[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sensorimotor representations of movements are created in the sensorimotor network through repeated practice to support successful and effortless performance. Writer's cramp (WC) is a disorder acquired through extensive practice of finger movements, and it is likely associated with the abnormal acquisition of sensorimotor representations. We investigated (i) the activation and connectivity changes in the brain network supporting the acquisition of sensorimotor representations of finger sequences in patients with WC and (ii) the link between these changes and consolidation of motor performance 24 h after the initial practice. Twenty-two patients with WC and 22 age-matched healthy volunteers practiced a complex sequence with the right (pathological) hand during functional MRI recording. Speed and accuracy were measured immediately before and after practice (day 1) and 24 h after practice (day 2). The two groups reached equivalent motor performance on day 1 and day 2. During motor practice, patients with WC had (i) reduced hippocampal activation and hippocampal–striatal functional connectivity; and (ii) overactivation of premotor–striatal areas, whose connectivity correlated with motor performance after consolidation. These results suggest that patients with WC use alternative networks to reach equiperformance in the acquisition of new motor memories.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The preclinical stage of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is not well characterized. We conducted a brain metabolism (FDG-PET) and structural (cortical thickness) study to detect early changes in asymptomatic GRN mutation carriers (aGRN+) that were evaluated longitudinally over a 20-month period. At baseline, a left lateral temporal lobe hypometabolism was present in aGRN+ without any structural changes. Importantly, this is the first longitudinal study and, across time, the metabolism more rapidly decreased in aGRN+ in lateral temporal and frontal regions. The main structural change observed in the longitudinal study was a reduction of cortical thickness in the left lateral temporal lobe in carriers. A limit of this study is the relatively small sample (n = 16); nevertheless, it provides important results. First, it evidences that the pathological processes develop a long time before clinical onset, and that early neuroimaging changes might be detected approximately 20 years before the clinical onset of disease. Second, it suggests that metabolic changes are detectable before structural modifications and cognitive deficits. Third, both the baseline and longitudinal studies provide converging results implicating lateral temporal lobe as early involved in GRN disease. Finally, our study demonstrates that structural and metabolic changes could represent possible biomarkers to monitor the progression of disease in the presymptomatic stage toward clinical onset.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Paracetamol's (APAP) mechanism of action suggests the implication of supraspinal structures but no neuroimaging study has been performed in humans.
Methods and results:
This randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial in 17 healthy volunteers (NCT01562704) aimed to evaluate how APAP modulates pain-evoked functional magnetic resonance imaging signals. We used behavioral measures and functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the response to experimental thermal stimuli with APAP or placebo administration. Region-of-interest analysis revealed that activity in response to noxious stimulation diminished with APAP compared to placebo in prefrontal cortices, insula, thalami, anterior cingulate cortex, and periaqueductal gray matter.
These findings suggest an inhibitory effect of APAP on spinothalamic tracts leading to a decreased activation of higher structures, and a top-down influence on descending inhibition. Further binding and connectivity studies are needed to evaluate how APAP modulates pain, especially in the context of repeated administration to patients with pain.
Drug Design, Development and Therapy 08/2015; 9:3853-62. DOI:10.2147/DDDT.S81004 · 3.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
To prospectively compare in healthy rats the effect of multiple injections of macrocyclic (gadoterate meglumine) and linear (gadodiamide) gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) on T1-weighted signal intensity in the deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN), including the dentate nucleus.
Materials and methods:
Healthy rats (n = 7/group) received 20 intravenous injections of 0.6 mmol of gadolinium (Gd) per kilogram (4 injections per week during 5 weeks) of gadodiamide, gadoterate meglumine, or hyperosmolar saline (control group). Brain T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed before and once a week during the 5 weeks of injections and during 5 additional weeks (treatment-free period). Gadolinium concentrations were measured with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in plasma and brain. Blinded qualitative and quantitative evaluations of the T1 signal intensity in DCN were performed, as well as a statistical analysis on quantitative data.
A significant and persistent T1 signal hyperintensity in DCN was observed only in gadodiamide-treated rats. The DCN-to-cerebellar cortex signal ratio was significantly increased from the 12th injection of gadodiamide (1.070 ± 0.024) compared to the gadoterate meglumine group (1.000 ± 0.033; P < 0.001) and control group (1.019 ± 0.022; P < 0.001) and did not significantly decrease during the treatment-free period. Total Gd concentrations in the gadodiamide group were significantly higher in the cerebellum (3.66 ± 0.91 nmol/g) compared with the gadoterate meglumine (0.26 ± 0.12 nmol/g; P < 0.05) and control (0.06 ± 0.10 nmol/g; P < 0.05) groups.
Repeated administrations of the linear GBCA gadodiamide to healthy rats are associated with progressive and persistent T1 signal hyperintensity in the DCN, with Gd deposition in the cerebellum in contrast with the macrocyclic GBCA gadoterate meglumine for which no effect was observed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To design a fast and accurate semi-automated segmentation method for spinal cord 3T MR images and to construct a template of the cervical spinal cord.
A semi-automated double threshold-based method (DTbM) was proposed enabling both cross-sectional and volumetric measures from 3D T2-weighted turbo spin echo MR scans of the spinal cord at 3T. Eighty-two healthy subjects, 10 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, 10 with spinal muscular atrophy and 10 with spinal cord injuries were studied. DTbM was compared with active surface method (ASM), threshold-based method (TbM) and manual outlining (ground truth). Accuracy of segmentations was scored visually by a radiologist in cervical and thoracic cord regions. Accuracy was also quantified at the cervical and thoracic levels as well as at C2 vertebral level. To construct a cervical template from healthy subjects' images (n=59), a standardization pipeline was designed leading to well-centered straight spinal cord images and accurate probability tissue map.
Visual scoring showed better performance for DTbM than for ASM. Mean Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) was 95.71% for DTbM and 90.78% for ASM at the cervical level and 94.27% for DTbM and 89.93% for ASM at the thoracic level. Finally, at C2 vertebral level, mean DSC was 97.98% for DTbM compared with 98.02% for TbM and 96.76% for ASM. DTbM showed similar accuracy compared with TbM, but with the advantage of limited manual interaction.
A semi-automated segmentation method with limited manual intervention was introduced and validated on 3T images, enabling the construction of a cervical spinal cord template.
PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0122224. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0122224 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Imaging the spinal cord of spinal cord injury (SCI) patients is challenging due to pain and sores problems that could be caused by a prolonged lying position in the scanner. Once positioned within the MRI the subject cannot be displaced and therefore subject centering within the scanner (A-P and L-R directions) is not ensured. Thus, centering spinal cord images in the A-P and L-R directions is necessary to make group analysis and accurately quantifying cord atrophy in SCI patients. A Symmetry-based reorientation algorithm for the spinal cord 3T R images was proposed and evaluated on 32 data using both an imposed rotation angle and visual strategies. The proposed reorientation algorithm was proven to be efficient at C2 vertebral level.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, the concept of 'clinically relevant penumbra' was defined as an area saved by arterial recanalization and correlated with stroke outcome. This clinically relevant penumbra was located in the subcortical structures, especially the periventricular white matter. Our aims were to confirm this hypothesis, to investigate the impact of admission hyperglycemia and of insulin treatment on the severity of ischemic damages in this area and to study the respective contributions of infarct volume and ischemic damage severity of the clinically relevant penumbra on 3-month outcome. Methods We included 99 patients from the INSULINFARCT trial. Voxel-Based Analysis was carried on the Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) maps obtained at day one to localize the regions, which were more damaged in patients i) with poor clinical outcomes at three months and ii) without arterial recanalization. We determined the intersection of the detected areas, which represents the clinically relevant penumbra and investigated whether hyperglycemic status and insulin regimen affected the severity of ischemic damages in this area. We performed logistic regression to examine the contribution of infarct volume or early ADC decrease in this strategic area on 3-month outcome. Conclusion These results confirm that the deep hemispheric white matter is part of the clinically relevant penumbra and show that hyperglycaemia exacerbates the apparition of irreversible ischemic damage within 24 hours in this area. However, early intensive insulin therapy fails to protect this area from infarction. Lower ADC values were found in the corona radiata in patients with poor prognosis (p< 0.0001) and in those without arterial recanalization (p< 0.0001). The tracking analysis showed that lesions in this area interrupted many important pathways. ADC values in this area were lower in hyperglycemic than in normoglycemic patients (average decrease of 41.6 ± 20.8 x10-6mm2/s) and unaffected by the insulin regimen (p: 0.10). ADC values in the clinically relevant penumbra, but not infarct volumes, were significant predictors of 3-month outcome
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over the last two decades, presurgical mapping using functional neuroimaging techniques – and particularly fMRI – has made considerable progress. FMRI is now commonly used in the clinical practice and not just for research applications. Presurgical functional neuroim-aging with its contributions to surgical planning and to the prediction of postoperative outcome is now well established. Validation studies of functional imaging techniques have shown the potential of fMRI to localize motor areas and also to lateralize and localize language and, more recently, memory functions. However, particularly for cognitive brain functions, the imaging results strongly depend on the methodology requiring optimal clinical standard procedures. Currently, functional neuroimaging is considered as complementary to direct electrical stimulations (DES) providing additional information, such as information on the entire functional network and on the contralateral hemisphere, which is not accessible to DES. Until now, fMRI cannot replace DES. In contrast, for language functions, fMRI has largely replaced the intracarotid amobarbital procedure (IAP), which could be the case also for memory functions in the near future. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) fiber tracking is a more recent, but already in some centers, well-established technique, and its value in presurgical mapping requires further work.