Marcia Kurs-Lasky

University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States

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Publications (64)555.14 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Since the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV), a decrease in nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization with vaccine serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) has been noted in children with acute otitis media (AOM). However, neither the overall prevalence of S. pneumoniae, nor the proportion of resistant strains has changed. Less is known about Haemophilus influenzae (Hflu) during this time frame. NP flora interact and compete; accordingly, we sought to describe changes in Hflu from our studies of young children with AOM spanning 15 years. Methods: In 4 separate clinical trials carried out between 1999 and 2014, NP cultures were obtained from children aged 6-23 months presenting with a new episode of AOM. The first cohort was studied prior to the routine use of PCV7 (1999-2000). All children in cohorts 2 (2003-2005) and 3 (2006-2009) received ≥2 doses of PCV7. Children in cohort 4 (2012-2014) had at least 2 doses of PCV13. NP swabs were cultured for Spn and Hflu. Isolates of Hflu were tested for ß-lactamase production. ß-lactamase negative isolates of Hflu from cohorts 3 and 4 underwent MIC testing for ampicillin. Results: A total of 887 children were evaluated in the 4 cohorts. NP colonization with Hflu was found in 26% of children in cohort 1 (pre-vaccine era; n=175), 41% in cohort 2 (shortly after introduction of PCV7; n=87), 33% in cohort 3 (n=282) and 29% in cohort 4 (n=343). Hflu colonization differed significantly between cohorts 1 and 2 (p=0.01), then was followed by a decrease (p=0.02 test for trend). Rates of ampicillin-resistance on the basis of ß-lactamase production were 27%, 36%, 33%, and 30% in each of the 4 cohorts, respectively. ß-lactamase negative Hflu with an MIC >1.0 were present in 1/62 isolates in cohort 3 and 4/65 isolates in cohort 4 (p=NS). Rates of Spn NP colonization for cohorts 1 through 4 were 49%, 38%, 50% & 50%, respectively. Rates of dual colonization with both Hflu and Spn were stable between 11% and 14%. Conclusion: Rates of NP colonization with Hflu and ampicillin-resistance due to ß-lactamase production remained stable in the 4 cohorts. An initial increase in Hflu in cohort 2 suggested replacement of Spn after introduction of PCV7; however, this was followed by a decrease in Hflu colonization. Ongoing surveillance is needed.
    IDWeek 2014 Meeting of the Infectious Diseases Society of America; 10/2014
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    ABSTRACT: We previously developed and validated the Acute Otitis Media Severity of Symptom (AOM-SOS) scale for rating symptoms of acute otitis media (AOM) in young children. In this report, we sought to estimate the minimal important difference (MID) for change in AOM-SOS scores.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 09/2014; · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Surveillance of children with acute otitis media (AOM) for nasopharyngeal colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae before, during, and after the introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) indicated the near-complete elimination of PCV7 strains and the emergence of pneumococcal serotype 19A.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 06/2014; · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine prognostic factors that independently predict response to antimicrobial therapy in children with acute sinusitis. A total of 206 children meeting a priori clinical criteria for acute sinusitis who were prescribed antimicrobial therapy by their primary care provider were included. The severity of symptoms in the 8-12 days after treatment was initiated was followed with the use of a validated scale. We examined the univariate and multivariate association between factors present at the time of diagnosis (symptoms, signs, nasopharyngeal culture result, radiograph results) and time to resolution of symptoms. This study was conducted 8-10 years after the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination was introduced but before introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination. Children with proven nasopharyngeal colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae improved more rapidly (6.5 vs 8.5 median days to symptom resolution) than those who were not colonized with S pneumoniae. Age and radiograph findings did not predict time to symptom resolution. In children with acute sinusitis, proven nasopharyngeal colonization with S pneumoniae at presentation independently predicted time to symptom resolution. Future randomized, placebo-controlled trials could investigate the usefulness of testing for the presence of nasopharyngeal pathogens as a predictor of response to treatment.
    The Journal of pediatrics 12/2013; · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The diagnosis of acute bacterial sinusitis can be challenging because symptoms of acute sinusitis and an upper respiratory tract infection (URI) overlap. A rapid test, if accurate in differentiating sinusitis from URI, could be helpful in the diagnostic process. We examined the utility of nasopharyngeal cultures in identifying the subgroup of children with a clinical diagnosis of acute sinusitis who are least likely to benefit from antimicrobial therapy (those with completely normal sinus radiographs). Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 204 children meeting a priori clinical criteria for acute sinusitis. All children had sinus X-rays at the time of diagnosis. To determine if negative nasopharyngeal culture results could reliably identify the subgroup of children with normal radiographs, we calculated negative predictive values and negative likelihood ratios. Absence of pathogens in the nasopharynx was not helpful in identifying this low-risk subgroup.
    Clinical Pediatrics 10/2013; · 1.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:: Differentiating acute bacterial sinusitis from viral upper respiratory tract infection (URI) is challenging; 20% to 40% of children diagnosed with acute sinusitis based on clinical criteria likely have an uncomplicated URI. The objective of this study was to determine which signs and symptoms could be used to identify the subgroup of children who meet current clinical criteria for sinusitis but who nevertheless have a viral URI. METHODS:: We obtained sinus radiographs in consecutive children meeting a priori clinical criteria for acute sinusitis. We considered the subgroup of children with completely normal sinus radiographs to have an uncomplicated URI despite meeting the clinical diagnostic criteria for sinusitis. We examined the utility of signs and symptoms in identifying children with URI. RESULTS:: Of 258 children enrolled, 54 (20.9%) children had completely normal radiographs. The absence of green nasal discharge, the absence of disturbed sleep, and mild symptoms were associated with a diagnosis of URI. No physical exam findings were particularly helpful in distinguishing between children with normal vs. abnormal radiographs. CONCLUSIONS:: Among children meeting current criteria for the diagnosis of acute sinusitis, those with mild symptoms are significantly more likely to have a URI than those with severe symptoms. In addition to assessing overall severity of symptoms, practitioners should ask about sleep disturbance and green nasal discharge when assessing children with suspected sinusitis; their absence favors a diagnosis of URI.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 05/2013; · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Various screening approaches have been proposed to identify the subgroup of children with urinary tract infection who have vesicoureteral reflux. However, few studies have compared the sensitivity of screening approaches in a representative population of young children. We compared the sensitivities of the top-down (99mtechnetium dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scan to screen) and biomarker based (C-reactive protein level at presentation) approaches in identifying children with vesicoureteral reflux. Materials and Methods We calculated the sensitivity of the 2 screening approaches in detecting vesicoureteral reflux and subsequently high grade (III or greater) vesicoureteral reflux in children. Results The top-down and C-reactive protein based approaches missed 33% and 29% of cases of high grade vesicoureteral reflux, respectively. Conclusions The sensitivity of the top-down approach for detecting high grade vesicoureteral reflux was lower than previously reported. Further study of novel methods to identify children at risk for renal scarring is warranted.
    The Journal of urology 11/2012; 188(5):1895–1899. · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To characterize the natural history of intestinal failure (IF) among 14 pediatric centers during the intestinal transplantation era. The Pediatric Intestinal Failure Consortium performed a retrospective analysis of clinical and outcome data for a multicenter cohort of infants with IF. Entry criteria included infants <12 months receiving parenteral nutrition (PN) for >60 continuous days. Enteral autonomy was defined as discontinuation of PN for >3 consecutive months. Values are presented as median (25th, 75th percentiles) or as number (%). 272 infants with a gestational age of 34 weeks (30, 36) and birth weight of 2.1 kg (1.2, 2.7) were followed for 25.7 months (11.2, 40.9). Residual small bowel length in 144 patients was 41 cm (25.0, 65.5). Diagnoses were necrotizing enterocolitis (71, 26%), gastroschisis (44, 16%), atresia (27, 10%), volvulus (24, 9%), combinations of these diagnoses (46, 17%), aganglionosis (11, 4%), and other single or multiple diagnoses (48, 18%). Prescribed medications included oral antibiotics (207, 76%), H2 blockers (187, 69%), and proton pump inhibitors (156, 57%). Enteral feeding approaches varied among centers; 19% of the cohort received human milk. The cohort experienced 8.9 new catheter-related blood stream infections per 1000 catheter days. The cumulative incidences for enteral autonomy, death, and intestinal transplantation were 47%, 27%, and 26%, respectively. Enteral autonomy continued into the fifth year after study entry. Children with IF endure significant mortality and morbidity. Enteral autonomy may require years to achieve. Improved medical, nutritional, and surgical management may reduce time on PN, mortality, and need for transplantation.
    The Journal of pediatrics 05/2012; 161(4):723-728.e2. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The relative importance of signs and symptoms in the diagnosis of otitis media has not been adequately evaluated. This has led to a large degree of variation in the criteria used to diagnose otitis media, which has resulted in inconsistencies in clinical care and discrepant research findings. A group of experienced otoscopists examined children presenting for primary care. We investigated the signs and symptoms that these otoscopists used to distinguish acute otitis media (AOM), otitis media with effusion (OME), and no effusion. We used recursive partitioning to develop a diagnostic algorithm. To assess the algorithm, we validated it in an independent dataset. Bulging of the tympanic membrane (TM) was the main finding that otoscopists used to discriminate AOM from OME; information regarding the presence or absence of other signs and symptoms added little to the diagnostic process. Overall, 92% of children with AOM had a bulging TM compared with 0% of children with OME. Opacification and/or an air-fluid level was the main finding that the otoscopists used to discriminate OME from no effusion; 97% of children diagnosed with OME had an opaque TM compared with 5% of children diagnosed with no effusion. An algorithm that used bulging and opacification of the TM correctly classified 99% of ears in an independent dataset. Bulging of the TM was the finding that best discriminated AOM from OME. The algorithm developed here may prove to be useful in clinical care, research, and education concerning otitis media.
    Academic pediatrics 03/2012; 12(3):214-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Lack of agreed-upon diagnostic criteria for acute otitis media (AOM) has led to inconsistencies in clinical care, misleading research results, and misguided educational efforts. The objective of this study was to examine findings that expert otoscopists use when diagnosing AOM. A group of experienced otoscopists examined 783 children presenting for primary care. In addition, endoscopic still images of the tympanic membranes (TMs) were obtained. A random sample of 135 of these images was sent for review to a group of 7 independent physicians who were expert otoscopists. We examined the findings that both groups of observers used to distinguish between AOM, otitis media with effusion (OME), and no effusion. Among both groups of observers, bulging of the TM was the finding judged best to differentiate AOM from OME: 96% of ears and 93% of ear image evaluations assigned a diagnosis of AOM by members of the 2 groups were reported as showing bulging of the TM, compared with 0% and 3%, respectively, of ears and ear image evaluations assigned a diagnosis of OME. Opacification of the TM was the finding that best differentiated OME from no effusion. We describe findings that are used by experienced otoscopists to diagnose AOM and OME. The findings point to the advisability under most circumstances of restricting antimicrobial treatment for AOM to children who have TM bulging, and they call into question clinical trials of the treatment of AOM in which TM bulging has not been a required element for participation.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 08/2011; 30(10):822-6. · 3.14 Impact Factor
  • American Thoracic Society 2011 International Conference, May 13-18, 2011 • Denver Colorado; 05/2011
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the pain associated with diagnostic tympanocentesis and to gather preliminary data comparing the efficacy of 3 methods of pain reduction for tympanocentesis. In children 6 to 36 months of age undergoing tympanocentesis for acute otitis media, the authors measured pain and distress throughout all phases of the procedure and recovery using physiological (heart rate) and behavioral measures (cry duration, Global Mood Scale score, and pain visual analog scales). They compared--in a randomized controlled trial--3 pain reduction interventions: acetaminophen, acetaminophen plus codeine, and ibuprofen plus midazolam. Heart rate increased throughout the procedure, peaking during needle aspiration. Children treated with acetaminophen alone had higher peak heart rates and Global Mood Scale scores during parts of the procedure. Acetaminophen alone may not be as effective in reducing pain-related physiological and behavioral changes as acetaminophen plus codeine or ibuprofen plus midazolam during diagnostic tympanocentesis.
    Clinical Pediatrics 03/2011; 50(3):231-6. · 1.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Before and after introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), the authors obtained nasopharyngeal (NP) specimens from 3 groups of children aged 6 to 23 months with acute otitis media (AOM): group 1 (pre-PCV7), group 2 (early post-PCV7), and group 3 (late post-PCV7). Of the Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates, the proportion that were vaccine serotypes (VTs) declined progressively (60.4% vs 48.6% vs 5.2% in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively; P < .001). Concurrently, increases occurred in the proportion of penicillin-nonsusceptible isolates (minimum inhibitory concentration >0.1 µg/mL; 26.7% vs 37.8% vs. 38.5%; P = .12); the proportion of isolates that were serotype 19A (4.0% vs 0% vs 25.9%; P < .001); and the proportion of 19A isolates that were penicillin-nonsusceptible (0% in group 1, 68.6% in group 3; P = .004). Shifts in pneumococcal serotype distribution and increases in penicillin nonsusceptibility among pneumococcal isolates from children with AOM underscore the need for continuing bacteriological surveillance for future vaccine development.
    Clinical Pediatrics 02/2011; 50(2):114-20. · 1.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recommendations vary regarding immediate antimicrobial treatment versus watchful waiting for children younger than 2 years of age with acute otitis media. We randomly assigned 291 children 6 to 23 months of age, with acute otitis media diagnosed with the use of stringent criteria, to receive amoxicillin-clavulanate or placebo for 10 days. We measured symptomatic response and rates of clinical failure. Among the children who received amoxicillin-clavulanate, 35% had initial resolution of symptoms by day 2, 61% by day 4, and 80% by day 7; among children who received placebo, 28% had initial resolution of symptoms by day 2, 54% by day 4, and 74% by day 7 (P=0.14 for the overall comparison). For sustained resolution of symptoms, the corresponding values were 20%, 41%, and 67% with amoxicillin-clavulanate, as compared with 14%, 36%, and 53% with placebo (P=0.04 for the overall comparison). Mean symptom scores over the first 7 days were lower for the children treated with amoxicillin-clavulanate than for those who received placebo (P=0.02). The rate of clinical failure--defined as the persistence of signs of acute infection on otoscopic examination--was also lower among the children treated with amoxicillin-clavulanate than among those who received placebo: 4% versus 23% at or before the visit on day 4 or 5 (P<0.001) and 16% versus 51% at or before the visit on day 10 to 12 (P<0.001). Mastoiditis developed in one child who received placebo. Diarrhea and diaper-area dermatitis were more common among children who received amoxicillin-clavulanate. There were no significant changes in either group in the rates of nasopharyngeal colonization with nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae. Among children 6 to 23 months of age with acute otitis media, treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanate for 10 days tended to reduce the time to resolution of symptoms and reduced the overall symptom burden and the rate of persistent signs of acute infection on otoscopic examination. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; number, NCT00377260.).
    New England Journal of Medicine 01/2011; 364(2):105-15. · 54.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is caused by a dominant Th2 immune response to antigens derived from the opportunistic mold Aspergillus, most commonly Aspergillus fumigatus. It occurs in 4%-15% of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF); however, not all patients with CF infected with A. fumigatus develop ABPA. Therefore, we compared cohorts of A. fumigatus-colonized CF patients with and without ABPA to identify factors mediating tolerance versus sensitization. We found that the costimulatory molecule OX40 ligand (OX40L) was critical in driving Th2 responses to A. fumigatus in peripheral CD4+ T cells isolated from patients with ABPA. In contrast, CD4+ T cells from the non-ABPA cohort did not mount enhanced Th2 responses in vitro and contained a higher frequency of TGF-beta-expressing regulatory T cells. Heightened Th2 reactivity in the ABPA cohort correlated with lower mean serum vitamin D levels. Further, in vitro addition of 1,25 OH-vitamin D3 substantially reduced DC expression of OX40L and increased DC expression of TGF-beta. This in vitro treatment also resulted in increased Treg TGF-beta expression and reduced Th2 responses by CD4+ T cells from patients with ABPA. These data provide rationale for a therapeutic trial of vitamin D to prevent or treat ABPA in patients with CF.
    The Journal of clinical investigation 09/2010; 120(9):3242-54. · 15.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We developed a program for training in the diagnosis of otitis media that included images illustrating various otoscopic findings, mnemonic guides to recollection, and discrimination sessions that included feedback and assessments of diagnostic skills. We prepared a computerized, interactive curriculum, Enhancing Proficiency in Otitis Media (ePROM), that was centered around assemblages of clinically diverse, still and video images of tympanic membranes (TMs). To assess curriculum effectiveness, we constructed a test, the Diagnostic Ear Assessment Resource, that consisted of 50 video TM images. We administered the test to 84 residents in pediatrics or family practice who had not been exposed to ePROM and, varying the order in which the images were presented, to another group of 102 residents in the same programs both before and after exposure to ePROM. o Mean proportions of correct diagnoses in the Diagnostic Ear Assessment Resource were larger among residents who had been exposed to ePROM than among residents at comparable levels of training who had not been exposed (67% vs 62%; P = .007). Among residents exposed to ePROM, mean proportions of correct diagnoses were larger after exposure than before (67% vs 55%; P < .001). A structured, computerized curriculum to supplement standard clinical training can enhance residents' abilities to interpret still and video images of TMs and may improve their skills in diagnosing otitis media.
    PEDIATRICS 10/2009; 124(4):e714-20. · 5.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the efficacy of three surgical treatment combinations - myringotomy and tympanostomy tube insertion (M&T), adenoidectomy with M&T (A-M&T), and adenoidectomy with myringotomy (A-M) - in reducing middle-ear disease in young children with chronic OME. Children 24-47 months of age, with a history of bilateral middle-ear effusion (MEE) for at least 3 months, unilateral for 6 months or longer or unilateral for 3 months after extrusion of a tympanostomy tube, unresponsive to recent antibiotic, were randomly assigned to either M&T, A-M&T, or A-M. Treatment assignment was stratified by age (24-35 months, 36-47 months), nasal obstruction (no, yes) and previous history of M&T (no, yes). Subjects were followed monthly and with any signs or symptoms of ear disease for up to 36 months. Ninety-eight subjects were randomly assigned to the three treatment groups. Fifty-six subjects (57%) were 24-35 months of age; 63% had nasal obstruction, and 36% had previously undergone M&T. During the 36 months after entry, subjects were noted to have MEE for the following percentages of time: 18.6% in the M&T group, 20.6% in the A-M&T group, and 31.1% in the A-M group (M&T vs. A-M&T, p=0.87; M&T vs. A-M, p=0.01). By 36 months, there were no differences in the number of further surgical procedures for ear disease needed among the groups. Adenoidectomy with or without tube insertion provided no advantage to young children with chronic OME in regard to time with effusion compared to tube insertion alone. Fewer tympanostomy tubes were placed in children undergoing A-M as their initial procedure, but this should be balanced by the performance of the more invasive surgical procedure and their increased time with effusion.
    International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology 10/2009; 73(12):1718-24. · 0.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: New vaccines that offer protection against otitis media caused by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and by Moraxella catarrhalis are under development. However, the potential health benefits and economic effects of such candidate vaccines have not been systematically assessed. We created a computerized model to compare the projected benefits and costs of (1) the currently available 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, (2) a candidate pneumococcal-nontypeable H influenzae vaccine that has been tested in Europe, (3) a hypothetical pneumococcal-nontypeable H influenzae-Moraxella vaccine, and (4) no vaccination. The clinical probabilities of acute otitis media and of otitis media with effusion were generated from multivariate analyses of data from 2 large health maintenance organizations and from the Pittsburgh Child Development/Otitis Media Study cohort. Other probabilities, costs, and quality-of-life values were derived from published and unpublished sources. The base-case analysis assumed vaccine dose costs of $65 for the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, $100 for the pneumococcal-nontypeable H influenzae vaccine, and $125 for the pneumococcal-nontypeable H influenzae-Moraxella vaccine. With no vaccination, we projected that 13.7 million episodes of acute otitis media would occur annually in US children aged 0 to 4 years, at an annual cost of $3.8 billion. The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was projected to prevent 878,000 acute otitis media episodes, or 6.4% of those that would occur with no vaccination; the corresponding value for the pneumococcal-nontypeable H influenzae vaccine was 3.7 million (27%) and for the pneumococcal-nontypeable H influenzae-Moraxella vaccine was 4.2 million (31%). Using the base-case vaccine costs, pneumococcal-nontypeable H influenzae vaccine use would result in net savings compared with nontypeable 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate use. Conversely, pneumococcal-nontypeable H influenzae-Moraxella vaccine use would not result in savings compared with pneumococcal-nontypeable H influenzae vaccine use, but would cost $48 000 more per quality-adjusted life-year saved. The results were sensitive to variations in assumptions on vaccine effectiveness and vaccine dose costs but not to variations in other assumptions. New candidate vaccines against otitis media have the potential to prevent millions of disease episodes in the United States annually. If priced comparably with other recently introduced vaccines, these new otitis vaccines could achieve cost-effectiveness comparable with or more favorable than that of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.
    PEDIATRICS 07/2009; 123(6):1452-63. · 5.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Because resolution of symptoms is a primary goal of antimicrobial therapy in children with acute otitis media (AOM), measurement of symptoms in studies of antimicrobial effectiveness in such children is important. We have developed a scale for measuring symptoms of AOM in young children (AOM-SOS), and we present data on its construct validity and responsiveness. We followed children 3 months to 3 years of age with AOM, who were receiving antimicrobial treatment, using the AOM-SOS scale. The scale was administered at the enrollment visit, as a twice-a-day diary measure, and at the follow-up visit (days 5-7). To evaluate construct validity, we examined the correlation, at entry, between AOM-SOS scores and scores on other measures of pain and functional status. To evaluate the scale's responsiveness, we examined the change in scale scores from entry to follow-up. We also examined the levels of agreement between the scale scores and overall assessments of the children by parents. We enrolled 70 children (mean age 12.5 months) of whom 57 returned for follow-up. The magnitude of the correlations between the AOM-SOS scale scores and other measures of pain and functional status ranged from 0.56 to 0.84. The responsiveness of the AOM-SOS, as measured by the standardized response mean was 1.20. These data support the validity and responsiveness of the AOM-SOS; the scale seems to measure effectively both pain and overall functional status in young children with AOM. Changes in score over the first few days of illness were substantial and generally matched the assessments both of parents and of clinicians. The AOM-SOS promises to be useful as an outcome measure in clinical studies of AOM.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 01/2009; 28(1):9-12. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acute otitis media (AOM) is the most common childhood diagnosis, leading to prescription of an antibiotic in the United States. Although antibiotics are used in children with AOM, in part, to shorten the duration of symptoms, no instruments have been developed to track early changes in symptoms from the parent's point of view. The goal of the present study was to develop and evaluate a parent-reported symptom scale for children with AOM (AOM-SOS) for use as an outcome measure in AOM treatment trials. From a pool of 28 potential symptoms, we selected 7 on the basis of parent questionnaire, expert interviews, and review of the literature for inclusion in the AOM-SOS. We administered the AOM-SOS to a primary-care sample of children aged 6-25 months enrolled in a study of nasopharyngeal bacterial colonization. Children were seen for well visits, illness visits, and AOM follow-up visits. At each visit, parents completed the AOM-SOS and their children were examined by trained otoscopists. As part of the evaluation of the AOM-SOS, we examined the association between each item on the questionnaire and the clinical diagnosis of AOM while adjusting for the presence of upper respiratory tract infection. To assess responsiveness, we examined the change in AOM-SOS scores in patients with AOM who were seen for follow-up within 3 weeks of diagnosis. We evaluated 264 children (mean age, 12.5 months at entry) at a total of 642 visits. We diagnosed AOM at 24% of the visits. Each item on the questionnaire was significantly associated with the clinical diagnosis of AOM (P < 0.001 for each), before and after adjusting for the presence or absence of upper respiratory infection. The mean AOM-SOS score at visits when AOM was diagnosed was 3.71, compared with 0.96 at visits when AOM was not diagnosed (P < 0.001). Internal reliability of the scale as measured by Cronbach's alpha was 0.84. AOM-SOS scores in children with AOM who were otoscopically improved decreased by an average of 2.81 points (standardized response mean = 0.73). We have developed a short symptom scale for children with AOM. This study provides preliminary data on the performance of the AOM-SOS in a primary care sample of children.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 12/2008; 28(1):5-8. · 3.14 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
555.14 Total Impact Points


  • 2001–2013
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • • Graduate School of Public Health
      • • Division of Neuroradiology
      • • Department of Radiology
      • • Division of Pediatric Pathology at Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2012
    • Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1992–2012
    • Childrens Hospital of Pittsburgh
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Division of Pediatric Otolaryngology (ENT)
      Pittsburgh, PA, United States