[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lymphocyte recruitment to intestinal tissues depends on β(7) integrins. In this study, we studied disease severity and lymphocyte recruitment into the small intestine in SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop chronic ileitis with similarity to human Crohn's disease. To assess the role of β(7) integrins in chronic ileitis, we generated SAMP1/YitFc lacking β(7) integrins (SAMP1/YitFc Itgb7(-/-)) using a congenic strain developed via marker-assisted selection. We analyzed ileal inflammation in SAMP1/YitFc and SAMP1/YitFc Itgb7(-/-) mice by histopathology and the distribution of T and B lymphocytes in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) by flow cytometry. Short-term (18 h) adoptive transfer experiments were used to study the in vivo homing capacity of T and B lymphocytes. In both young (<20 wk) and old (20-50 wk) SAMP1/YitFc Itgb7(-/-) mice, ileitis was reduced by 30-50% compared with SAMP1/YitFc mice. SAMP1/YitFc Itgb7(-/-) mice showed a dramatic 67% reduction in the size of their MLNs, which was caused by a 85% reduction in lymphocyte numbers and reduced short-term B cell homing. Flow cytometric analysis revealed a highly significant decrease in the percentage of B cells in MLNs of SAMP1/YitFc Itgb7(-/-) mice. Cotransfer of SAMP1/YitFc MLN B cells but not SAMP1/YitFc Itgb7(-/-) MLN B cells along with CD4(+) T cells resulted in exacerbated ileitis severity in SCID mice. Our findings suggest that β(7) integrins play an essential role in spontaneous chronic ileitis in vivo by promoting homing of disease-exacerbating B cells to MLNs and other intestinal tissues.
The Journal of Immunology 10/2010; 185(9):5561-8. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IL-17A and IL-17F regulate granulopoiesis and are produced by memory T cells. Rag1(-/-) recombinase-activating gene-deficient mice cannot produce mature T cells but maintain normal neutrophil counts. Athymic nude mice are neutropenic or have near-normal neutrophil counts, depending on the prevailing intestinal flora, and do not produce IL-17A. By contrast, thymi from Rag1(-/-) mice contain as much IL-17A as those from wild-type (WT) mice. IL-17A-producing cells are found in the double negative DN1 compartment of the Rag1(-/-) thymus and express intracellular CD3. These cells colonize the spleen and mesenteric lymph node and secrete IL-17A in vitro following stimulation with IL-23 at a level similar to that of WT splenocytes. Adoptively transferred Rag1(-/-) or WT thymocytes correct neutrophil counts in neutropenic nude mice. We conclude that the development of IL-17A-producing T-lineage cells requires an intact thymic epithelium, but not V(D)J recombination.
The Journal of Immunology 11/2009; 183(9):5685-93. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SAMP1/Fc mice develop spontaneous ileitis that shares many features with human Crohn's disease. One of the earliest features of ileitis in SAMP1/Fc mice is an increase in the number of ileal goblet and intermediate cells. Resistin-like molecule beta (RELMbeta) is a goblet cell-specific, cysteine-rich peptide previously shown to function as part of the innate immune response. In this study, we examined the role of expression of RELMbeta in the initiation of ileal inflammation in SAMP1/Fc mice. RELMbeta was highly induced in the ilea of SAMP1/Fc mice beginning at age 5 wk, coincident with the histological appearance of inflammation. RELMbeta was found in ileal goblet cells and some intermediate and Paneth cells. Surprisingly, RELMbeta mRNA levels were significantly increased in the ilea of 80% of germ-free SAMP1/Fc mice examined compared with specific pathogen-free AKR control mice of similar age. Ileitis was observed in germfree SAMP1/Fc mice, although it was attenuated relative to specific pathogen-free SAMP1/Fc mice. These data suggest that neither the early induction of RELMbeta expression nor ileal inflammation requires the presence of viable intestinal flora. Neither was the induction of RELMbeta dependent on the major Th1 or Th2 cytokines. However, RELMbeta stimulated naive bone marrow-derived macrophages to secrete significant amounts of TNF-alpha, IL-6, and RANTES. Our data suggest that RELMbeta is involved in the initiation of ileitis in SAMP1/Fc mice and may act through the induction of proinflammatory cytokines from resident immune cells within the mucosa.
The Journal of Immunology 12/2007; 179(10):7012-20. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of Crohn's disease has been associated with a dysregulated response of the mucosal immune system against intraluminal Ags of bacterial origin. In this study, we have investigated the effects of germfree (GF) conditions in the SAMP1/YitFc murine model of Crohn's disease-like ileitis. We show that the bacterial flora is not essential for ileitis induction, because GF SAMP1/YitFc mice develop chronic ileitis. However, compared with disease in specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice, ileitis in GF mice is significantly attenuated, and is associated with delayed lymphocytic infiltration and defective mucosal expression of Th2 cytokines. In addition, we demonstrate that stimulation with purified fecal Ags from SPF, but not GF mice leads to the generation of IL-4-secreting effector lymphocytes. This result suggests that commensal bacteria drive Th2 responses characteristic of the chronic phase of SAMP1/YitFc ileitis. Finally, adoptive transfer of CD4-positive cells from GF, but not SPF mice induces severe colitis in SCID recipients. These effects were associated with a decreased frequency of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes of GF mice compared with SPF mice, as well as lower relative gene expression of Foxp3 in CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells in GF mice. It is therefore apparent that, in the absence of live intraluminal bacteria, the regulatory component of the mucosal immune system is compromised. All together, our results indicate that in SAMP1/YitFc mice, bacterial flora exacerbates intestinal inflammation, but is not essential for the generation of the chronic ileitis that is characteristic of these mice.
The Journal of Immunology 03/2007; 178(3):1809-18. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TL1A is a TNF-like cytokine that binds to the death-domain receptor (DR)3 and provides costimulatory signals to activated lymphocytes. Through this interaction, TL1A induces secretion of IFN-gamma and may, therefore, participate in the development of T helper-1-type effector responses. In this study, we investigated whether interactions between TL1A and DR3 are involved in the pathogenesis of chronic murine ileitis. We demonstrate that alternative splicing of DR3 mRNA takes place during the activation of lymphocytes, which results in up-regulation of the complete/transmembrane (tm) form of DR3. Using two immunogenetically distinct animal models of Crohn's disease, we demonstrate that induction of intestinal inflammation is associated with significant up-regulation of TL1A and tm DR3 in the inflamed mucosa. In addition, within isolated lamina propria mononuclear cells from mice with inflammation, TL1A is primarily expressed on CD11c(high) dendritic cells. We also report that TL1A acts preferentially on memory CD4(+)/CD45RB(lo) murine lymphocytes by significantly inducing their proliferation, whereas it does not affect the proliferation of the naïve CD4(+)/CD45RB(hi) T helper cell subpopulation. Finally, we demonstrate that TL1A synergizes with both the cytokine-dependent IL-12/IL-18 pathway and with low-dose stimulation of the T cell receptor to significantly induce the secretion of IFN-gamma via an IL-18-independent pathway. Our results raise the possibility that interaction(s) between TL1A expressed on antigen-presenting cells and tm DR3 on lymphocytes may be of particular importance for the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory conditions that depend on IFN-gamma secretion, including inflammatory bowel disease. Blockade of the TL1A/DR3 pathway may, therefore, offer therapeutic opportunities in Crohn's disease.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2006; 103(22):8441-6. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is the second most common chronic inflammatory disorder worldwide; however, a noninvasive means of accurately assessing the severity and extent of intestinal inflammation is currently not available. The aim of the present study was to develop a noninvasive imaging modality to detect and evaluate ileitis in SAMP1/YitFc (SAMP) mice.
An image-enhancing ultrasound (US) contrast agent, consisting of encapsulated gaseous microbubbles (MB), was developed specifically to bind mucosal addressin cellular adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1), a mucosal-restricted addressin up-regulated during gut inflammation. MAdCAM-1-targeted MB (MB(M)) were tested for binding specificity on MAdCAM-1 protein and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-stimulated SVEC4-10 endothelial cells using an in vitro flow chamber assay and for their ability to detect and quantify ileitis by intravital microscopy and transabdominal US.
Under in vitro flow conditions, a 100-fold increase in MB(M) binding was observed on MAdCAM-1 protein compared with nonspecific MB (P < .001). TNF-stimulated endothelial cells bound significantly more MB(M) vs nonspecific MB (P < .001), which was abrogated after preincubation with anti-MAdCAM-1 antibodies (P < .001). In vivo, MB(M) specifically accumulated in focal areas of ileal inflammation and produced stronger acoustic echoes, measured by average video intensity, in SAMP vs uninflamed AKR mice (P < .001) or SAMP given nonspecific MB (P < .001). MB(M)-specific video intensity showed a strong positive correlation with total ileal inflammatory scores (R2 = 0.92).
We have developed a novel intravascular US contrast agent targeting MAdCAM-1 that specifically detects and quantifies intestinal inflammation in experimental ileitis, providing the potential for a reliable, noninvasive means to diagnose and monitor disease in patients with IBD.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adenosine has been implicated as an important regulator of the inflammatory response. Four subtypes of adenosine receptors (A 1 , A 2A , A 2B , and A 3 ) have been described, of which A 2A potentially inhibits inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of A 2A in mucosal inflammation by administering a selective A 2A agonist (ATL-146e) to experimental models of inflammatory bowel disease.
The anti-inflammatory effects of ATL-146e were studied in the acute and chronic rabbit formalin-immune complex models of colitis and the SAMP1/YitFc mouse model of spontaneous ileitis.
ATL-146e significantly reduced the acute inflammatory index and tissue necrosis compared with vehicle ( P < .01) in the acute model of rabbit immune colitis. In the chronic rabbit immune colitis model, ATL-146e significantly suppressed inflammatory cell infiltration into the colonic mucosa ( P < .05) and prevented mortality. The administration of ATL-146e significantly decreased the chronic inflammatory index ( P < .01) and villus distortion index ( P < .01) in the ileum of SAMP1/YitFc mice, and ameliorated adoptively transferred ileitis in severe combined immunodeficient mice injected with CD4 + T cells from SAMP1/Yit mice ( P < .05). Tumor necrosis factor, interferon gamma, and interleukin 4 concentrations were significantly suppressed by ATL-146e treatment in supernatants from cultures of mesenteric lymph node cells of SAMP1/YitFc mice ( P < .05 vs vehicle-treated mice).
A 2A adenosine receptor activation by ATL-146e significantly reduced inflammation in the intestinal mucosa. This effect was associated with decreased leukocyte infiltration and inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines. Activation of A 2A by selective agonism may therefore serve as a novel therapy for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Strict T H 1 polarization is believed to underlie the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation in Crohn's disease. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that TH2 cytokines also may participate in disease development in SAMP1/YitFc mice that spontaneously develop terminal ileitis with perianal manifestations.
Cytokine messenger RNA (mRNA) expression was studied by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs) were purified and stimulated cytokine secretion was analyzed. Blockade of interferon (IFN)-gamma or interleukin (IL)-4 was performed by using specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). CD4+/IL-4-secreting lymphocytes were purified from SAMP1/YitFc mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and their ability to induce ileitis was tested after transfer to SCID recipients.
Initiation of ileitis in SAMP1/YitFc mice was T H 1-mediated because up-regulation of IFN-gamma and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) preceded the histologic injury, whereas IFN-gamma neutralization prevented the development of chronic inflammation (P <.005) by interfering with the expansion of lymphocytes. In contrast, the establishment of chronic ileitis coincided with significant increases in IL-5 (35x) and IL-13 (29x) mRNA expression (P <.005), as well as in T H 2 cytokine secretion by lamina propria lymphocytes (P <.05 vs. AKR controls). IL-4 blockade diminished IFN-gamma mRNA expression and significantly ameliorated the severity of established ileitis (P <.05) by decreasing the histologic indices for villous distortion and active inflammation. In addition, IL-4 augmented the in vitro IFN-gamma secretion by lymphocytes, whereas IL-4-secreting CD4+ lymphocytes were sufficient for adoptively transferring ileitis to SCID recipients.
Our results indicate that both TH1 and TH2 pathways mediate Crohn's-like ileitis and suggest that combined TH1/TH2 manipulation may offer a therapeutic advantage for the treatment of Crohn's disease.