseases.
Journal of Neuroinflammation 10/2012; 9(1):243. · 4.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Citrullination, a posttranslational modification (PTM) recently discovered on inflammatory chemokines such as interleukin-8 (IL-8/CXCL8) and interferon-γ-inducible protein-10 (IP-10/CXCL10), seriously influences their biological activity. Citrullination or the deimination of arginine to citrulline is dependent on peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) and has been linked to autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Chemokines are to date the first identified PAD substrates with receptor-mediated biological activity. We investigated whether cytokines that play a crucial role in RA, like interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), may be citrullinated by PAD and whether such a PTM influences the biological activity of these cytokines. IL-1β and TNF-α were first incubated with PAD in vitro and the occurrence of citrullination was examined by Edman degradation and a recently developed detection method for citrullinated proteins. Both techniques confirmed that human TNF-α, but not IL-1β, was citrullinated by PAD. Citrullination of TNF-α reduced its potency to stimulate chemokine production in vitro on human primary fibroblasts. Concentrations of the inflammatory chemokines CXCL8, CXCL10 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) were significantly lower in supernatants of fibroblasts induced with citrullinated TNF-α compared to unmodified TNF-α. However, upon citrullination TNF-α retained its capacity to induce apoptosis/necrosis of mononuclear cells, its binding potency to Infliximab and its ability to recruit neutrophils to the peritoneal cavity of mice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Physiological leukocyte homing and extravasation of leukocytes during inflammatory processes is directed by a number of proteins including adhesion molecules, proteases, cytokines and chemokines. Tight regulation of leukocyte migration is essential to ensure appropriate migration. A number of mechanisms exist that regulate leukocyte migration including up- or down-regulation of chemokine or chemokine receptor gene expression. However, chemokine availability in vivo also depends on the interaction of chemokines with specific glycosaminoglycans such as heparan sulfate on the surface of endothelial layers. Modification of the interaction of chemokines with these glycosaminoglycans alters the presentation of chemokines to chemokine receptors on circulating leukocytes. On top, binding of chemokines to atypical chemokine receptors that do not signal through G proteins affects chemokine availability on the endothelial layers. In addition to mechanisms that modulate chemokine availability, this review summarizes mechanisms that fine-tune chemokine function. These include synergy or antagonism between chemokines and alternative splicing of chemokine genes. Moreover, chemokines may be posttranslationally modified leading to molecules with enhanced or reduced potency to bind to G protein-coupled receptors or GAGs or generating chemokines with altered receptor specificity. Cross-talk between these different mechanisms generates a complex regulatory network that allows the organism to modulate leukocyte migration in a highly specific manner.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The arrest and directed migration of leukocytes during homeostasis, tumour development and inflammation is orchestrated by a multitude of chemokines, which govern leukocyte migratory activities. Immune cells are particularly adept at adjusting rapidly to changes within the environment by migration in response to chemokines. The confrontation of leukocytes with different combination of chemokines that are concomitantly produced under physiological or pathological conditions in vivo is complex. There are different ways to enhance or reduce leukocyte migration mediated by chemokines such as posttranslational modifications. Here, we described a positive regulatory mechanism in leukocyte trafficking, by the synergism between chemokines to rapidly augment the local leukocyte influx, thereby enhancing the outcome of an inflammatory response in vivo. The cellular mechanisms involved in chemokine synergy are still debated, but probably include chemokine and/or receptor heterodimerization and subsequent cooperation in signal transduction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aqueous humor (AH) samples from 14 patients with presumed tuberculous uveitis (PTU), and 30 control patients were assayed for the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin IL-4, IL-12, IL-15, IL-17, interferon (IFN)-γ, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10, and the chemokines GRO-α/CXCL1, IL-8/CXCL8, MIG/CXCL9, IP-10/CXCL10 and SDF-1/CXCL12 with the use of a multiplex assay. Among cytokines, IL-4 and IL-12 were not detected. IL-15, IL-17, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-10 levels in AH were significantly higher in patients than in controls (p<0.001; p=0.004; p<0.001; p<0.001; p<0.001, respectively). Among chemokines, SDF-1 levels did not differ significantly between patients and controls, whereas GRO-α, IL-8, MIG and IP-10 levels were significantly higher in patients than in controls (p=0.001; p<0.001; p<0.001; p<0.001, respectively). Mean GRO-α levels in AH of PTU patients were 6-fold higher than IL-8 levels and mean IP-10 levels were 15-fold higher than MIG levels. Clinical disease activity correlated significantly with the levels of IL-15, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IP-10. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated a significant positive association between PTU and high levels of IFN-γ, IL-8, MIG and IP-10. These data suggest that both T helper (Th) Th(1) and Th(17) cells are involved in PTU and that the cytokine profile is polarized toward a Th(1) response. GRO-α and IP-10 might be involved in neutrophil and activated T lymphocyte chemoattraction in PTU, respectively.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) represents the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in western countries. The patients are often diagnosed in advanced metastatic stages, and the prognosis remains extremely poor with an overall 5-year survival rate less than 5 %. Currently, novel therapeutic strategies are being pursued to combat PDAC, including oncolytic viruses, either in their natural forms or armed with immunostimulatory molecules. Natural killer cells are critical players against tumours and infected cells. Recently, we showed that IL-2-activated human NK cells displayed killing activity against PDAC cells, which could further be enhanced through the infection of PDAC cells with the rodent parvovirus H-1PV. In this study, the therapeutic efficacy of parvovirus-mediated delivery of three distinct cyto/chemokines (Il-2, MCP-3/CCL7 and IP-10/CXCL10) was evaluated in xenograft models of human PDAC. We show here that activated NK and monocytic cells were found to be recruited by PDAC tumours upon infection with parvoviruses armed with IL-2 or the chemokine MCP-3/CCL7, resulting in a strong anti-tumour response.
Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 05/2012; · 3.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Platelet-derived chemokines are implicated in several aspects of vascular biology. However, for the chemokine platelet factor 4 variant (PF-4var/CXCL4L1), released by platelets during thrombosis and with different properties as compared to PF-4/CXCL4, its role in heart disease is not yet studied. We evaluated the determinants and prognostic value of the platelet-derived chemokines PF-4var, PF-4 and RANTES/CCL5 in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD).
From 205 consecutive patients with stable CAD and preserved left ventricular (LV) function, blood samples were taken at inclusion and were analyzed for PF-4var, RANTES, platelet factor-4 and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). Patients were followed (median follow-up 2.5 years) for the combined endpoint of cardiac death, non-fatal acute myocardial infarction, stroke or hospitalization for heart failure. Independent determinants of PF-4var levels (median 10 ng/ml; interquartile range 8-16 ng/ml) were age, gender and circulating platelet number. Patients who experienced cardiac events (n = 20) during follow-up showed lower levels of PF-4var (8.5 [5.3-10] ng/ml versus 12 [8-16] ng/ml, p = 0.033). ROC analysis for events showed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.82 (95% CI 0.73-0.90, p<0.001) for higher NT-proBNP levels and an AUC of 0.32 (95% CI 0.19-0.45, p = 0.009) for lower PF-4var levels. Cox proportional hazard analysis showed that PF-4var has an independent prognostic value on top of NT-proBNP.
We conclude that low PF-4var/CXCL4L1 levels are associated with a poor outcome in patients with stable CAD and preserved LV function. This prognostic value is independent of NT-proBNP levels, suggesting that both neurohormonal and platelet-related factors determine outcome in these patients.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(2):e31343. · 3.73 Impact Factor