Edit Hermesz

University of Szeged, Algyő, Csongrád, Hungary

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Publications (39)104.44 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background/objectives Nervous system damage is one of the consequences of oral exposure to waterborne inorganic arsenic. In this work, the role of oxidative status in the neurotoxicity of arsenic and the possible role of two foodborne antioxidants in ameliorating arsenic-related oxidative stress were investigated. Methods Male Wistar rats were given 10 mg/kg b.w. of trivalent inorganic arsenic (in the form of NaAsO2), 5 day/week for 6 weeks by gavage, combined with vitamin C solution (1 g/l) or green tea infusion (2.5 g in 500 ml boiled water) as antioxidants given in the drinking fluid. Results Body weight gain was reduced by arsenic from the second week and the antioxidants had no effect on that. Cortical-evoked potentials had increased latency, tail nerve conduction velocity was reduced, and this latter effect was counteracted by the antioxidants. The effect of green tea was stronger than that of vitamin C, and green tea also diminished lipid peroxidation induced by As. There was fair correlation between brain As levels, electrophysiological changes, and lipid peroxidation, suggesting a causal relationship. Discussion Natural antioxidants might be useful in the protection of the central nervous system against the toxicity of oral As.
    Nutritional Neuroscience 09/2014; · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We recently provided evidence of cell-type-specific differences in the subcellular distributions of the three nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms in the myenteric neurons, enteric smooth muscle cells and the capillary endothelium of the rat duodenum. We hypothesized that the presence of three NOS isoforms in the same type of cells with differences in subcellular compartmentalization might reflect a functional plasticity. Therefore, investigation of the possible rearrangement of cellular and subcellular NOS compartments in different gut segments following chronic ethanol treatment was the aim of this study. Rats were randomly divided into two groups and received water or 20% ethanol solution, preceded by short periods of adaptation with 10% and 15% ethanol. After 8 weeks, segments of duodenum, ileum and colon of the control and the alcohol-treated rats were processed for post-embedding immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. The quantitative differences in the numbers of gold particles indicative of the different NOSs and their relative mRNA levels between the two experimental groups varied greatly, depending on the gut segment, and also on the cellular and subcellular compartments investigated. The chronic ethanol administration had the opposite effect on the quantitative distribution of the neuronal and endothelial NOS labelling gold particles in the different cellular compartments and resulted in subcellular rearrangement of NOS labels along the gastrointestinal tract. The intestinal region-specific rearrangement of the cellular and subcellular NOS compartments may possibly result in functional plasticity and help to maintain the optimum NO level under pathological conditions.
    Histology and histopathology 05/2014; · 2.28 Impact Factor
  • Zsanett Jancsó, Edit Hermesz
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    ABSTRACT: The aim was to study the effects of cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) on haeme oxygenases (HOs) and other oxidative stress biomarkers, and their roles in macromolecule damage in liver and kidney of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). HOs play a critical role in the defence system against oxidative damage, producing biliverdin and carbon monoxide with important free radical scavenging properties. However, increased HO activity in haeme degradation may also lead to a pro-oxidant effect through the liberation of Fe-modifying Cd and As toxicity. The response of an organism to exposure to toxic metals is in many cases brought about by changes at the level of gene expression. In this study, the genes ho-1 and ho-2 of the common carp were identified, and the changes in gene expressions were analysed from the aspect of Cd and As accumulation. Both ho-1 and ho-2 are transcriptionally induced by Cd and As, but their inductions differ in time course, dose response and tissue specificity. The expression of ho1 was mostly affected by As, primarily in the liver (45-fold), whereas it was enhanced with higher efficacy by Cd in the kidney (25-fold). The cellular redox status and the damage of lipid molecules were monitored via the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione, the levels of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation, and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Journal of Applied Toxicology 04/2014; · 2.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Operation on the infrarenal aorta and large arteries of the lower extremities may cause rhabdomyolysis of the skeletal muscle, which in turn may induce remote kidney injury. NIM-811 (N-metyl-4-isoleucine-cyclosporine) is a mitochondria specific drug, which can prevent ischemic-reperfusion (IR) injury, by inhibiting mitochondrial permeability transition pores (mPTP).
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(6):e101067. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The progenitor zones of the embryonic mouse ventral telencephalon give rise to GABAergic and cholinergic neurons. We have shown previously that two LIM-homeodomain (LIM-HD) transcription factors, Lhx6 and Lhx8, that are downstream of Nkx2.1, are critical for the development of telencephalic GABAergic and cholinergic neurons. Here we investigate the role of Ldb1, a nuclear protein that binds directly to all LIM-HD factors, in the development of these ventral telencephalon derived neurons. We show that Ldb1 is expressed in the Nkx2.1 cell lineage during embryonic development and in mature neurons. Conditional deletion of Ldb1 causes defects in the expression of a series of genes in the ventral telencephalon and severe impairment in the tangential migration of cortical interneurons from the ventral telencephalon. Similar to the phenotypes observed in Lhx6 or Lhx8 mutant mice, the Ldb1 conditional mutants show a reduction in the number of both GABAergic and cholinergic neurons in the telencephalon. Furthermore, our analysis reveals defects in the development of the parvalbumin-positive neurons in the globus pallidus and striatum of the Ldb1 mutants. These results provide evidence that Ldb1 plays an essential role as a transcription co-regulator of Lhx6 and Lhx8 in the control of mammalian telencephalon development.
    Developmental Biology 10/2013; · 3.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study is related to the accumulation of Cd(2+), its effects on oxidative stress biomarkers and its role in macromolecule damage in liver and kidney of common carp. We present evidence of an increased ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) in both organs after 10mg/L Cd(2+) exposure, with different underlying biological mechanisms and consequences. In the liver, the expressions and/or activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase increased to cope with the Cd(2+)-generated toxic effects during the first 48h of treatment. In contrast, none of these selected antioxidant markers was significantly altered in the kidney, whereas the expression of glutathione synthetase was upregulated. These results suggest that the major defense mechanism provoked by Cd(2+) exposure involves the regeneration of GSH in the liver, while its de novo synthesis predominates in the kidney. High levels of accumulation of Cd(2+) and peroxynitrite anion (ONOO(-)) were detected in the kidney; the major consequences of ONOO(-) toxicity were enhanced lipid peroxidation and GSH depletion. The accumulation of ONOO(-) in the kidney suggests intensive production of NO and the development of nitrosative stress. In the liver the level of hydrogen peroxide was elevated.
    Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C Toxicology & Pharmacology 08/2013; · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Damage in the capillaries supplying the MP has been proposed as a critical factor in the development of diabetic enteric neuropathy. We therefore investigated connections between STZ-induced diabetes and the BM morphology, the size of caveolar compartments, the width of TJs, the transport of albumin, and the quantitative features of Cav-1 and eNOS expression in these microvessels. Gut segments from diabetic rats were compared with those from insulin-treated diabetics and those from controls. The effects of diabetes on the BM, the caveolar compartments, and the TJs were evaluated morphometrically. The quantitative features of the albumin transport were investigated by postembedding immunohistochemistry. The diabetes-related changes in Cav-1 and eNOS expression were assessed by postembedding immunohistochemistry and molecular method. Thickening of the BM, enlargement of the caveolar compartments, opening of the junctions, enhanced transport of albumin, and overexpression of Cav-1 and eNOS were documented in diabetic animals. Insulin replacement in certain gut segments prevented the development of these alterations. These data provide morphological, functional, and molecular evidence that the endothelial cells in capillaries adjacent to the MP is a target of diabetic damage in a regional manner.
    Microcirculation (New York, N.Y.: 1994) 02/2012; 19(4):316-26. · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic exposure to excess manganese via inhalation of metal fumes causes central nervous system damage. For modelling Mn aerosol inhalation, male Wistar rats were intratracheally instilled with MnCl2 solution (0.5 mg/kg b.w. MnCl2; n=12) 5 days a week for 5 weeks. At the end of the treatment, somatosensory cortical evoked potentials, elicited by double-pulse stimulation, were recorded from the animals in urethane anaesthesia. Body weight gain, organ weights, and Mn level in brain, lung and blood samples were also measured. In brain samples, gene expression level of MnSOD (Mn superoxide dismutase) was determined. The effect of Mn was mainly seen on the evoked potential amplitudes, and on the second:first ratio of these. Tissue Mn concentration was elevated in brain and lungs, but changed hardly in the blood. Relative weight of heart, thymus, lungs and brain was significantly altered. The level of MnSOD transcript in brain tissue decreased. The observed effects showed that Mn had access to the brain and that somatosensory cortical responses evoked by double-pulse stimulation might be suitable biomarkers of Mn intoxication.
    Central European Journal of Biology 12/2011; 6(6). · 0.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Heme oxygenase (HO) and metallothionein (MT) genes are rapidly upregulated in the liver by pro-inflammatory cytokines and/or endotoxin as protection against cellular stress and inflammation. Gadolinium chloride (GdCl₃)-induced Kupffer cell blockade has beneficial consequences in endotoxemia following bile duct ligation. Herein we further characterized the effects of Kupffer cell inhibition on the activation of the antioxidant defense system (HO and MT gene expressions, and antioxidant enzyme activities) in response to endotoxemia and obstructive jaundice. The isoform-specific expression of MT and HO genes was assessed (RT-PCR) in rat livers following 3-day bile duct ligation, 2-h lipopolysaccharide treatment (1mg/kg) or their combination, with or without GdCl₃ pretreatment (10 mg/kg, 24h before endotoxin). Lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities were also assessed. All these challenges induced similar extents of DNA damage, whereas the lipid peroxidation increased only when endotoxemia was combined with biliary obstruction. The MT and HO mRNA levels displayed isoform-specific changes: those of MT-1 and HO-2 did not change appreciably, whereas those of MT-2 and HO-1 increased significantly in 2-h endotoxemia, with or without obstructive jaundice. Among the enzymes reflecting the endogenous protective mechanisms, the catalase and copper/zinc-superoxide dismutase levels decreased, while that of Mn-SOD slightly increased. Interestingly, GdCl₃ alone induced lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and MT-2 expression. In response to GdCl₃, HO-1 induction was significantly lower in each model. Despite its moderate hepatocellular toxicity, the ameliorated stress-induced hepatic reactions provided by GdCl₃ may contribute to its protective effects.
    Life sciences 11/2011; 90(3-4):140-6. · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Heat shock proteins (HSPs) and metallothioneins (MTs) play important roles in protection against environmental stressors. The present study analyzes and compares the regulation of heat shock ( hsp70, hsc70-1 and hsp90alpha ) and metallothionein (MT-1 and MT-2) genes in the heart of common carp, in response to elevated temperature, cold shock and exposure to several heavy metal ions (As 3+ , Cd 2+ and Cu 2+ ), in whole-animal experiments. Among these metals, arsenate proved to be the most potent inducer of the examined stress genes; the hsp90alpha and MT-1 mRNA levels were elevated 11- and 10-fold, respectively, after a 24-h exposure. In contrast, Cd 2+ at 10 mg/L had no impact on the expression of hsp90alpha , and the MT genes also proved to be rather insensitive to Cd 2+ treatment in the heart: only a 2-2.5-fold induction was observed in response to 10 mg/L Cd 2+ . Heat shock resulted in a transient induction of hsp70 (19-fold) and hsp90alpha (15-fold), while elevated temperature had no effect on the expression of the MTs. Direct cold shock induced hsp70 expression (14-fold), while the hsp90alpha (26-fold) and MT-2 (2-fold) expressions peaked after the recovery period following a direct cold shock. The five stress genes examined in this study exhibited a unique, tissue-specific basal expression pattern and a characteristic sensitivity to metal treatments and temperature shocks.
    Acta Biologica Hungarica 03/2010; 61(1):10-23. · 0.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mammalian pituitary gland originates from two separate germinal tissues during embryonic development. The anterior and intermediate lobes of the pituitary are derived from Rathke's pouch, a pocket formed by an invagination of the oral ectoderm. The posterior lobe is derived from the infundibulum, which is formed by evagination of the neuroectoderm in the ventral diencephalon. Previous studies have shown that development of Rathke's pouch and the generation of distinct populations of hormone-producing endocrine cell lineages in the anterior/intermediate pituitary lobes is regulated by a number of transcription factors expressed in the pouch and by inductive signals from the ventral diencephalon/infundibulum. However, little is known about factors that regulate the development of the posterior pituitary lobe. In this study, we show that the LIM-homeobox gene Lhx2 is extensively expressed in the developing ventral diencephalon, including the infundibulum and the posterior lobe of the pituitary. Deletion of Lhx2 gene results in persistent cell proliferation, a complete failure of evagination of the neuroectoderm in the ventral diencephalon, and defects in the formation of the distinct morphological features of the infundibulum and the posterior pituitary lobe. Rathke's pouch is formed and endocrine cell lineages are generated in the anterior/intermediate pituitary lobes of the Lhx2 mutant. However, the shape and organization of the pouch and the anterior/intermediate pituitary lobes are severely altered due to the defects in development of the infundibulum and the posterior lobe. Our study thus reveals an essential role for Lhx2 in the regulation of posterior pituitary development and suggests a mechanism whereby development of the posterior lobe may affect the development of the anterior and intermediate lobes of the pituitary gland.
    Developmental Biology 11/2009; 337(2):313-23. · 3.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The expression pattern of two metallothionein (MT) genes in response to temperature shock and exposure to Cd(2+) was investigated in the brain of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ), in whole-animal experiments. The changes in the levels of MT-1 and MT-2 mRNA in the olfactory lobe, midbrain and cerebellum were followed by semiquantitative RT-PCR. The inducibility of the two MT genes was brain region and stressor-specific. Cd(2+) affected mostly the expression of MT-2, while the level of the MT-1 transcript did not change significantly in any of the brain regions examined. Moreover, the MT-2 expression was regulated spatially; MT-2 was induced significantly more strongly in the olfactory lobe than in the cerebellum or midbrain. A sudden temperature drop mainly affected the expression of the MT-1 gene; after 5 h of cold shock, the MT-1 mRNA level was about 25% of the basal value in the cerebellum and the midbrain region. The MT-2 expression did not change significantly during this treatment.
    Acta Biologica Hungarica 07/2009; 60(2):149-58. · 0.50 Impact Factor
  • Agnes Ferencz, Edit Hermesz
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    ABSTRACT: Transactivation of the expression of metallothionein genes involves the Metal-responsive Transcription Factor (MTF-1). We report here the identification of mtf-1.1a, the first known splice variant of mtf-1.1 mRNA, in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The lack of a 103 nt internal segment results in a frame shift, causing the early termination of translation. mtf-1.1a mRNA encodes a protein consisting of the first 349 amino acids of MTF-1.1 plus an additional 64 amino acids, with no significant similarity to any of the proteins in the databases. The predicted MTF-1.1a protein carries the Zn-finger domain and the nuclear exporting and nuclear localization signals, and lacks the transcription activation domains. mtf-1.1a was detected in all tissues examined but the liver, with the highest level in the brain. Arsenic alters the levels of both mtf-1.1 and mtf-1.1a transcripts, in an isoform- and tissue-specific manner.
    Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C Toxicology & Pharmacology 05/2009; 150(1):113-7. · 2.71 Impact Factor
  • Edit Hermesz, Agnes Ferencz
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    ABSTRACT: The monomeric selenoprotein, phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (GPx4) is an essential member of the antioxidant defense system. This paper describes the identification of two gpx4 genes (gpx4a and gpx4b) from somatic tissues of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The two sequences exhibited 78% and 79% identity at the DNA and the predicted protein level, respectively. The gpx4a transcript was detected in all examined tissues of unstressed animals, with the highest level in the liver. The gpx4b expression was low relative to that of gpx4a in the liver, heart, muscle and brain, and was virtually undetected in the kidney. However, in the olfactory lobe gpx4b was expressed at a fairly high level, the ratio gpx4a/gpx4b being approximately 2:1. Cold shock and Cd(2+) exposure influenced the gpx4a expression to only a slight extent, whereas gpx4b was greatly down-regulated following Cd(2+) exposure.
    Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C Toxicology & Pharmacology 05/2009; 150(1):101-6. · 2.71 Impact Factor
  • Agnes Ferencz, Edit Hermesz
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    ABSTRACT: The Metal-responsive Transcription Factor (MTF-1) serves as an essential regulator of Zn(2+) homeostasis via the activation of metallothionein gene expression. Only a single mtf-1 gene has been identified in any organism investigated previously. We report here the first evidence of the existence of two genes encoding MTF-1 proteins (mtf-1.1 and mtf-1.2). The expression patterns were followed in the liver, kidney, muscle, brain and heart by means of Northern hybridization and reverse transcription coupled polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR). mtf-1.1 mRNA was detected in all tissues examined, with the highest level in the brain, and the lowest in the kidney and the liver. mtf-1.2 expression was detected exclusively in the brain. Cold shock and Cd(2+) exposure influence the gene expression at the transcriptional level, in a stress-specific manner.
    Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C Toxicology & Pharmacology 07/2008; 148(3):238-43. · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diverse physiological and environmental stresses produce multiple cellular changes that ultimately affect the protein structures and function. An impaired myocardial performance, which can result from many factors, is one of the main mechanisms responsible for heart failure. Different protective functions have been attributed to metallothioneins which include the scavenging of free radicals, restoration of the redox balance, the detoxification of certain heavy metals and protection against alkylating agents. This study focused on the expressions of metallothionein after challenges with Cd2+, As3+ or Cu2+. The inducibilities of the two MT genes were metal-specific, and the expressions of both isoforms were altered in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Cd2+ applied in a concentration of 10 mg/l transiently induced the expressions of both MT genes. Maximum induction was observed at 24-h of treatment: the MT-2 mRNA level was elevated 2.5-fold, while the MT-1 expression peaked at around 1.5-fold the control value. Cd2+ at 10 mg/kg caused a 2-2.5-fold increase in MT-2 transcription by 24-h post-injection, which was not significantly altered at 48-h. In the heart, Cd2+ at this high dose proved a very efficient inducer of MT-1: its transcription was elevated about 6 fold by 24-h, and approximately 7.5-8-fold the control value by 48-h.
    FEBS J. 01/2007; 274(1):362.
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    ABSTRACT: Diverse physiological and environmental stresses produce multiple cellular changes that ultimately affect the protein structures and function. An impaired myocardial performance, which can result from many factors, is one of the main mechanisms responsible for heart failure. Different protective functions have been attributed to metallothioneins which include the scavenging of free radicals, restoration of the redox balance, the detoxification of certain heavy metals and protection against alkylating agents. This study focused on the expressions of metallothionein after challenges with Cd2+, As3+ or Cu2+. The inducibilities of the two MT genes were metal-specific, and the expressions of both isoforms were altered in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Cd2+ applied in a concentration of 10 mg/l transiently induced the expressions of both MT genes. Maximum induction was observed at 24-h of treatment: the MT-2 mRNA level was elevated 2.5-fold, while the MT-1 expression peaked at around 1.5-fold the control value. Cd2+ at 10 mg/kg caused a 2-2.5-fold increase in MT-2 transcription by 24-h post-injection, which was not significantly altered at 48-h. In the heart, Cd2+ at this high dose proved a very efficient inducer of MT-1: its transcription was elevated about 6 fold by 24-h, and approximately 7.5-8-fold the control value by 48-h.
    FEBS Journal 01/2007; 274(1):362. · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diverse physiological and environmental stresses produce multiple cellular changes that ultimately affect the protein structures and function. An impaired myocardial performance, which can result from many factors, is one of the main mechanisms responsible for heart failure. Different protective functions have been attributed to metallothioneins which include the scavenging of free radicals, restoration of the redox balance, the detoxification of certain heavy metals and protection against alkylating agents. This study focused on the expressions of metallothionein after challenges with Cd2+, As3+ or Cu2+. The inducibilities of the two MT genes were metal-specific, and the expressions of both isoforms were altered in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Cd2+ applied in a concentration of 10 mg/l transiently induced the expressions of both MT genes. Maximum induction was observed at 24-h of treatment: the MT-2 mRNA level was elevated 2.5-fold, while the MT-1 expression peaked at around 1.5-fold the control value. Cd2+ at 10 mg/kg caused a 2-2.5-fold increase in MT-2 transcription by 24-h post-injection, which was not significantly altered at 48-h. In the heart, Cd2+ at this high dose proved a very efficient inducer of MT-1: its transcription was elevated about 6 fold by 24-h, and approximately 7.5-8-fold the control value by 48-h.
    FEBS J. 01/2007; 274(1):362.
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    ABSTRACT: The formation of the anterior and intermediate lobes of the pituitary gland is a multi-step process regulated by cell-cell interactions involving a number of signaling pathways and by cascades of cell-intrinsic transcription factors. The LIM-homeodoamin protein Lhx3 has previously been shown to play an essential role in the growth of Rathke's pouch, a primordium of the anterior and intermediate lobes of the pituitary. However, the mechanisms underlying the function and regulation of Lhx3 remain to be elucidated. Here we report that a targeted insertion of a DNA fragment in the 3'-untranslated region of the Lhx3 gene reduces the expression of both Lhx3 mRNA and protein in Rathke's pouch. Mutant mice homozygous for this Lhx3 allele show severe hypoplasia of the pouch, a defect identical to that observed in Lhx3-null mutants. To gain insights into the mechanism of Lhx3 function in pituitary development, we further analyzed the Lhx3 deficient mutants by examination of early pituitary marker expression, cell proliferation, and cell apoptosis. Our results revealed an increase in cell apoptosis and a loss of Islet1 and Calbindin marker expression in Rathke's pouch of these mutants. Recently, increased cell apoptosis in Rathke's pouch has been described in mutant mice impaired in the function of the bicoid-like homeodomain proteins Pitx1 and Pitx2. In those mutants, the expression of Lhx3 is absent. Our results thus underscore the view that Lhx3 functions downstream of the Pitx factors in the same transcriptional cascade that controls growth and early cell differentiation of the developing pituitary gland.
    Mechanisms of Development 09/2006; 123(8):605-13. · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The functional significance of gap-junction (GJ) channels in seizure susceptibility and induction and maintenance of seizures in the developing rat brain was investigated on the 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) in vivo epilepsy model. In electrophysiological experiments, GJs were manipulated with a blocker or opener before induction or at the active epileptic foci between postnatal days 9 and 28 (P9-28). Semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification was used to measure the levels of connexin (Cx) 26, 32, 36, and 43 mRNAs at the untreated cortex or epileptic foci. The basic electrocorticogram (ECoG) and Cx messenger RNA (mRNA) expression patterns exhibited characteristic maturation; the 4-AP-induced epileptiform activity correlated well with these changes. Cx mRNA expressions were significantly upregulated around P16 (except for Cx26). The Cx26, 36, and 43 gene inducibility was highest around P16 and then declined significantly. In the youngest animals, the GJ opener induced rhythmic synchronous cortical activity. On maturation, the seizures became focalized and periodic; the discharges accelerated their amplitude and frequency increase. A transient decrease (P13-14) and then increase (P15-16) in seizure susceptibility were followed by a tendency to periodicity and focalization. The study suggests that GJ communication is involved in rhythm genesis and synchronization of cortical activity and may enhance the epileptogenicity of the developing brain.
    Epilepsia 07/2006; 47(6):1009-22. · 3.91 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

582 Citations
104.44 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1985–2014
    • University of Szeged
      • • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      • • Department of Biochemistry
      • • Department of Genetics
      Algyő, Csongrád, Hungary
  • 2009
    • Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
      Maryland, United States
  • 2003–2006
    • National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
      Maryland, United States
  • 1996
    • National Institutes of Health
      Maryland, United States