[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Prospective cohort studies have shown that seafood consumption is inversely related to fatal coronary heart disease, sudden cardiac death and stroke. We studied whether the kind of seafood consumed in addition to seafood consumption per se is associated with out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) of cardiac origin.
Methods and results
We compared the average consumption of different kinds of seafood and other risk factors to the average incidence of age-adjusted OHCA (660,672 cases of OHCA: 55.2% of cardiac origin and 44.8% of non-cardiac origin) between 2005 and 2010 in the 47 prefectures of Japan. There were many significant correlations between the incidence of age-adjusted OHCA of cardiac origin (ad-OHCA-CO) and the consumption of many kinds of seafood, but not the total consumption of seafood. The consumption of horse mackerel (r = − 0.568, p < 0.0001) and saury (r = 0.607, p < 0.0001) showed the highest negative and positive correlations, respectively, with the age-adjusted incidence of ad-OHCA-CO.
In Japan, the consumption of different kinds of seafood may be an important factor in OHCA of cardiac origin. Thus, dietary habits with regard to seafood may play a role in OHCA of cardiac origin, however, the question of whether to eat fish in general or instead to eat certain kinds of fish is still unclear.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy has been used to treat several autoimmune or inflammatory diseases. We conducted a clinical trial of immunoglobulin therapy for acute myocarditis. The study consisted of two projects: (1) a comparison of prognosis between patients treated with and those not treated with IVIG in a multi-center study; (2) analyses of inflammatory cytokines and blood cell profiles in a substudy. In (1), 15 patients were treated with IVIG (1-2 g/kg, over 2 days), whereas 26 were untreated. There was a statistically significant difference between the survival curves of the patients treated with IVIG and the survival curves of those not treated with IVIG. There was no significant difference between the IVIG-treated and untreated groups in terms of clinical parameters of the acute and chronic phases. In (2), 10 patients were treated with IVIG and 6 were untreated. In both groups, all of the data except for changes in the fraction of lymphocytes and the fraction of monocytes decreased due to the treatment or during the course. In patients in the IVIG group, the percentage of peripheral eosinophils was decreased and the percentage of peripheral monocytes was increased by this treatment when they were compared with the pretreatment data. Therefore, therapy with IVIG seems to be a promising treatment for acute myocarditis given that it improves the clinical course, which may be due to modulation of inflammatory cytokines and the peripheral leukocyte balance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small RNAs that are 18-23 nucleotides long. Recently, plasma miRNAs were reported to be sensitive and specific biomarkers of various pathological conditions. In the present study, we focused on miR-210, which is known to be induced by hypoxia and might therefore be an excellent biomarker for congestive heart failure. Plasma miR-210 levels and expression levels in mononuclear cells and skeletal muscles were elevated in Dahl salt-sensitive rats with heart failure. We also assessed miR-210 expression in patients with heart failure. The miR-210 expression levels in the mononuclear cells of patients with NYHA III and IV heart failure according to the New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classification system were significantly higher than those with NYHA II heart failure and controls. Although no significant correlation was observed between plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and plasma miR-210 levels in patients with NYHA II heart failure, patients with an improved BNP profile at the subsequent hospital visit were classified in a subgroup of patients with low plasma miR-210 levels. Plasma miR-210 levels may reflect a mismatch between the pump function of the heart and oxygen demand in the peripheral tissues, and be a new biomarker for chronic heart failure in addition to plasma BNP concentrations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: It remains unclear which is more effective to increase survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in those with public-access defibrillation, bystander-initiated chest compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) or conventional CPR with rescue breathing. METHODS AND RESULTS: A nationwide, prospective, population-based observational study covering the whole population of Japan and involving consecutive out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients with resuscitation attempts has been conducted since 2005. We enrolled all out-of-hospital cardiac arrests of presumed cardiac origin that were witnessed and received shocks with public-access automated external defibrillation (AEDs) by bystanders from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2009. The main outcome measure was neurologically favorable 1-month survival. We compared outcomes by type of bystander-initiated CPR (chest compression-only CPR and conventional CPR with compressions and rescue breathing). Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between the type of CPR and a better neurological outcome. During the 5 years, 1376 bystander-witnessed out-of-hospital cardiac arrests of cardiac origin in individuals who received CPR and shocks with public-access AEDs by bystanders were registered. Among them, 506 (36.8%) received chest compression-only CPR and 870 (63.2%) received conventional CPR. The chest compression-only CPR group (40.7%, 206 of 506) had a significantly higher rate of 1-month survival with favorable neurological outcome than the conventional CPR group (32.9%, 286 of 870; adjusted odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.70). CONCLUSIONS: Compression-only CPR is more effective than conventional CPR for patients in whom out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is witnessed and shocked with public-access defibrillation. Compression-only CPR is the most likely scenario in which lay rescuers can witness a sudden collapse and use public-access AEDs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose. The aim of the study was to assess the performance of Airway Scope
(AWS) on the first attempt at intubation in manikins by nonexpert physicians. Methods. A randomized crossover trial involving seven scenarios. Participants: residents of a cardiovascular hospital. In group A, the AWS procedure was performed first followed by Machintouch Laryngoscopy (ML), while in group B the ML procedure was performed first and then the AWS. The primary outcome assessed was the success of first intubation attempt in a normal scenario. The secondary outcome assessments were success in six other scenarios, and also elapsed time and dental trauma caused in all scenarios. Results. There were 34 participants. All AWS-assisted intubations were successfully completed, but one ML-assisted intubation failed in the normal scenario (). The outcomes achieved by the AWS in scenarios involving cervical immobilization (), tongue edema (), pharyngeal obstruction (), and jaw trismus () were superior to those obtained with the ML. Conclusions. Use of AWS-assisted intubation in manikin scenarios results in a significantly high intubation success rate on the first attempt by nonexpert physicians. These findings suggest this new device will be useful for nonexpert physicians in emergency situations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Little is known about the nationwide trend in the survival of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in Japan and the differences in incidence and survival by age group and origin of arrest. METHODS AND RESULTS: A nationwide, prospective, population-based observation covering the whole population of Japan and involving consecutive OHCA patients with resuscitation attempts has been conducted from January 2005 to December 2009. The main outcome measure was one-month survival with favorable neurological outcome. The nationwide trend in OHCA incidence and outcome by age and origin were assessed. Multiple logistic regression analysis for bystander-witnessed OHCA was used to adjust for factors that were potentially associated with favorable neurological outcome. During 5-years, 547,153 overall OHCAs and 169,360 bystander-witnessed OHCAs were enrolled. The annual incidence significantly increased among overall OHCAs and bystander-witnessed OHCAs. Neurologically favorable survival significantly increased from 1.6% (1676/102,737) in 2005 to 2.8% (3280/115,250) in 2009 (P<0.001), from 2.1% (638/30,556) to 4.3% (1558/36,361) (P<0.001), from 9.8% (437/4461) to 20.6% (1215/5906) (P<0.001) among overall OHCA, bystander-witnessed OHCA, and bystander-witnessed ventricular fibrillation OHCA, respectively. Public-access automated external defibrillator use, either bystander-initiated chest compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) or conventional CPR, and earlier EMS response time were associated with a better neurological outcome. Favorable neurological outcome among adult OHCAs significantly improved, but the outcome among younger children and very elderly did not improve and was dismal irrespective of origin of OHCA. CONCLUSIONS: The nationwide improvements of favorable neurological outcome from OHCA were observed in Japan, and differed by age group and origin of OHCA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To address safety concerns with first-generation drug-eluting stents (DESs), the everolimus-eluting stent (EES) has been developed as a second-generation DES. The study aim was to: (1) demonstrate that use of the EES in Japanese patients is non-inferior to use of the paclitaxel-eluting stent (PES) in US patients; and (2) compare vessel response to the EES in Japanese vs US patients.
The SPIRIT III Japan Registry, a prospective single-arm multicenter study was a part of the SPIRIT III global clinical program using harmonization by doing. The primary endpoint was in-segment late loss at 8 months, compared to US PES.
A total of 88 subjects were enrolled in the Japan EES group. Angiographic in-segment late loss was significantly less in Japan EES vs US PES (0.15 ± 0.34 mm vs 0.28 ± 0.48 mm, respectively; P=.0185; Pnon-inferio r<.0001), while target vessel failure (TVF; 8.0% vs 9.9%) and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at 9 months (5.7% vs 8.8%) were not significantly different between the 2 groups. No differences were observed between Japan and US EES populations in terms of late loss, TVF, or MACE. Neointimal volume and postprocedural incomplete stent apposition rate were lower in Japan EES vs US EES/PES.
The SPIRIT III Japan Registry met the primary endpoint of lower late loss in the Japan EES group vs the US PES group, with comparable results for EES between the Japanese and US patients.
The Journal of invasive cardiology 09/2012; 24(9):444-50. · 1.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Although therapeutic hypothermia is an effective therapy for comatose adults experiencing out-of-hospital shockable cardiac arrest, there is insufficient evidence that is also applicable for those with out-of-hospital non-shockable cardiac arrest. Methods and Results: Of 452 comatose adults treated with therapeutic hypothermia after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) subsequent to an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of cardiac etiology, 372 who had a bystander-witnessed cardiac arrest, target core temperature of 32-34°C and cooling duration of 12-72h were eligible for this study (75 cases of non-shockable cardiac arrest, 297 cases of shockable cardiac arrest). The median collapse-to-ROSC interval was significantly longer in the non-shockable group than in the shockable group (30min vs. 22min, P=0.008), resulting in a significantly lower frequency of 30-day favorable neurological outcome in the non-shockable group compared with the shockable group (32% vs. 66%, P<0.001). However, an analysis of data in quartiles assigned to varying lengths of collapse-to-ROSC interval revealed a similar frequency of 30-day favorable neurological outcome among both groups when the collapse-to-ROSC interval was ≤16min (90% non-shockable group vs. 92% shockable group; odds ratio 0.80, 95% confidence interval 0.09-7.24, P=0.84). Conclusions: Post-ROSC cooling is an effective treatment for patients with non-shockable cardiac arrest when the time interval from collapse to ROSC is short. (Circ J 2012; 76: 2579-2585).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CK-MB is an important marker for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Since mitochondrial CK (MtCK) is universally present in the blood of healthy individuals, it is known to positively affect the measurement of CK-MB using the immunoinhibition method, causing false-positive results. We performed basic evaluation of ACCURAS AUTO CK-MB MtO, a new reagent containing anti-MtCK antibody that inhibits MtCK activity, and attempted to calculate a cut-off CK-MB level to diagnose AMI. The measurement was performed in samples submitted to the Clinical Laboratory of our center for the measurement of CK-MB. This method was confirmed to have satisfactory basic attributes concerning the reproducibility, linearity, lower detection limit, and effects of interfering substances. When 2886 samples were examined using this and conventional methods, the results of the two methods were correlated in some but not in others. In the samples that showed no correlation, MtCK was demonstrated by isozyme analysis using electrophoresis. The AUC calculated from the ROC curve in AMI patients was 0.912 with this method and 0.861 with the conventional method. The sensitivity and specificity of the new method were higher than those of the conventional method. The cut-off value determined by ROC analysis was 7.7 U/l using the new method and 13.6 U/l using the conventional method, causing an increase in false-positive results compared with the cut off value of 25 U/l widely used for the conventional method to date. However, the cut-off value for the new method that yielded a specificity comparable to 99.1%, which is the specificity of the conventional method using a cut-off value of 25 U/l, was 12 U/l. With a cut-off value of 12 U/l, the sensitivity was improved compared with that employing the conventional method, and both the sensitivity and specificity became comparable to those of the CK-MB mass method. This method is very useful for the accurate measurement of CK-MB activity.
Rinsho byori. The Japanese journal of clinical pathology 07/2011; 59(7):649-55.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little is known about triggers of sudden cardiac arrest. This study aimed to analyze the association of the occurrence of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) with patient activities just before the arrest and ambient temperature as one of the major environmental factors.
This prospective, population-based cohort study enrolled all person aged 18 years or older with OHCA of presumed cardiac origin in Osaka Prefecture, Japan, from 2005 through 2007. Patient activities before arrest were divided into six categories: sleeping, bathing, working, exercising, non-specific activities, and unknown. Age-adjusted annual incidence rate of OHCA according to their prior activity and an hourly event rate in each activity by temperature were calculated.
Among 19,303 OHCAs, 10,723 were presumed to be of cardiac etiology. The event rate of OHCA was 6.22, 54.49, 1.15, and 10.11 per 10,000,000 population per hour for sleeping, bathing, working, and exercising, respectively. Among patients who suffered OHCA during bathing, the event rate of OHCA per 10,000,000 per hour increased with decreasing temperature from 18.27 (≥25.1°C) to 111.42 (≤5.0°C) (odds ratio [OR] for 1°C increase in temperature, 0.915; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.907-0.923), while it was almost constant among those who were working (OR for 1°C increase, 0.994; 95% CI, 0.981-1.007) or exercising (OR for 1°C increase, 1.004; 95% CI, 0.971-1.038) before arrest.
Both activities before cardiac arrest and ambient temperature were associated with the occurrence of OHCA. Preventive measures against OHCA should be enveloped considering these behavioral and environmental factors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mild hypothermia is an effective therapy for patients with return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. However, evidence of the effectiveness of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) remains unclear.
A multicenter registry in Japan (J-PULSE-HYPO study registry) was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of TH for post-resuscitation neurological dysfunction developing after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest from 14 institutions, between January 2005 and December 2009. The committee entrusted each hospital with the timing of cooling, cooling methods, target temperature, duration, and rewarming. There were 452 patients (375 men) enrolled into the registry. The mean age was 58.6 ± 13.5 years. Initial electrocardiogram rhythm at the time of occurrence of the cardiac arrest showed 68.9% had ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia, 13.7% had pulseless electrical activity, and 9.1% had asystole. The median interval from the occurrence of cardiac arrest to ROSC was 26 min. The target core temperature during TH was 33.9 ± 0.4°C and the mean duration of cooling was 31.5 ± 13.9 h. Intra-aortic balloon pumping was used in 40.1% and percutaneous cardiopulmonary support in 22.6% of patients. At 30 days after cardiac arrest, the proportion of survival was 80.1% and the proportion of patients with favorable neurological functions, with a cerebral performance category score of 1 or 2, was 55.3%.
The J-PULSE-HYPO study registry showed a clinical aspect of TH.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) is an important issue, but data in Japan are limited.
To investigate in-hospital CPA, we conducted a prospective multicenter observational registry of in-hospital CPA and resuscitation in Japan (J-RCPR). During January 2008 to December 2009, patients were registered from 12 participating hospitals. All patients, visitors and employees within the facility campus who experience a cardiopulmonary resuscitation event defined as either a pulseless or a pulse with inadequate perfusion requiring chest compressions and/or defibrillation of ventricular fibrillation (VF) or pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VT) were registered. Data were collected in 6 major categories of variables: facility data, patient demographic data, pre-event data, event data, outcome data, and quality improvement data. Data for 491 adults were analyzed. The prevalence of pulseless VT/VF as first documented rhythm was 28.1%, asystole was 29.5% and pulseless electrical activity was 41.1%. Immediate causes of event were arrhythmia 30.6%, acute respiratory insufficiency 26.7%, and hypotension 15.7%. Return of spontaneous circulation was 64.7%; the proportion of survival 24h after CPA was 49.8%, the proportion of survival to hospital discharge was 27.8% and proportion of favorable neurological outcome at 30 days was 21.4%.
This is the first report of the registry for in-hospital CPA in Japan and shows that the registry provides important observational data.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small RNAs that are 21-25 nucleotides in length. Recently, plasma miRNAs have been reported to be sensitive and specific biomarkers of various tissue injuries and pathological conditions. The goal of this study was to assess plasma miRNA profiles and to identify plasma miRNAs that are differentially expressed in patients with heart failure.
A total of 33 patients with ischemic heart diseases and 17 asymptomatic controls were recruited. In 10 patients with heart failure, miRNAs were assessed at both NYHA IV and III. miRNA array analyses were found to be not appropriate for plasma miRNA profiling. The plasma concentrations of well-characterized miRNAs (miR-126, 122 and 499) were assessed by a real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction using an artificial small RNA as an internal standard. Plasma concentrations of miR-126 were negatively correlated with age and logBNP. In 10 patients with heart failure, plasma concentrations of miR-126 were up-regulated with improvement of the NYHA class from IV to III.
The plasma concentration of miR-126 was negatively correlated with age and NYHA class, and could be a useful biomarker for heart failure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The efficacy of out-patient cardiac rehabilitation (OPCR) in patients with a low prognostic risk after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is unclear in the recent primary intervention era.
A total of 637 AMI patients who participated in in-hospital cardiac rehabilitation were divided into 2 groups; low prognostic risk group (n=219; age <65 years, successful reperfusion, Killip class I, peak serum creatine kinase <6,000U/L, and left ventricular ejection fraction ≥40%) and non-low prognostic risk group (n=418). The prevalence of coronary risk factors (CRF) was compared between the 2 groups. Then, in the low-risk group, the efficacy of OPCR was compared between active OPCR participants (n=52; ≥20 sessions/3 months) and non-active participants (n=60; <6 sessions/3 months). Compared with the non-low prognostic risk group, the low prognostic risk group had a significantly higher prevalence of current smokers (72% vs. 49%, P<0.05) and patients with multiple CRF (3 or more; 49% vs. 39%, P<0.05). Among the low- risk group, active OPCR participants showed a significantly greater improvement in exercise capacity (peak VO(2), P<0.05) and maintained a better CRF profile (total cholesterol, triglyceride and blood pressure, all P<0.05) than inactive participants at 3 months.
Low prognostic risk AMI patients have a higher prevalence of multiple CRF than non-low risk patients. Even in this low risk group, active participation in OPCR is associated with improved exercise capacity and better CRF profile.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the association of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training with bystander resuscitation performance and patient outcomes after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA).
This was a prospective, population-based cohort study of all persons aged 18 years or older with OHCA of presumed intrinsic origin and their rescuers from January through December 2008 in Takatsuki, Osaka prefecture, Japan. Data on resuscitation of OHCA patients were obtained by emergency medical service (EMS) personnel in charge based on the Utstein style. Rescuers' characteristics including experience of CPR training were obtained by EMS personnel interview on the scene. The primary outcome was the attempt of bystander CPR.
Data were collected for 120 cases out of 170 OHCAs of intrinsic origin. Among the available cases, 60 (50.0%) had previous CPR training (trained rescuer group). The proportion of bystander CPR was significantly higher in the trained rescuer group than in the untrained rescuer group (75.0% and 43.3%; p = 0.001). Bystanders who had previous experience of CPR training were 3.40 times (95% confidence interval 1.31-8.85) more likely to perform CPR compared with those without previous CPR training. The number of patients with neurologically favorable one-month survival was too small to evaluate statistical difference between the groups (2 [3.3%] in the trained rescuer group versus 1 [1.7%] in the untrained rescuer group; p = 0.500).
People who had experienced CPR training had a greater tendency to perform bystander CPR than people without experience of CPR training. Further studies are needed to prove the effectiveness of CPR training on survival.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus (DM) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are risk factors for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, it is unknown whether hyperglycemic state is associated with increased major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) after AMI. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between glucometabolic status and MACE in patients after AMI, and determined the critical level of 2 h post-load plasma glucose that may be used to predict MACE.
AMI patients (n = 422) were divided into 4 groups as follows: normal glucose tolerance (NGT) group, IGT group, newly diagnosed DM (NDM) group, and previously known DM (PDM) group. MACE of the 4 groups were compared for 2 years from AMI onset.
The NDM group had a significantly higher event rate than the IGT and NGT groups and had a similar event rate curve to PDM group. The logistic models analyses revealed that 2 h post-load plasma glucose values of ≥160 mg/dL was the only independent predictor of long-term MACE after AMI (p = 0.028, OR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.07-3.21). The 2-year cardiac event rate of patients with a 2 h post-load hyperglycemia of ≥160 mg/dL was significantly higher than that of patients with 2 h post-load glucose of <160 mg/dL (32.2% vs. 19.8%, p < 0.05) and was similar to that of PDM group (37.4%, p = 0.513).
NDM increases the risk of MACE after AMI as does PDM. Particularly, post-AMI patients with a 2 h post-load hyperglycemia ≥160 mg/dL may need adjunctive therapy after AMI.