Jesús Rivera-Nieves

University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States

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Publications (54)509.8 Total impact

  • Giorgos Bamias, Charles A. Dinarello, Jesús Rivera-Nieves
    Gastroenterology 11/2014; · 12.82 Impact Factor
  • Colm B Collins, Jesús Rivera-Nieves
    Gastroenterology 01/2014; · 12.82 Impact Factor
  • Mahmoud H Mosli, Jesus Rivera-Nieves, Brian G Feagan
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    ABSTRACT: The medical management of idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has historically been based upon the use of broad-spectrum anti-inflammatory drugs such as corticosteroids and thiopurines. Recently, the identification of novel mechanisms central to the pathophysiology of IBD has provided more specific targets, including inhibition of leukocyte trafficking to the gut. In this article, we discuss the molecular biology of intestinal leukocyte trafficking and review the emerging therapies that target this process, including vedolizumab, natalizumab, etrolizumab, PF-547659, alicaforsen, efalizumab, and emerging members of this class.
    Drugs 01/2014; · 4.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fecal alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) clearance has been a marker of clinical disease severity in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) for many years. Although AAT deficiency is more often associated with lung and liver pathologies, AAT-deficient patients with concomitant IBD have been shown to develop more aggressive disease and rapid progression to surgery. Although recent studies have highlighted the pleiotropic anti-inflammatory functions of AAT, including reducing proinflammatory cytokine production and suppressing immune cell activation, its potential therapeutic role in IBD has not been described. The therapeutic potential of human AAT administration was assessed in murine models of IBD including new-onset and established chemically induced colitis and spontaneous chronic murine ileitis. Histological assessment of inflammation, cytokine secretion profiling, and flow cytometric evaluation of inflammatory infiltrate were performed in each model. The effect of AAT on intestinal barrier function was also examined both in vitro and in vivo. AAT attenuated inflammation in small and large intestinal IBD models through reduced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, inflammatory cell infiltration, and reduced tissue injury. AAT also increased intestinal restitution after chemically induced colitis. AAT significantly decreased intestinal permeability in vitro and in vivo as part of a protective mechanism for both acute and chronic models of IBD. Our findings describe a beneficial role for AAT in IBD models through suppression of cytokine production and enhanced intestinal barrier function. This raises the possibility that AAT supplementation, which has a long history of proven safety, may have a therapeutic effect in human IBD.
    Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 07/2013; · 5.12 Impact Factor
  • Giorgos Bamias, David J Clark, Jesús Rivera-Nieves
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    ABSTRACT: Dysregulated recruitment of leukocytes into the intestine is a characteristic feature of IBD. Several families of molecules regulate the influx of these cells into sites of inflammation within the gastrointestinal tract. Pharmacological blockade of interactions between molecules that mediate the formation of stable bonds (integrins) and their endothelial ligands has already shown clinical efficacy. Antibodies that target participant molecules have been approved by the US Federal Drug Administration for use in Crohn's, multiple sclerosis (MS) (i.e. natalizumab) and psoriasis (i.e. efalizumab). A more recent additional family of drugs, which might also interfere with lymphocyte traffic (i.e. sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor agonists: fingolimod) is in clinical use for MS and just recently entered the clinical trial stage for ulcerative colitis. In the present review we discuss basic aspects of clinically relevant molecules and compile the clinical studies that support the targeting of specific steps of the leukocyte adhesion cascade for therapeutic purposes in IBD.
    Current drug targets 04/2013; · 3.93 Impact Factor
  • Jesús Rivera-Nieves, María T Abreu
    Gastroenterology 03/2013; · 12.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The earliest endoscopically-evident lesion in Crohn's disease is the aphthous ulcer, which develops over ectopic lymphoid tissues (ie, inducible lymphoid follicles (ILF), tertiary lymphoid tissue (TLT)) in the chronically inflamed intestine. ILF/TLT are induced within effector sites by homeostatic lymphoid chemokines, but their role in the development of intestinal ILF/TLT and in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease is poorly understood. DESIGN: Using a mouse model of Crohn's-like ileitis (TNFARE) which develops florid induction of ILF/TLT within its terminal ileum, the contribution of the CCR7/CCL19/CCL21 chemokine axis during the development of TLT and its role in disease pathogenesis were assessed. RESULTS: Both CCL19 and CCL21 were increased within the inflamed ileum of TNFARE mice, which resulted in CCR7 internalisation and impaired T cell chemotaxis. ILF/TLT were a major source of CCL19 and CCL21 and increased local synthesis, augmented recruitment/retention of effector, naive and central memory T cell subsets within the inflamed ileum. Immunoblockade of CCR7 resulted in further effector T cell retention and exacerbation of ileitis. CONCLUSIONS: Induction of ILF/TLT in the chronically inflamed intestine alters the homeostatic CCL19-CCL21 lymphoid-chemokine gradient and increases recruitment/retention of effector CCR7+ T cell subsets within the terminal ileum, contributing to the perpetuation of chronic inflammation. Thus, blockade of CCR7 or its ligands might result in deleterious consequences for subjects with chronic inflammatory diseases.
    Gut 01/2013; 62(1):53-62. · 10.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract (GI) for which treatments with immunosuppressive drugs has significant side-effects. Consequently, there is an clinical need for site-specific and non-toxic delivery of therapeutic genes or drugs for CD and related disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of this study was to validate an gene delivery platform based on ultrasound-activated lipid-shelled microbubbles (MB) targeted to inflamed mesenteric endothelium in the CD-like TNFΔARE mouse model. MB bearing luciferase plasmid were functionalized with antibodies to MAdCAM-1 (MB-M) or VCAM-1 (MB-V), biomarkers of gut endothelial cell inflammation and evaluated in an in vitro flow chamber assay with appropriate ligands to confirm targeting specificity. Following MB retro-orbital injection in TNFΔARE mice, the mean contrast intensity in the ileocecal region from accumulated MB-M and MB-V was 8.5-fold and 3.6-fold greater, respectively, compared to MB-C. Delivery of luciferase plasmid to the GI tract in TNFΔARE mice was achieved by insonating the endothelial cell-bound agents using a commercial sonoporator. Luciferease expression in the midgut was detected 48 hours laster by bioluminescence imaging and further confirmed by immunohistochemical staining. The liver, spleen, heart, and kidney had no detectable bioluminesence following insonation. Transfection of the microcirculation guided by a targeted, acoustically-activated platform such as a ultrasound contrast agent microbubble has the potential to be a minimally-invasive treatment strategy to ameliorate CD and other inflammatory conditions.
    Journal of Controlled Release 11/2012; · 7.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon; as many as 25% of patients with this disease require hospitalization. The goals of hospitalization are to assess disease severity, exclude infection, administer rapidly acting and highly effective medication regimens, and determine response. During hospitalization, patients should be given venous thromboembolism prophylaxis and monitored for the development of toxic megacolon. Patients who do not respond to intravenous corticosteroids should be considered for rescue therapy with infliximab or cyclosporine. Patients who are refractory to medical therapies or who develop toxic megacolon should be evaluated promptly for colectomy. Patients who do respond to medical therapies should be discharged on an appropriate maintenance regimen when they meet discharge criteria. We review practical evidence-based management principles and propose a day-by-day algorithm for managing patients hospitalized for ulcerative colitis.
    Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology: the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association 07/2012; · 5.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND; Imprinting an effector or regulatory phenotype on naïve T cells requires education at induction sites by dendritic cells (DC). Objectives To analyse the effect of inflammation on the frequency of mononuclear phagocytes (MP) and the effect of altering their frequency by administration of Flt3-L in chronic ileitis. Using a tumour necrosis factor (TNF) driven model of ileitis (ie, TNFΔARE) that recapitulates many features of Crohn's disease (CD), dynamic changes in the frequency and functional state of MP within the inflamed ileum were assessed by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and real-time reverse-transcription PCR and by generating CX(3)CR1 GFP-reporter TNFΔARE mice. The effect of Flt3-L supplementation on the severity of ileitis, and the frequency of CD103(+) DC and of FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells was also studied in TNFΔARE mice. CD11c(Hi)/MHCII(+) MP accumulated in inflamed ilea, predominantly mediated by expansion of the CX(3)CR1(+) MP subpopulation. This coincided with a decreased pro-regulatory CD103(+) DC. The phenotype of these MP was that of activated cells, as they expressed increased CD80 and CD86 on their surface. Flt3-ligand administration resulted in a preferential expansion of CD103(+) DC that attenuated the severity of ileitis in 20-week-old TNFΔARE mice, mediated by increased CD4(+)/CD25(+)/FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells. Results support a role for Flt3-L as a potential therapeutic agent in Crohn's-like ileitis.
    Gut 11/2011; 61(8):1154-62. · 10.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Retinoic acid (RA), produced by intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and dendritic cells (DCs) promotes the induction of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and decreases the induction of T-helper (Th)17 cells. We studied the roles of RA in mice that overproduce tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and develop chronic ileitis (TNF_ARE mice). We assessed the frequency and function of CD103+ DCs, Th17 cells, and Tregs by flow cytometry, and we measured expression of cytokines and retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH) enzymes in ileum samples, DCs, and IECs by real-time polymerase chain reaction. We quantified RA by electrochemical analysis and examined the effect of RA supplementation on TNF-induced ileitis using histologic, coculture, and suppression assays and flow cytometry. Numbers of CD103+ DCs decreased in the inflamed ilea of mice with chronic disease; RA synthetic machinery (RALDH1,2) was down-regulated. Nevertheless, the proportion of CD4+, CD25+, FoxP3+ Tregs increased, indicating an alternate source for RA. IECs responded to reduced levels of RA by up-regulating RALDH3 in vivo and in vitro. Net tissue levels of RA remained lower in TNF+ARE than wild-type mice, indicating that epithelial up-regulation of RALDH3 could not maintain adequate concentrations of RA, probably because of loss of IEC mass. RA supplementation significantly attenuated disease by increasing the number and function of CD103+ DCs and Tregs and reducing Th17 cells. Reduced levels of RA appear to induce IECs to up-regulate synthesis of RA. RA supplementation attenuates ileitis through its effects on CD103+ DCs, Tregs, and Th17 cells. RA supplementation might offer therapeutic benefit in Crohn's disease.
    Gastroenterology 11/2011; 141(5):1821-31. · 12.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intestinal remodeling and stricture formation is a complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that often requires surgical intervention. Although eosinophils are associated with mucosal remodeling in other organs and are increased in IBD tissues, their role in IBD-associated remodeling is unclear. Histological and molecular features of ileitis and remodeling were assessed using immunohistochemical, histomorphometric, flow cytometric, and molecular analysis (real-time RT-PCR) techniques in a murine model of chronic eosinophilic ileitis. Collagen protein was assessed by Sircol assay. Using a spontaneous eosinophilic Crohn's-like mouse model SAMP1/SkuSlc, we demonstrate an association between ileitis progression and remodeling over the course of 40 weeks. Mucosal and submucosal eosinophilia increased over the time course and correlated with increased histological inflammatory indices. Ileitis and remodeling increased over the 40 weeks, as did expression of fibronectin. CCR3-specific antibody-mediated reduction of eosinophils resulted in significant decrease in goblet cell hyperplasia, muscularis propria hypertrophy, villus blunting, and expression of inflammatory and remodeling genes, including fibronectin. Cellularity of local mesenteric lymph nodes, including T- and B-lymphocytes, was also significantly reduced. Thus, eosinophils participate in intestinal remodeling, supporting eosinophils as a novel therapeutic target.
    American Journal Of Pathology 09/2011; 179(5):2302-14. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IL-37, a newly described member of the IL-1 family, functions as a fundamental inhibitor of innate inflammation and immunity. In the present study, we examined a role for IL-37 during experimental colitis. A transgenic mouse strain was generated to express human IL-37 (hIL-37tg), and these mice were subjected to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Despite the presence of a CMV promoter to drive expression of IL-37, mRNA transcripts were not present in colons at the resting state. Expression was observed only upon disruption of the epithelial barrier, with a six- to sevenfold increase (P = 0.02) on days 3 and 5 after continuous exposure to DSS. During the development of colitis, clinical disease scores were reduced by 50% (P < 0.001), and histological indices of colitis were one-third less in hIL-37tg mice compared with WT counterparts (P < 0.001). Reduced inflammation was associated with decreased leukocyte recruitment into the colonic lamina propria. In addition, release of IL-1β and TNFα from ex vivo colonic explant tissue was decreased 5- and 13-fold, respectively, compared with WT (P ≤ 0.005), whereas IL-10 was increased sixfold (P < 0.001). However, IL-10 was not required for the anti-inflammatory effects of IL-37 because IL-10-receptor antibody blockade did not reverse IL-37-mediated protection. Mechanistically, IL-37 originating from hematopoietic cells was sufficient to exert anti-inflammatory effects because WT mice reconstituted with hIL-37tg bone marrow were protected from colitis. Thus, IL-37 emerges as key modulator of intestinal inflammation.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 08/2011; 108(40):16711-6. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inflammatory bowel diseases, encompassing Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are characterised by persistent leucocyte tissue infiltration leading to perpetuation of an inappropriate inflammatory cascade. The neuronal guidance molecule netrin-1 has recently been implicated in the orchestration of leucocyte trafficking during acute inflammation. We therefore hypothesised that netrin-1 could modulate leucocyte infiltration and disease activity in a model of inflammatory bowel disease. DSS-colitis was performed in mice with partial genetic netrin-1 deficiency (Ntn-1(+/-) mice) or wild-type mice treated with exogenous netrin-1 via osmotic pump to examine the role of endogenous and therapeutically administered netrin-1. These studies were supported by in vitro models of transepithelial migration and intestinal epithelial barrier function. Consistent with our hypothesis, we observed induction of netrin-1 during intestinal inflammation in vitro or in mice exposed to experimental colitis. Moreover, mice with partial netrin-1 deficiency demonstrated an exacerbated course of DSS-colitis compared to littermate controls, with enhanced weight loss and colonic shortening. Conversely, mice treated with exogenous mouse netrin-1 experienced attenuated disease severity. Importantly, permeability studies and quantitative assessment of apoptosis reveal that netrin-1 signalling events do not alter mucosal permeability or intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis. In vivo studies of leucocyte transmigration demonstrate suppression of neutrophil trafficking as a key function mediated by endogenous or exogenously administered netrin-1. Finally, genetic studies implicate the A2B adenosine receptor in netrin-1-mediated protection during DSS-colitis. The present study identifies a previously unrecognised role for netrin-1 in attenuating experimental colitis through limitation of neutrophil trafficking.
    Gut 08/2011; 61(5):695-705. · 10.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A balance between effector and regulatory T-cell (Treg) responses is required to maintain intestinal homeostasis. To regulate immunity, T cells migrate to the intestine using a combination of adhesion molecules and chemokine receptors. However, it is not known whether the migration pathways of effector cells and Tregs are distinct or shared. We sought to determine whether interaction between the chemokine receptor 9 (CCR9) and its ligand, chemokine ligand 25 (CCL25), allows effectors or Tregs to localize to chronically inflamed small intestine. By using a mouse model that develops Crohn's-like ileitis (tumor necrosis factor Δadenosine uracyl-rich element [TNFΔARE] mice) we examined the role of CCL25-CCR9 interactions for effector and Treg traffic using flow cytometry, quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, immunoneutralization, and proliferation analyses. In TNFΔARE mice, expression of CCL25 and the frequency of CCR9-expressing lymphocytes increased during late-stage disease. In the absence of CCR9, TNFΔARE mice developed exacerbated disease, compared with their CCR9-sufficient counterparts, which coincided with a deficiency of CD4(+)/CD25(+)/forkhead box P3(+) and CD8(+)/CD103(+) Tregs within the intestinal lamina propria and mesenteric lymph nodes. Furthermore, the CD8(+)/CCR9(+) subset decreased the proliferation of CD4(+) T cells in vitro. Administration of a monoclonal antibody against CCR9 to TNFΔARE mice exacerbated ileitis in vivo, confirming the regulatory role of CD8(+)/CCR9(+) cells. Signaling of the chemokine CCL25 through its receptor CCR9 induces Tregs to migrate to the intestine. These findings raise concerns about the development of reagents to disrupt this pathway for the treatment of patients with Crohn's disease.
    Gastroenterology 02/2011; 140(5):1526-35.e3. · 12.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lymphocyte recruitment to intestinal tissues depends on β(7) integrins. In this study, we studied disease severity and lymphocyte recruitment into the small intestine in SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop chronic ileitis with similarity to human Crohn's disease. To assess the role of β(7) integrins in chronic ileitis, we generated SAMP1/YitFc lacking β(7) integrins (SAMP1/YitFc Itgb7(-/-)) using a congenic strain developed via marker-assisted selection. We analyzed ileal inflammation in SAMP1/YitFc and SAMP1/YitFc Itgb7(-/-) mice by histopathology and the distribution of T and B lymphocytes in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) by flow cytometry. Short-term (18 h) adoptive transfer experiments were used to study the in vivo homing capacity of T and B lymphocytes. In both young (<20 wk) and old (20-50 wk) SAMP1/YitFc Itgb7(-/-) mice, ileitis was reduced by 30-50% compared with SAMP1/YitFc mice. SAMP1/YitFc Itgb7(-/-) mice showed a dramatic 67% reduction in the size of their MLNs, which was caused by a 85% reduction in lymphocyte numbers and reduced short-term B cell homing. Flow cytometric analysis revealed a highly significant decrease in the percentage of B cells in MLNs of SAMP1/YitFc Itgb7(-/-) mice. Cotransfer of SAMP1/YitFc MLN B cells but not SAMP1/YitFc Itgb7(-/-) MLN B cells along with CD4(+) T cells resulted in exacerbated ileitis severity in SCID mice. Our findings suggest that β(7) integrins play an essential role in spontaneous chronic ileitis in vivo by promoting homing of disease-exacerbating B cells to MLNs and other intestinal tissues.
    The Journal of Immunology 10/2010; 185(9):5561-8. · 5.52 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 02/2010; 138(4):1237-9. · 12.82 Impact Factor
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    Gut 02/2010; 59(2):151-2. · 10.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IL-17A and IL-17F regulate granulopoiesis and are produced by memory T cells. Rag1(-/-) recombinase-activating gene-deficient mice cannot produce mature T cells but maintain normal neutrophil counts. Athymic nude mice are neutropenic or have near-normal neutrophil counts, depending on the prevailing intestinal flora, and do not produce IL-17A. By contrast, thymi from Rag1(-/-) mice contain as much IL-17A as those from wild-type (WT) mice. IL-17A-producing cells are found in the double negative DN1 compartment of the Rag1(-/-) thymus and express intracellular CD3. These cells colonize the spleen and mesenteric lymph node and secrete IL-17A in vitro following stimulation with IL-23 at a level similar to that of WT splenocytes. Adoptively transferred Rag1(-/-) or WT thymocytes correct neutrophil counts in neutropenic nude mice. We conclude that the development of IL-17A-producing T-lineage cells requires an intact thymic epithelium, but not V(D)J recombination.
    The Journal of Immunology 11/2009; 183(9):5685-93. · 5.52 Impact Factor
  • Holger K Eltzschig, Jesus Rivera-Nieves, Sean P Colgan
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    ABSTRACT: Extracellular adenosine functions as an endogenous distress signal via activation of four distinct adenosine receptors (A1, A2A, A2B and A3). Conditions of limited oxygen availability or acute inflammation lead to elevated levels of extracellular adenosine and enhanced signaling events. This relates to a combination of four mechanisms: i) increased production of adenosine via extracellular phosphohydrolysis of precursor molecules (particularly ATP and ADP); ii) increased expression and signaling via hypoxia-induced adenosine receptors, particularly the A2B adenosine receptor; iii) attenuated uptake from the extracellular towards the intracellular compartment; and iv) attenuated intracellular metabolism. Due to their large surface area, mucosal organs are particularly prone to hypoxia and ischemia associated inflammation. Therefore, it is not surprising that adenosine production and signaling plays a central role in attenuating tissue inflammation and injury during intestinal ischemia or inflammation. In fact, recent studies combining pharmacological and genetic approaches demonstrated that adenosine signaling via the A2B adenosine receptor dampens mucosal inflammation and tissue injury during intestinal ischemia or experimental colitis. This review outlines basic principles of extracellular adenosine production, signaling, uptake and metabolism. In addition, we discuss the role of this pathway in dampening hypoxia-elicited inflammation, specifically in the setting of intestinal ischemia and inflammation.
    Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets 09/2009; 13(11):1267-77. · 4.90 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
509.80 Total Impact Points


  • 2011–2013
    • University of California, San Diego
      • Division of Gastroenterology
      San Diego, CA, United States
    • Children's Hospital Colorado
      Aurora, Colorado, United States
  • 2008–2011
    • University of Colorado
      • • Division of General Internal Medicine
      • • Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
      Denver, CO, United States
  • 2009–2010
    • La Jolla Institute for Allergy & Immunology
      La Jolla, California, United States
  • 2000–2009
    • University of Virginia
      • • Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Department of Pathology
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
  • 2006
    • Georg-August-Universität Göttingen
      Göttingen, Lower Saxony, Germany