[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on three women and a review of the literature on absence status epilepticus over the age of 50 years. Our aim was to characterize the male-female ratio in this condition. Out of 16 studies on absence status epilepticus over the age of 50, including our cases, a female dominance was found in 15. We found altogether, 104 (71%) females and 42 (29%) males. This gender difference is highly significant (p < 0.00001). We conclude that absence status epilepticus over the age of 50 is predominantly a female disorder.
Epileptic disorders: international epilepsy journal with videotape 07/2008; 10(2):156-61. DOI:10.1684/epd.2008.0186 · 0.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The case history of a woman with occlusive hydrocephalus caused by a fourth ventricle cyst is presented. She had slowly progressive complaints and symptoms--concentration and memory disturbances, low-tempered mood, then slight dizziness, loss of appetite and progressive headache--transitorily misinterpreted for signs of depression. She had been treated by psychotherapy and antidepressants for months. Since she did not improve she was referred to a psychiatric hospital. The rapidly progressing neurological syndrome with worsening headache, gait disturbance and vomiting was finally identified and it turned out to be caused by a fourth ventricle CSF blockage of unknown aetiology. An acute neurosurgical intervention was indicated. It revealed a huge fourth ventricle cyst, undetectable on MRI, occupying the whole ventricle. The resection of its walls resulted in complete recovery. We conclude that since unspecific mental complaints and symptoms suggesting depression may be misleading, their organic origin has to be excluded.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: About 90% of neurodegenerative diseases with parkinsonism are associated with sleep disorders including daytime sleepiness, sleep-related breathing disorders and parasomnias. It is hard to define what ratio of insomnia and daytime hypersomnia is caused by the antiparkinsonian treatment, by the somatic and mental-emotional symptoms of the neurodegenerative disease and by the neurodegenerative brain process itself. Recent research suggests that the latter group is more important than expected. In Parkinson syndromes the structures included in sleep regulation--mainly within the brainstem--are also affected resulting in specific sleep disorders being the primary biological symptoms of these diseases. The recently described parasomnia--REM sleep behavior disorder--has a specific significance in this respect: it may prevent by several years a high ratio of the parkinsonian disorders--especially synucleinopathies--offering the possibility of prevention by identifying the affected individuals. There seems to exist a similar although less clarified association between daytime sleepiness and Parkinson disease. Analysing the behavior of the orexin system in neurodegenerative diseases may help to learn more about this, recently described neurohumoral system and may clear the association of narcolepsy with neurodegeneration. By understanding the associations of parkinsonian disorders and sleep disorders new therapeutical strategies may be invented and may offer new aspects to understand the mechanism of them.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mortality in epilepsy is 2-3 times higher than in the age- and sex-matched general population. It is the highest in young male epilepsy patients with generalised tonic-clonic seizures living in low socio-economical situation. The main factors of early mortality unrelated to seizures are the neurological conditions underlying epilepsy. Suicide is an important factor first of all in temporal lobe epilepsy. The group of mortality directly related to epilepsy is made up of the high-mortality grand mal status epilepticus rarely seen in treated epilepsy; the accidents related to seizures and sudden unexpected death (SUDEP). The reasons directly related to epilepsy make up about 40 per cent of epilepsy mortality. There is a 20-24-fold increase of the risk of sudden death in epilepsy compared to sudden death in the general population. The main risk of SUDEP is the "severity" of epilepsy signaled by generalized tonic-clonic seizures, resistance to antiepileptic drugs, polytherapy and frequent drug-modifications in adulthood epilepsy. Seizure-dependent autonomic changes as cardiac rhythm and breathing disturbances as well as some antiepileptic drugs and treatment modifications may contribute to the development of SUDEP. The data suggest that the main tools helping to decrease mortality in epilepsy nowadays are as follows: optimal seizure control, effective treatment of concomitant psychiatric conditions and monitoring for potentially dangerous heart dysrhythmias as well as respiration disorders.