[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ARTD1 (PARP1) is a key enzyme involved in DNA repair through the synthesis of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) in response to strand breaks, and it plays an important role in cell death following excessive DNA damage. ARTD1-induced cell death is associated with NAD(+) depletion and ATP loss; however, the molecular mechanism of ARTD1-mediated energy collapse remains elusive. Using real-time metabolic measurements, we compared the effects of ARTD1 activation and direct NAD(+) depletion. We found that ARTD1-mediated PAR synthesis, but not direct NAD(+) depletion, resulted in a block to glycolysis and ATP loss. We then established a proteomics-based PAR interactome after DNA damage and identified hexokinase 1 (HK1) as a PAR binding protein. HK1 activity is suppressed following nuclear ARTD1 activation and binding by PAR. These findings help explain how prolonged activation of ARTD1 triggers energy collapse and cell death, revealing insight into the importance of nucleus-to-mitochondria communication via ARTD1 activation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Excessive poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) activation kills cells via a cell-death process designated "parthanatos" in which PAR induces the mitochondrial release and nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor to initiate chromatinolysis and cell death. Accompanying the formation of PAR are the reduction of cellular NAD(+) and energetic collapse, which have been thought to be caused by the consumption of cellular NAD(+) by PARP-1. Here we show that the bioenergetic collapse following PARP-1 activation is not dependent on NAD(+) depletion. Instead PARP-1 activation initiates glycolytic defects via PAR-dependent inhibition of hexokinase, which precedes the NAD(+) depletion in N-methyl-N-nitroso-N-nitroguanidine (MNNG)-treated cortical neurons. Mitochondrial defects are observed shortly after PARP-1 activation and are mediated largely through defective glycolysis, because supplementation of the mitochondrial substrates pyruvate and glutamine reverse the PARP-1-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. Depleting neurons of NAD(+) with FK866, a highly specific noncompetitive inhibitor of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, does not alter glycolysis or mitochondrial function. Hexokinase, the first regulatory enzyme to initiate glycolysis by converting glucose to glucose-6-phosphate, contains a strong PAR-binding motif. PAR binds to hexokinase and inhibits hexokinase activity in MNNG-treated cortical neurons. Preventing PAR formation with PAR glycohydrolase prevents the PAR-dependent inhibition of hexokinase. These results indicate that bioenergetic collapse induced by overactivation of PARP-1 is caused by PAR-dependent inhibition of glycolysis through inhibition of hexokinase.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2014; 111(28). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1405158111 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The BRCA1-associated deubiquitylase BAP1 is mutated in several cancers, most notably mesothelioma and melanoma, where it is thought to promote oncogenesis. In this study, we present evidence that BAP1 functions as part of the DNA damage response (DDR). We found that BAP1 mediates rapid poly(ADP-ribose)-dependent recruitment of the Polycomb deubiquitylase complex PR-DUB to sites of DNA damage. Further, we identified BAP1 as a phosphorylation target for the DDR kinase ATM. Functionally, BAP1 promoted repair of DNA double-strand breaks, enhancing cell survival after DNA damage. Our results highlight the importance of ubiquitin turnover at sites of DNA damage, and they provide a mechanism to account for the tumor suppressor function of BAP1.
Cancer Research 06/2014; 74(16). DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-13-3109 · 9.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mitotic spindle is crucial to achieve segregation of sister chromatids. To identify new mitotic spindle assembly regulators, we isolated 855 microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) from Drosophila melanogaster mitotic or interphasic embryos. Using RNAi, we screened 96 poorly characterized genes in the Drosophila central nervous system to establish their possible role during spindle assembly. We found that Ensconsin/MAP7 mutant neuroblasts display shorter metaphase spindles, a defect caused by a reduced microtubule polymerization rate and enhanced by centrosome ablation. In agreement with a direct effect in regulating spindle length, Ensconsin overexpression triggered an increase in spindle length in S2 cells, whereas purified Ensconsin stimulated microtubule polymerization in vitro. Interestingly, ensc-null mutant flies also display defective centrosome separation and positioning during interphase, a phenotype also detected in kinesin-1 mutants. Collectively, our results suggest that Ensconsin cooperates with its binding partner Kinesin-1 during interphase to trigger centrosome separation. In addition, Ensconsin promotes microtubule polymerization during mitosis to control spindle length independent of Kinesin-1.
The Journal of Cell Biology 03/2014; 204(7):1111-21. DOI:10.1083/jcb.201311094 · 9.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) regulates a number of important cellular processes. Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) is the primary enzyme responsible for hydrolyzing the poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymer in vivo. Here we report crystal structures of the mouse PARG (mPARG) catalytic domain, its complexes with ADP-ribose (ADPr) and a PARG inhibitor ADP-HPD, as well as four PARG catalytic residues mutants. With these structures and biochemical analysis of 20 mPARG mutants, we provide a structural basis for understanding how the PAR polymer is recognized and hydrolyzed by mPARG. The structures and activity complementation experiment also suggest how the N-terminal flexible peptide preceding the PARG catalytic domain may regulate the enzymatic activity of PARG. This study contributes to our understanding of PARG catalytic and regulatory mechanisms as well as the rational design of PARG inhibitors.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e86010. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0086010 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We demonstrate a novel method for the identification of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) auto-poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation sites that is suited to collision induced dissociation (CID) tandem mass spectrometry. By employing phosphodiesterase to remove the majority of the poly(ADP-ribose) (pADPr) modification, we reduce the complexity of tandem mass spectrometric analysis of pADPr-modified tryptic peptides. The simplified ribose-5'-phosphate form of the peptides produce tandem mass spectra by CID that are readily interpreted and enable effective localization of the exact sites of PARP-1-catalyzed poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. In conjunction with a phosphopeptide-like enrichment strategy that captures the ribose-5'-phosphate peptides, we identified eight novel sites of PARP-1 automodification, confirmed the localization of two sites previously reported and provided evidence for two additional targeted peptides with ambiguous modification site assignments. Given the simplicity of the approach, the method is readily applicable to analysis of complex samples.
Journal of Proteome Research 02/2013; 12(4). DOI:10.1021/pr301219h · 4.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a posttranslational modification catalyzed by the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). These enzymes covalently modify glutamic, aspartic and lysine amino acid side chains of acceptor proteins by the sequential addition of ADP-ribose (ADPr) units. The poly(ADP-ribose) (pADPr) polymers formed alter the physico-chemical characteristics of the substrate with functional consequences on its biological activities. Recently, non-covalent binding to pADPr has emerged as a key mechanism to modulate and coordinate several intracellular pathways including the DNA damage response, protein stability and cell death. In this review, we describe the basis of non-covalent binding to pADPr that have led to the emerging concept of pADPr-responsive signaling pathways. This review emphasizes the structural elements and the modular strategies developed by pADPr-binding proteins to exert a fine-tuned control of a variety of pathways. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation reactions are highly regulated processes, both spatially and temporally, for which at least four specialized pADPr-binding modules accommodate different pADPr structures and reprogram protein functions. In this review, we highlight the role of well-characterized and newly discovered pADPr-binding modules in a diverse set of physiological functions.
Molecular Aspects of Medicine 12/2012; 34(6). DOI:10.1016/j.mam.2012.12.005 · 10.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: After the generation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is one of the first proteins to be recruited and activated through its binding to the free DNA ends. Upon activation, PARP-1 uses NAD(+) to generate large amounts of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR), which facilitates the recruitment of DNA repair factors. Here, we identify the RNA-binding protein NONO, a partner protein of SFPQ, as a novel PAR-binding protein. The protein motif being primarily responsible for PAR-binding is the RNA recognition motif 1 (RRM1), which is also crucial for RNA-binding, highlighting a competition between RNA and PAR as they share the same binding site. Strikingly, the in vivo recruitment of NONO to DNA damage sites completely depends on PAR, generated by activated PARP-1. Furthermore, we show that upon PAR-dependent recruitment, NONO stimulates nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and represses homologous recombination (HR) in vivo. Our results therefore place NONO after PARP activation in the context of DNA DSB repair pathway decision. Understanding the mechanism of action of proteins that act in the same pathway as PARP-1 is crucial to shed more light onto the effect of interference on PAR-mediated pathways with PARP inhibitors, which have already reached phase III clinical trials but are until date poorly understood.
Nucleic Acids Research 08/2012; 40(20). DOI:10.1093/nar/gks798 · 9.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Poly(ADP-ribose) (pADPr) is heterogenic molecule synthesized from NAD by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). Multiple cellular functions are affected by pADPr through its network of associated proteins ranging from genome integrity surveillance, cell cycle progression, DNA repair to apoptosis. Using quantitative proteomics, we established a temporal map of pADPr-associated complexes upon genotoxic stress. Results suggested a strong pADPr-association of multiple proteins involved in stress granule formation, notably G3BP, in latter phases of alkylation-stress-induced cells. Further investigation with dynamic imaging clearly demonstrated a pADPr-dependent initiation of stress granule assembly originating from the nucleus. The co-transfection of G3BP with poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase PARG indicates that pADPr is involved in modulating the nuclear shuttling of G3BP. Moreover, a peptide pADPr blot assay of G3BP revealed that pADPr binds to the glycine-arginine rich domain of G3BP. Thereafter, we established a comprehensive G3BP interactome in presence of pADPr. Our findings establish a novel function for pADPr in the formation of G3BP-induced stress granules upon genotoxic stress.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Upon DNA damage induction, DNA-dependent poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) synthesize an anionic poly(ADP-ribose) (pADPr) scaffold to which several proteins bind with the subsequent formation of pADPr-associated multiprotein complexes. We have used a combination of affinity-purification methods and proteomics approaches to isolate these complexes and assess protein dynamics with respect to pADPr metabolism. As a first approach, we developed a substrate trapping strategy by which we demonstrate that a catalytically inactive Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) mutant can act as a physiologically selective bait for the isolation of specific pADPr-binding proteins through its macrodomain-like domain. In addition to antibody-mediated affinity-purification methods, we used a pADPr macrodomain affinity resin to recover pADPr-binding proteins and their complexes. Second, we designed a time course experiment to explore the changes in the composition of pADPr-containing multiprotein complexes in response to alkylating DNA damage-mediated PARP activation. Spectral count clustering based on GeLC-MS/MS analysis was complemented with further analyses using high precision quantitative proteomics through isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)- and Stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based proteomics. Here, we present a valuable resource in the interpretation of systems biology of the DNA damage response network in the context of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation and provide a basis for subsequent investigations of pADPr-binding protein candidates.
Nucleic Acids Research 06/2012; 40(16):7788-805. DOI:10.1093/nar/gks486 · 9.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are involved in epigenetic silencing where they function as major determinants of cell identity,
stem cell pluripotency and the epigenetic gene silencing involved in cancer development. Recently numerous PcG proteins, including
CBX4, have been shown to accumulate at sites of DNA damage. However, it remains unclear whether or not CBX4 or its E3 sumo
ligase activity is directly involved in the DNA damage response (DDR). Here we define a novel role for CBX4 as an early DDR
protein that mediates SUMO conjugation at sites of DNA lesions. DNA damage stimulates sumoylation of BMI1 by CBX4 at lysine
88, which is required for the accumulation of BMI1 at DNA damage sites. Moreover, we establish that CBX4 recruitment to the
sites of laser micro-irradiation-induced DNA damage requires PARP activity but does not require H2AX, RNF8, BMI1 nor PI-3-related
kinases. The importance of CBX4 in the DDR was confirmed by the depletion of CBX4, which resulted in decreased cellular resistance
to ionizing radiation. Our results reveal a direct role for CBX4 in the DDR pathway.
Nucleic Acids Research 03/2012; 40(12):5497-510. DOI:10.1093/nar/gks222 · 9.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PARP-1 is an abundant nuclear protein that plays an essential role in the regulation of many genome integrity and chromatin-based processes, such as DNA repair, replication or transcriptional regulation. PARP-1 modulates the function of chromatin and nuclear proteins through several poly(ADP-ribose) (pADPr)-dependent pathways. Aside from the clearly established role of PARP-1 in the maintenance of genome stability, PARP-1 also emerged as an important regulator that links chromatin functions with extranuclear compartments. pADPr signaling has notably been found to be responsible for PARP-1-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death. Defining the mechanisms that govern the intrinsic functions of PARP-1 is fundamental to the understanding of signaling networks regulated by pADPr. The emergence of mass spectrometry-based proteomics and its broad applications in the study of biological systems represents an outstanding opportunity to widen our knowledge of the functional spectrum of PARP-1. In this article, we summarize various PARP-1 targeted proteomics studies and proteome-wide analyses that shed light on its protein interaction partners, expression levels and post-translational modifications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) is a major M-phase kinase which requires the binding to a regulatory protein, Cyclin B, to be active. CDK1/Cyclin B complex is called M-phase promoting factor (MPF) for its key role in controlling both meiotic and mitotic M-phase of the cell cycle. CDK1 inactivation is necessary for oocyte activation and initiation of embryo development. This complex process requires both Cyclin B polyubiquitination and proteosomal degradation via the ubiquitin-conjugation pathway, followed by the dephosphorylation of the monomeric CDK1 on Thr161. Previous proteomic analyses revealed a number of CDK1-associated proteins in human HeLa cells. It is, however, unknown whether specific partners are involved in CDK1 inactivation upon M-phase exit. To better understand CDK1 regulation during MII-arrest and oocyte activation, we immunoprecipitated (IPed) CDK1 together with its associated proteins from M-phase-arrested and M-phase-exiting Xenopus laevis oocytes. A mass spectrometry (MS) analysis revealed a number of new putative CDK1 partners. Most importantly, the composition of the CDK1-associated complex changed rapidly during M-phase exit. Additionally, an analysis of CDK1 complexes precipitated with beads covered with p9 protein, a fission yeast suc1 homologue well known for its high affinity for CDKs, was performed to identify the most abundant proteins associated with CDK1. The screen was auto-validated by identification of: (i) two forms of CDK1: Cdc2A and B, (ii) a set of Cyclins B with clearly diminishing number of peptides identified upon M-phase exit, (iii) a number of known CDK1 substrates (e.g. peroxiredoxine) and partners (e.g. HSPA8, a member of the HSP70 family) both in IP and in p9 precipitated pellets. In IP samples we also identified chaperones, which can modulate CDK1 three-dimensional structure, as well as calcineurin, a protein necessary for successful oocyte activation. These results shed a new light on CDK1 regulation via a dynamic change in the composition of the protein complex upon M-phase exit and the oocyte to embryo transition.
The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 09/2011; 44(1):53-64. DOI:10.1016/j.biocel.2011.09.003 · 4.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ubiquitin mediated protein degradation is crucial for regulation of cell signaling and protein quality control. Poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) is a cell-signaling molecule that mediates changes in protein function through binding at PAR binding sites. Here we characterize the PAR binding protein, Iduna, and show that it is a PAR-dependent ubiquitin E3 ligase. Iduna's E3 ligase activity requires PAR binding because point mutations at Y156A and R157A eliminate Iduna's PAR binding and Iduna's E3 ligase activity. Iduna's E3 ligase activity also requires an intact really interesting new gene (RING) domain because Iduna possessing point mutations at either H54A or C60A is devoid of ubiquitination activity. Tandem affinity purification reveals that Iduna binds to a number of proteins that are either PARsylated or bind PAR including PAR polymerase-1, 2 (PARP1, 2), nucleolin, DNA ligase III, KU70, KU86, XRCC1, and histones. PAR binding to Iduna activates its E3 ligase function, and PAR binding is required for Iduna ubiquitination of PARP1, XRCC1, DNA ligase III, and KU70. Iduna's PAR-dependent ubiquitination of PARP1 targets it for proteasomal degradation. Via PAR binding and ubiquitin E3 ligase activity, Iduna protects against cell death induced by the DNA damaging agent N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and rescues cells from G1 arrest and promotes cell survival after γ-irradiation. Moreover, Iduna facilitates DNA repair by reducing apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites after MNNG exposure and facilitates DNA repair following γ-irradiation as assessed by the comet assay. These results define Iduna as a PAR-dependent E3 ligase that regulates cell survival and DNA repair.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 08/2011; 108(34):14103-8. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1108799108 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Werner syndrome (WS) is characterized by the premature onset of several age-associated pathologies. The protein defective in WS patients (WRN) is a helicase/exonuclease involved in DNA repair, replication, telomere maintenance, and transcription. Here, we present the results of a large-scale proteome analysis to determine protein partners of WRN. We expressed fluorescent tagged-WRN (eYFP-WRN) in human 293 embryonic kidney cells and detected interacting proteins by co-immunoprecipitation from cell extract. We identified by mass spectrometry 220 nuclear proteins that complexed with WRN. This number was reduced to 40 when broad-spectrum nucleases were added to the lysate. We consider these 40 proteins as directly interacting with WRN. Some of these proteins have previously been shown to interact with WRN, whereas most are new partners. Among the top 15 hits, we find the new interactors TMPO, HNRNPU, RPS3, RALY, RPS9 DDX21, and HNRNPM. These proteins are likely important components in understanding the function of WRN in preventing premature aging and deserve further investigation. We have confirmed endogenous WRN interaction with endogenous RPS3, a ribosomal protein with endonuclease activities involved in oxidative DNA damage recognition. Our results suggest that the use of nucleases during cell lysis severely restricts interacting protein partners and thus enhances specificity.Keywords: LC-MS/MS; proteomics; Werner syndrome; ribosomal protein; nuclease treatments
Journal of Proteome Research 02/2011; 10(3). DOI:10.1021/pr100990s · 4.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases have been linked to several cellular functions, most of which being mediated through the dynamics of poly(ADP-ribose) (pADPr). In several pathways, pADPr is the effector molecule that regulates cellular signaling and dictates biological outcomes. pAPDr is a central molecule that is capable of promoting both cell survival through the maintenance of genome integrity and cell death that occurs by way of a signal-mediated apoptotic-like process. Thus, interactions with pADPr are extremely important in bringing about the balanced regulation that controls cell fate. Further clues regarding these functions are emerging from a growing list of proteins with which pADPr interacts. Here, we describe the current approaches for investigating noncovalent protein interactions with pADPr.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dlx homeobox genes play a crucial role in the migration and differentiation of the subpallial precursor cells that give rise to various subtypes of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-expressing neurons of the forebrain, including local-circuit cortical interneurons. Aberrant development of GABAergic interneurons has been linked to several neurodevelopmental disorders, including epilepsy, schizophrenia, Rett syndrome and autism. Here, we report in mice that a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) found in an autistic proband falls within a functional protein binding site in an ultraconserved cis-regulatory element. This element, I56i, is involved in regulating Dlx5/Dlx6 homeobox gene expression in the developing forebrain. We show that the SNP results in reduced I56i activity, predominantly in the medial and caudal ganglionic eminences and in streams of neurons tangentially migrating to the cortex. Reduced activity is also observed in GABAergic interneurons of the adult somatosensory cortex. The SNP affects the affinity of Dlx proteins for their binding site in vitro and reduces the transcriptional activation of the enhancer by Dlx proteins. Affinity purification using I56i sequences led to the identification of a novel regulator of Dlx gene expression, general transcription factor 2 I (Gtf2i), which is among the genes most often deleted in Williams-Beuren syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder. This study illustrates the clear functional consequences of a single nucleotide variation in an ultraconserved non-coding sequence in the context of developmental abnormalities associated with disease.
Development 09/2010; 137(18):3089-97. DOI:10.1242/dev.051052 · 6.46 Impact Factor