Frances Rice

University College London, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

Are you Frances Rice?

Claim your profile

Publications (72)358.8 Total impact

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Affective bias is a common feature of depressive disorder. However, a lack of longitudinal studies means that the temporal relationship between affective bias and depression is not well understood. One group where studies of affective bias may be particularly warranted is the adolescent offspring of depressed parents, given observations of high rates of depression and a severe and impairing course of disorder in this group. A two wave panel design was used in which adolescent offspring of parents with recurrent depression completed a behavioural task assessing affective bias (The Affective Go/No Go Task) and a psychiatric interview. The affective processing of adolescents with current, prior and future depressive disorder was compared to that of adolescents free from disorder. Adolescents with current depression and those who developed depression at follow-up made more commission errors for sad than happy targets compared to adolescents free from disorder. There was no effect of prior depression on later affective processing. Small cell sizes meant we were unable to separately compare those with new onset and recurrent depressive disorder. Valence-specific errors in behavioural inhibition index future vulnerability to depression in adolescents already at increased risk and may represent a measure of affective control. Currently depressed adolescents show a similar pattern of affective bias or deficits in affective control. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 11/2014; 174C:265-271. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2014.11.046 · 3.76 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Adolescence is associated with developments in the reward system and increased rates of emotional disorders. Familial risk for depression may be associated with disruptions in the reward system. However, it is unclear how symptoms of depression and anxiety influence the development of reward-processing over adolescence and whether variation in the severity of parental depression is associated with hyposensitivity to reward in a high-risk sample. Methods We focused on risk-adjustment (adjusting decisions about reward according to the probability of obtaining reward) as this was hypothesized to improve over adolescence. In a one-year longitudinal sample (N=197) of adolescent offspring of depressed parents, we examined how symptoms of depression and anxiety (generalized anxiety and social anxiety) influenced the development of risk-adjustment. We also examined how parental depression severity influenced adolescent risk-adjustment. ResultsRisk-adjustment improved over the course of the study indicating improved adjustment of reward-seeking to shifting contingencies. Depressive symptoms were associated with decreases in risk-adjustment over time while social anxiety symptoms were associated with increases in risk-adjustment over time. Specifically, depression was associated with reductions in reward-seeking at favourable reward probabilities only, whereas social anxiety (but not generalized anxiety) led to reductions in reward-seeking at low reward probabilities only. Parent depression severity was associated with lowered risk-adjustment in offspring and also influenced the longitudinal relationship between risk-adjustment and offspring depression. Conclusions Anxiety and depression distinctly alter the pattern of longitudinal change in reward-processing. Severity of parent depression was associated with alterations in adolescent offspring reward-processing in a high-risk sample.
    Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 06/2014; 55(11). DOI:10.1111/jcpp.12279 · 5.42 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aims and method To determine rates of parent-reported child awareness of parental depression, examine characteristics of parents, children and families according to child awareness, and explore whether child awareness is associated with child psychopathology. Data were available from 271 families participating in the Early Prediction of Adolescent Depression (EPAD) study, a longitudinal study of offspring of parents with recurrent depression. Results Seventy-three per cent of participating children were perceived as being aware of their parent's depression. Older children, and children of parents who experienced more severe depression, were more likely to be aware. Awareness was not associated with child psychopathology. Clinical implications Considering children in the context of parental depression is important. Child awareness may influence their access to early intervention and prevention programmes. Further research is needed to understand the impact of awareness on the child.
    Psychiatric Bulletin 06/2014; 38(3-3):122-127. DOI:10.1192/pb.bp.113.044198
    This article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched format
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Longitudinal studies have provided mixed findings regarding the relationship between emotional problems and subsequent poor school attainment. A meta-analysis of 26 community-based studies of children and adolescents was performed. Results revealed a prospective association between emotional problems and poor school attainment. More consistent associations were found for depression than anxiety. Moderator analyses indicated that some of the heterogeneity between studies may be due to age and gender, with reduced heterogeneity particularly notable for school grades during early adolescence and for anxiety by gender. Findings suggest that early identification and provision of support for young people with emotional problems may be helpful for improving academic outcomes such as school attainment.
    Journal of Adolescence 06/2014; 37(4):335–346. DOI:10.1016/j.adolescence.2014.02.010 · 2.05 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Major depressive disorder (MDD) is often a chronic disorder with relapses usually detected and managed in primary care using a validated depression symptom questionnaire. However, for individuals with recurrent depression the choice of which questionnaire to use and whether a shorter measure could suffice is not established. AIM To compare the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale against shorter PHQ-derived measures for detecting episodes of DSM-IV major depression in primary care patients with recurrent MDD. DESIGN AND SETTING Diagnostic accuracy study of adults with recurrent depression in primary care predominantly from Wales METHOD Scores on each of the depression questionnaire measures were compared with the results of a semi-structured clinical diagnostic interview using Receiver Operating Characteristic curve analysis for 337 adults with recurrent MDD. RESULTS Concurrent questionnaire and interview data were available for 272 participants. The one-month prevalence rate of depression was 22.2%. The area under the curve (AUC) and positive predictive value (PPV) at the derived optimal cut-off value for the three longer questionnaires were comparable (AUC = 0.86-0.90, PPV = 49.4-58.4%) but the AUC for the PHQ-9 was significantly greater than for the PHQ-2. However, by supplementing the PHQ-2 score with items on problems concentrating and feeling slowed down or restless, the AUC (0.91) and the PPV (55.3%) were comparable with those for the PHQ-9. CONCLUSION A novel four-item PHQ-based questionnaire measure of depression performs equivalently to three longer depression questionnaires in identifying depression relapse in patients with recurrent MDD.
    British Journal of General Practice 01/2014; 64(618):e31-7. DOI:10.3399/bjgp14X676438 · 2.03 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Children of depressed parents are at increased risk of developing mood disorders but mechanisms of intrafamilial transmission are currently unclear. One rarely investigated area is the impact of depression on a parent's everyday functioning. Currently there are no validated assessments of depression-specific parental impairment. The creation of such a measure would complement depression symptom counts, providing a more comprehensive account of the parent's depression. We therefore aimed to develop a valid and reliable measure of impairment specifically associated with parental depression. In a longitudinal study of parents with recurrent unipolar depression and their offspring, we collected data from 337 parents. These participants completed the Depression Impairment Scale for Parents (DISP), a questionnaire assessing depression-associated impairment in multiple domains of functioning. Factor analysis revealed that this measure consisted of two factors - impairment in routine tasks/activities and impairment in family functioning - that together accounted for 51.04% of variance. The scale evidenced good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.82). The DISP also displayed good construct and criterion validity as evidenced by significant associations with established measures of depression severity and global impairment. These results demonstrate that the DISP is a valid and reliable measure of depression-associated impairment in parents.
    09/2013; 210(3). DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2013.08.001
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To disaggregate the depression construct and investigate whether specific depression symptoms in parents with a history of recurrent depression are clinical risk markers for future depression in their high-risk offspring. Our hypothesis was that parental symptoms of the type that might impact offspring would most likely be of greatest importance. Data were drawn from a longitudinal high-risk family study. Families were mainly recruited from primary care and included 337 parent-child dyads. Parents had a history of recurrent DSM-IV unipolar depression and were aged 26-55 years. Their offspring (197 female and 140 male) were aged 9-17 years. Three assessments were conducted between April 2007 and April 2011. Ninety-one percent of families (n = 305) provided full interview data at baseline and at least 1 follow-up, of which 291 were included in the primary analysis. The main outcome measure was new-onset DSM-IV mood disorder in the offspring, which was assessed using the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment. Of the 9 DSM-IV depression symptoms, parental change in appetite or weight, specifically loss of appetite or weight, most strongly predicted new-onset mood disorder (odds ratio [OR] = 4.47; 95% CI, 2.04-9.79; P < .001) and future depression symptoms in the offspring (β = 0.12; B = 0.21; 95% CI, 0.00-0.42; P = .050). The cross-generational association was not accounted for by measures of parental depression severity (total depression symptom score, episode recurrence, age at onset, and past impairment or hospitalization) or other potential confounds (parent physical health, eating disorder, or medication). Findings from this study suggest that loss of appetite or weight in parents with a history of recurrent depression is a marker of risk for depression in their offspring. The findings highlight the importance of examining depression heterogeneity. The biological and environmental mechanisms underlying this finding require investigation.
    The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 09/2013; 74(9):925-931. DOI:10.4088/JCP.12m08152 · 5.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An enduring tendency towards negative thinking is thought to increase vulnerability for future depression. However, it has not been possible to assess this tendency in non-depressed mood states. We examined if response latency to endorse dysfunctional attitudes is associated with depressive outcomes in a longitudinal study. A sample of young people at familial risk of depression (N = 252, aged 10-19, 56.3 % female) completed a computer-administered dysfunctional attitude scale. The main outcome measure was the difference in reaction time to agree versus disagree with dysfunctional attitudes. Cross-sectional differences between current and previous depression and no psychiatric disorder groups as well as longitudinal associations with depressive symptoms were examined. Young people with current and previous depression were quicker to agree with dysfunctional attitudes than those without disorder. In young people free from depressive disorder, faster agreements with dysfunctional attitudes were specifically associated with increased depressive symptoms over time. Self-reported dysfunctional attitudes did not differentiate the formerly depressed and no disorder groups and showed a longitudinal association with depressive symptoms for older adolescents only. Reaction time to endorse dysfunctional attitudes may indicate changes in affective processing that represent an early risk for future depression that is not indexed by self-report measures of negative thought.
    Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 05/2013; DOI:10.1007/s10802-013-9760-x · 3.09 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This longitudinal study of adolescents in the first year of secondary school, examined the relationship between psychological functioning at the beginning of year 7 (mean age 11.25 years) with attainment at the end of year 7 (mean age 11.78 years). Depressive symptoms, school liking and conduct problems predicted lower attainment across time having controlled for the temporal stability in psychological functioning and attainment. School concerns predicted lower attainment for boys only, and the effects of depressive symptoms on later attainment were significantly stronger for boys compared to girls. School liking - and school concerns for boys - remained significant predictors of attainment when controlling for conduct problems. The transition to secondary school may represent a window of opportunity for developing interventions aimed at improving both pupil psychological functioning and attainment.
    Journal of Adolescence 04/2013; 36(3). DOI:10.1016/j.adolescence.2013.03.002 · 2.05 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Parental depression is associated with disruptions in the parent-child relationship, exposure to stressful family life events, and offspring depressive symptoms. Evidence suggests that intergenerational transmission of depression involves environmental and inherited contributions. We sought to evaluate the role of passive gene-environment correlation (rGE) in relation to depression, family life events that were due to parental behavior, and parental positivity in a sample where children varied in genetic relatedness to their rearing parents. Our study included 865 families with children born through assisted conception (444 related to both parents, 210 related to the mother only, 175 related to the father only, and 36 related to neither parent). Consistent with previous studies, the intergenerational transmission of depressive symptoms was largely due to environmental factors, although parent and child gender influenced results. Maternal and paternal depressive symptoms were associated with reduced positivity and increased parentally imposed life events regardless of parent-child relatedness. Results of path analysis were consistent with passive rGE for both maternal and paternal positivity in that positivity partially mediated the link between maternal/paternal depression and child depression only in genetically related parent-child pairs. Results also suggested passive rGE involving parentally imposed life events for mothers and fathers although passive rGE effects were smaller than for positivity.
    Development and Psychopathology 02/2013; 25(1):37-50. DOI:10.1017/S0954579412000880 · 4.40 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The way people look at faces is thought to be consistent across the non-clinical population and stable over time. We tested this hypothesis, tracking the gaze of 160 visitors to the London Science Museum as they saw movies and pictures of faces, one of which was their own. Afterwards they answered mood and personality questionnaires. We found a network of relationships linking individual differences to the duration of looks to the eyes and mouths of others and the self. Women looked more at other people's eyes than their own, whereas men behaved in the opposite way. Looks to the mouth, for example, were influenced by an interaction between mood and emotional regulation. Later experiments manipulated either mood or emotional regulation and produced consistent patterns of eye movements. Against the prevailing view, we show that the way that people look at faces is subtly determined by personality, goals and emotions.
    Fourteenth Annual Meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology; 01/2013
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Past research has linked interparental conflict, parent psychopathology, hostile parenting, and externalizing behavior problems in childhood. However, few studies have examined these relationships while simultaneously allowing the contribution of common genetic factors underlying associations between family- and parent-level variables on child psychopathology to be controlled. Using the attributes of a genetically sensitive in vitro fertilization research design, the present study examined associations among interparental conflict, parents' antisocial behavior problems, parents' anxiety symptoms, and hostile parenting on children's antisocial behavior problems among genetically related and genetically unrelated mother-child and father-child groupings. Path analyses revealed that for genetically related mothers, interparental conflict and maternal antisocial behavior indirectly influenced child antisocial behavior through mother-to-child hostility. For genetically unrelated mothers, effects were apparent only for maternal antisocial behavior on child antisocial behavior through mother-to-child hostility. For both genetically related and genetically unrelated fathers and children, interparental conflict and paternal antisocial behavior influenced child antisocial behavior through father-to-child hostility. Effects of parental anxiety symptoms on child antisocial behavior were apparent only for genetically related mothers and children. Results are discussed with respect to the relative role of passive genotype-environment correlation as a possible confounding factor underlying family process influences on childhood psychopathology.
    Development and Psychopathology 11/2012; 24(4):1283-95. DOI:10.1017/S0954579412000703 · 4.40 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Offspring of mothers with depression are at heightened risk of psychiatric disorder. Many mothers with depression have comorbid psychopathology. How these co-occurring problems affect child outcomes has rarely been considered. AIMS: To consider whether the overall burden of co-occurring psychopathology in mothers with recurrent depression predicts new-onset psychopathology in offspring. METHOD: Mothers with recurrent depression and their adolescent offspring (9-17 years at baseline) were assessed in 2007 and on two further occasions up to 2011. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing depression severity, anxiety, alcohol problems and antisocial behaviour. Psychiatric disorder in offspring was assessed using the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment. RESULTS: The number of co-occurring problems in mothers (0, 1 or 2+) predicted new-onset offspring disorder (odds ratio (OR) = 1.80, 95% CI 1.17-2.77, P = 0.007). Rates varied from 15.7 to 34.8% depending on the number of co-occurring clinical problems. This remained significant after controlling for maternal depression severity (OR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.03-2.89, P = 0.040). CONCLUSIONS: The burden of co-occurring psychopathology among mothers with recurrent depression indexes increased risk of future onset of psychiatric disorder for offspring. This knowledge can be used in targeting preventive measures in children at high risk of psychiatric disorder.
    The British journal of psychiatry: the journal of mental science 10/2012; 202(2). DOI:10.1192/bjp.bp.111.104984 · 6.62 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Emerging evidence suggests that early intervention and prevention programmes for mental health problems in the offspring of parents with depression are important. Such programmes are difficult to implement if children with psychiatric disorder are not identified and are not accessing services, even if their parents are known to primary care. To investigate service use in children of parents who have recurrent depression, and factors that influence such contact. A total of 333 families were recruited, mainly through primary health care, in which at least one parent had received treatment for recurrent depression and had a child aged 9-17 years. Psychiatric assessments of parents and children were completed using research diagnostic interviews. The service-use interview recorded current (in the 3 months prior to interview) and lifetime contact with health, educational, and social services due to concerns about the child's emotions or behaviour. Only 37% of children who met criteria for psychiatric disorder were in contact with any service at the time of interview. A third, who were suicidal or self-harming and had a psychiatric disorder at that time, were not in contact with any service. Lack of parental worry predicted lower service use, with higher rates in children with comorbidity and suicidality. Most children with a psychiatric disorder in this high-risk sample were not in contact with services. Improving ease of access to services, increasing parental and professional awareness that mental health problems can cluster in families, and improving links between adult and child services may help early detection and intervention strategies for the offspring of parents with depression.
    British Journal of General Practice 07/2012; 62(600):e487-93. DOI:10.3399/bjgp12X652355 · 2.03 Impact Factor
  • Adhip Rawal, Frances Rice
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Deficits in specific autobiographical memory retrieval are closely associated with depression. The ability to retrieve specific autobiographical memories develops throughout childhood and adolescence and is associated with adolescent depression within and across time. Studying young samples before they first experience depression provides an approach for testing processes that underlie reduced autobiographical memory specificity. This study is the first to examine the longitudinal association of rumination and executive function with autobiographical memory specificity in a sample of adolescents at elevated risk for future depression. A total of 259 adolescents (aged between 10 and 18 years) completed the Autobiographical Memory Test at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Measures of rumination, executive function, and depressive symptoms were obtained at baseline. The interaction between rumination and executive function predicted autobiographical memory specificity over time. Whereas rumination in the context of low executive function predicted reduced specificity, this was not the case in the context of high executive function. The interaction between rumination and executive function was independent of the effects of age, gender, IQ, baseline levels of memory specificity, and depressive symptoms.
    Memory 05/2012; 20(5):518-26. DOI:10.1080/09658211.2012.683011 · 2.09 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Alterations in reward processing may represent an early vulnerability factor for the development of depressive disorder. Depression in adults is associated with reward hyposensitivity and diminished reward seeking may also be a feature of depression in children and adolescents. We examined the role of reward responding in predicting depressive symptoms, functional impairment and new-onset depressive disorder over time in the adolescent offspring of depressed parents. In addition, we examined group differences in reward responding between currently depressed adolescents, psychiatric and healthy controls, and also cross-sectional associations between reward responding and measures of positive social/environmental functioning.Method We conducted a 1-year longitudinal study of adolescents at familial risk for depression (n=197; age range 10-18 years). Reward responding and self-reported social/environmental functioning were assessed at baseline. Clinical interviews determined diagnostic status at baseline and at follow-up. Reports of depressive symptoms and functional impairment were also obtained. RESULTS: Low reward seeking predicted depressive symptoms and new-onset depressive disorder at the 1-year follow-up in individuals free from depressive disorder at baseline, independently of baseline depressive symptoms. Reduced reward seeking also predicted functional impairment. Adolescents with current depressive disorder were less reward seeking (i.e. bet less at favourable odds) than adolescents free from psychopathology and those with externalizing disorders. Reward seeking showed positive associations with social and environmental functioning (extra-curricular activities, humour, friendships) and was negatively associated with anhedonia. There were no group differences in impulsivity, decision making or psychomotor slowing. CONCLUSIONS: Reward seeking predicts depression severity and onset in adolescents at elevated risk of depression. Adaptive reward responses may be amenable to change through modification of existing preventive psychological interventions.
    Psychological Medicine 05/2012; DOI:10.1017/S0033291712001158 · 5.43 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Parents with depression are thought to be unreliable reporters of children's depression symptoms, but findings are contradictory and primarily focus on discrepancies between parent and child reports rather than on the predictive validity of informants. Using a sample of parents with recurrent depression, our analyses utilised data from a prospective high-risk longitudinal study (the Early Prediction of Adolescent Depression study) to investigate whether baseline parental reports of child depression symptoms predicted new onset mood disorder (NOMD) in children. The sample included 287 parents with a history of recurrent depression and their adolescent offspring (aged 9-17 at baseline). Families were assessed at three time points. The Child and Adolescent Psychiatric assessment (parent and child versions) was used to assess the number of child depression symptoms (computed separately by informant at baseline) and NOMD at follow-up. All DSM-IV diagnoses were confirmed by two child psychiatrists. Parent reports of child depression symptoms at baseline significantly predicted NOMD in children. Secondary analyses stratifying the sample according to child age showed that, for younger children, parent reports were significantly better at predicting NOMD compared to child reports. For children aged 12 or older, there were no significant differences between parent and child reports in predicting NOMD. The pattern of association remained the same once we controlled for baseline levels of parental depression. Not all parents were currently experiencing an episode of depression at the baseline assessments; the sample consisted predominantly of mothers, thus findings may not be applicable to fathers or families without a history of parental depression. In this high risk sample, child and parent ratings of depression predict new onset child mood disorder to a similar degree. Clinicians and researchers should give due consideration to parent ratings of their children's depression symptoms, regardless of whether the parent suffers with depression.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 05/2012; 141(2-3):233-6. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2012.03.008 · 3.76 Impact Factor
  • Adhip Rawal, Frances Rice
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Identifying risk factors for adolescent depression is an important research aim. Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is a feature of adolescent depression and a candidate cognitive risk factor for future depression. However, no study has ascertained whether OGM predicts the onset of adolescent depressive disorder. OGM was investigated as a predictor of depressive disorder and symptoms in a longitudinal study of high-risk adolescents. In addition, cross-sectional associations between OGM and current depression and OGM differences between depressed adolescents with different clinical outcomes were examined over time. A 1-year longitudinal study of adolescents at familial risk for depression (n = 277, 10-18 years old) was conducted. Autobiographical memory was assessed at baseline. Clinical interviews assessed diagnostic status at baseline and follow-up. Currently depressed adolescents showed an OGM bias compared with adolescents with no disorder and those with anxiety or externalizing disorders. OGM to negative cues predicted the onset of depressive disorder and depressive symptoms at follow-up in adolescents free from depressive disorder at baseline. This effect was independent of the contribution of age, IQ, and baseline depressive symptoms. OGM did not predict onset of anxiety or externalizing disorders. Adolescents with depressive disorder at both assessments were not more overgeneral than adolescents who recovered from depressive disorder over the follow-up period. OGM to negative cues predicted the onset of depressive disorder (but not other disorders) and depressive symptoms over time in adolescents at familial risk for depression. Results are consistent with OGM as a risk factor for depression.
    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 05/2012; 51(5):518-27. DOI:10.1016/j.jaac.2012.02.025 · 6.97 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Journal of Affective Disorders 01/2012; · 3.71 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A number of public health interventions aimed at increasing the uptake of breastfeeding are in place in the United States and other Western countries. While the physical health and nutritional benefits of breastfeeding for the mother and child are relatively well established, the evidence for psychological effects is less clear. This study aimed to examine whether there is an association between breastfeeding and later conduct problems in children. It also considered the extent to which any relationship is attributable to maternally-provided inherited characteristics that influence both likelihood of breastfeeding and child conduct problems. A prenatal cross-fostering design with a sample of 870 families with a child aged 4-11 years was used. Mothers were genetically related or unrelated to their child as a result of assisted reproductive technologies. The relationship between breastfeeding and conduct problems was assessed while controlling for theorised measured confounders by multivariate regression (e.g. maternal smoking, education, and antisocial behaviour), and for unmeasured inherited factors by testing associations separately for related and unrelated mother-child pairs. Breastfeeding was associated with lower levels of conduct disorder symptoms in offspring in middle childhood. Breastfeeding was associated with lower levels of conduct problems even after controlling for observed confounders in the genetically related group, but not in the genetically unrelated group. In contrast, maternal antisocial behaviour showed robust associations with child conduct problems after controlling for measured and inherited confounders. These findings highlight the importance of using genetically sensitive designs in order to test causal environmental influences.
    European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 12/2011; 20(11-12):571-9. DOI:10.1007/s00787-011-0224-y · 3.70 Impact Factor
    This article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched format

Publication Stats

2k Citations
358.80 Total Impact Points


  • 2009–2014
    • University College London
      • • Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology
      • • Division of Psychology and Language Sciences
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2002–2013
    • Cardiff University
      • • MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics & Genomics
      • • Department of Psychological Medicine and Neurology
      Cardiff, WLS, United Kingdom
  • 2012
    • University of Leicester
      • School of Psychology
      Leicester, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2010
    • University of Otago
      • Department of Psychology
      Dunedin, Otago, New Zealand
  • 2007
    • Virginia Commonwealth University
      Richmond, Virginia, United States
  • 2003–2007
    • University of South Wales
      Понтиприте, Wales, United Kingdom
  • 2001–2005
    • University of Wales
      • College of Medicine
      Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom
  • 1999
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • Department of Psychiatry
      San Luis, Missouri, United States