[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Context: Selenium supplementation has been suggested for Hashimoto thyroiditis and Graves’ ophthalmopathy. Objective, Design: Our aim is to measure selenium status (p-Se, p-SePP), urine iodine (UI) levels and urine iodine/creatinine ratio (UI/C) in different thyroid diseases (n = 416) from four European countries and to compare the results between patients with and without thyroid autoimmunity. Results: p-Se and p-SePP showed positive correlation and did not correlate with UI/C. Also, these measurements were higher in patients from Italy in comparison with the other countries. Austria had the lowest UI/C ratios. Selenium deficiency exists in these four European countries. Selenium status was lower in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis and Graves’ disease in comparison with non-autoimmune thyroid disease patients and did not differ between autoimmune patients with or without thyroid peroxidase antibodies. The latter correlated positively with age. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that Se supplementation might have a beneficial effect in autoimmune thyroid patients.
Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism 09/2014;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is a specific steroid-binding plasma glycoprotein regulated by several different factors. Sex steroids are currently considered to be the main physiological regulators of this protein. Testosterone (T) in adults seems to be the main hormone active in lowering SHBG. The role of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in such regulation, particularly in the prepubertal age, is not well understood, and no data exist about the role of 3 alpha-androstanediol (3A alpha) and its glucuronide. In adulthood, in addition to T, 5-ene steroids seems to play a role in the regulation of SHBG plasma concentration. To assess the effect of adrenal and peripheral androgens in modulating SHBG levels in the prepubertal age, we studied subjects with precocious pubarche secondary to precocious adrenarche (PA). PA represents, in fact, a good model of study as it is characterized by an increased production and action of adrenal androgen in females under 8 yr of age and in males under 9. Sixty-five subjects (55 females and 10 males; chronologic age: 3.6 - 8.2 yr (6.9 +/- 1.3, SD); bone age: 3.6 - 11 yr (7.6 +/- 1.9); BMI 17.9 +/- 3 kg/m2) were studied. Fifteen age-matched normal children (BMI 15.2 +/- 0.8 kg/m2) were studied as controls. Androstenedione (A), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHA) and its sulphate (DHA-S), T, DHT, 3Ad and its glucuronide (3AG) and SHBG were evaluated in all subjects. In PA cases serum SHBG levels (50 +/- 27 nM) were significantly lower (p less than 0.05) with respect to normal prepubertal patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Journal of endocrinological investigation 07/2014; 15(7):501-5. · 1.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pegvisomant (PEGV) is widely used, alone or with somatostatin analogs (SSA), for GH-secreting pituitary tumors poorly controlled by SSAs alone. No information is available on specific indications for or relative efficacies of PEGV + SSA versus PEGV monotherapy. Aim of our study was to characterize real-life clinical use of PEGV vs. PEGV + SSA for SSA-resistant acromegaly (patient selection, long-term outcomes, adverse event rates, doses required to achieve control).
A retrospective analysis of data collected in 2005--2010 in five hospital-based endocrinology centers in Rome was performed. Sixty-two adult acromegaly patients treated >=6 months with PEGV (Group 1, n = 35) or PEGV + SSA (Group 2, n = 27) after unsuccessful maximal-dose SSA monotherapy (>=12 months) were enroled. Groups were compared in terms of clinical/biochemical characteristics at diagnosis and before PEGV or PEGV + SSA was started (baseline) and end-of-follow-up outcomes (IGF-I levels, adverse event rates, final PEGV doses).
Group 2 showed higher IGF-I and GH levels and sleep apnea rates, higher rates residual tumor tissue at baseline, more substantial responses to SSA monotherapy and worse outcomes (IGF-I normalization rates, final IGF-I levels). Tumor growth and hepatotoxicity events were rare in both groups. Final daily PEGV doses were similar and significantly increased with treatment duration in both groups.
PEGV and PEGV + SSA are safe, effective solutions for managing SSA-refractory acromegaly. PEGV + SSA tends to be used for more aggressive disease associated with detectable tumor tissue. With both regimens, ongoing monitoring of responses is important since PEGV doses needed to maintain IGF-I control are likely to increase over time.
Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research 06/2013; 32(1):40. · 3.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Context:Thyroid nodules are selected for biopsy on the basis of clinical and ultrasound (US) findings. Ultrasonography detects nodules at risk of malignancy, but its diagnostic accuracy does not rule out with certainty the possibility of cancer in lesions without suspicious findings.Objective:The objective of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of real-time elastography (RTE) in thyroid nodules and to assess the improvement provided by combination of RTE, B-mode US, and color flow Doppler (CFD).Design:This was a prospective multicenter study.Patients:A consecutive series of 498 thyroid nodules was blindly evaluated by US, CFD, and RTE before biopsy or surgery. Nodules were classified at RTE by four-class color scale. Patients with benign cytology underwent follow-up over 12 months, whereas patients with indeterminate, suspicious, or malignant cytology were surgically treated.Results:At follow-up, 126 nodules were malignant and 372 benign. RTE classes III-IV showed 81% sensitivity and 62% specificity. The presence of at least one US risk factor (hypoechogenicity, microcalcifications, irregular margins, intranodular vascularization, and taller than wide shape) had 85% sensitivity and 91% negative predictive value. When RTE was combined with US, the presence of at least one of the six parameters had 97% sensitivity and 97% negative predictive value, with an odds ratio of 15.8 (95% confidence interval 5.7-43.8).Conclusions:RTE is a valuable tool for detecting malignant thyroid lesions with a sensitivity similar to traditional US and CFD features. By adding RTE evaluation, the sensitivity for malignancy of US findings is markedly increased and the selection of nodules that do not need cytology is made more reliable.
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 10/2012; · 6.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a very rare endocrine tumour, with variable prognosis, depending on tumour stage and time of diagnosis. The overall survival is five years from detection. Radical surgery is considered the therapy of choice in the first stages of ACC. However postoperative disease-free survival at 5 years is only around 30% and recurrence rates are frequent. o,p'DDD (ortho-, para'-, dichloro-, diphenyl-, dichloroethane, or mitotane), an adrenolytic drug with significant toxicity and unpredictable therapeutic response, is used in the treatment of ACC. Unfortunately, treatment for this aggressive cancer is still ineffective. Over the past years, the growing interest in ACC has contributed to the development of therapeutic strategies in order to contrast the neoplastic spread. In this paper we discuss the most promising therapies which can be used in this endocrine neoplasia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a very rare endocrine tumour, with variable prognosis, depending on tumour stage and time of diagnosis. However, it is generally fatal, with an overall survival of 5 years from detection. Radiotherapy usefulness for ACC treatment has been widely debated and seems to be dependent on molecular alterations, which in turn lead to increased radio-resistance. Many studies have shown that p53 loss is an important risk factor for malignant adrenocortical tumour onset and it has been reported that somatic mutations in TP53 gene occur in 27 to 70% of adult sporadic ACCs. In this study, we investigated the role of somatic mutations of the TP53 gene in response to ionizing radiation (IR). We studied the status of p53 in two adrenocortical cell lines, H295R and SW-13, harbouring non-functioning forms of this protein, owing to the lack of exons 8 and 9 and a point mutation in exon 6, respectively. Moreover, these cell lines show high levels of p-Akt and IGF2, especially H295R. We noticed that restoration of p53 activity led to inhibition of growth after transient transfection of cells with wild type p53. Evaluation of their response to IR in terms of cell proliferation and viability was determined by means of cell count and TUNEL assay.(wt)p53 over-expression also increased cell death by apoptosis following radiation in both cell lines. Moreover, RT-PCR and Western blotting analysis of some p53 target genes, such as BCL2, IGF2 and Akt demonstrated that p53 activation following IR led to a decrease in IGF2 expression. This was associated with a reduction in the active form of Akt. Taken together, these results highlight the role of p53 in response to radiation of ACC cell lines, suggesting its importance as a predictive factor for radiotherapy in malignant adrenocortical tumours cases.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(9):e45129. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary empty sella (PES) is a particular anatomical condition characterized by the herniation of liquor within the sella turcica. The pathogenesis of this alteration, frequently observed in general population, is not yet completely understood. Recently reports demonstrated, in these patients, that hormonal pituitary dysfunctions, specially growth hormone (GH)/insulin- like growth factor (IGF-I) axis ones, could be relevant. The aim of this paper is to evaluate GH/IGF-I axis in a group of adult patients affected by PES and to verify its clinical relevance. We studied a population of 28 patients with a diagnosis of PES. In each patient we performed a basal study of thyroid, adrenal and gonadal - pituitary axis and a dynamic evaluation of GH/IGF-I after GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) plus arginine stimulation test. To evaluate the clinical significance of GH/IGF-I axis dysfunction we performed a metabolic and bone status evaluation in every patients. We found the presence of GH deficit in 11 patients (39.2%). The group that displayed a GH/IGF-I axis dysfunction showed an impairment in metabolic profile and bone densitometry. This study confirms the necessity to screen the pituitary function in patients affected by PES and above all GH/IGF-I axis. Moreover the presence of GH deficiency could be clinically significant.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess currently available evidence on adrenal incidentaloma and provide recommendations for clinical practice.
A panel of experts (appointed by the Italian Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AME)) appraised the methodological quality of the relevant studies, summarized their results, and discussed the evidence reports to find consensus. RADIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT: Unenhanced computed tomography (CT) is recommended as the initial test with the use of an attenuation value of ≤10 Hounsfield units (HU) to differentiate between adenomas and non-adenomas. For tumors with a higher baseline attenuation value, we suggest considering delayed contrast-enhanced CT studies. Positron emission tomography (PET) or PET/CT should be considered when CT is inconclusive, whereas fine needle aspiration biopsy may be used only in selected cases suspicious of metastases (after biochemical exclusion of pheochromocytoma). HORMONAL ASSESSMENT: Pheochromocytoma and excessive overt cortisol should be ruled out in all patients, whereas primary aldosteronism has to be considered in hypertensive and/or hypokalemic patients. The 1 mg overnight dexamethasone suppression test is the test recommended for screening of subclinical Cushing's syndrome (SCS) with a threshold at 138 nmol/l for considering this condition. A value of 50 nmol/l virtually excludes SCS with an area of uncertainty between 50 and 138 nmol/l.
Surgery is recommended for masses with suspicious radiological aspects and masses causing overt catecholamine or steroid excess. Data are insufficient to make firm recommendations for or against surgery in patients with SCS. However, adrenalectomy may be considered when an adequate medical therapy does not reach the treatment goals of associated diseases potentially linked to hypercortisolism.
European Journal of Endocrinology 04/2011; 164(6):851-70. · 3.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thiazolidinediones, specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) ligands, used in type-2 diabetes therapy, show favourable effects in several cancer cells. In this study we demonstrate that the growth of H295R and SW13 adrenocortical cancer cells is inhibited by rosiglitazone, a thiazolidinediones member, even though the mechanisms underlying this effect appeared to be cell-specific. Treatment with GW9662, a selective PPAR-γ-inhibitor, showed that rosiglitazone acts through both PPAR-γ-dependent and -independent mechanisms in H295R, while in SW13 cells the effect seems to be independent of PPAR-γ. H295R cells treated with rosiglitazone undergo an autophagic process, leading to morphological changes detectable by electron microscopy and an increased expression of specific proteins such as AMPKα and beclin-1. The autophagy seems to be independent of PPAR-γ activation and could be related to an increase in oxidative stress mediated by reactive oxygen species production with the disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, triggered by rosiglitazone. In SW13 cells, flow cytometry analysis showed an arrest in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle with a decrease of cyclin E and cdk2 activity, following the administration of rosiglitazone. Our data show the potential role of rosiglitazone in the therapeutic approach to adrenocortical carcinoma and indicate the molecular mechanisms at the base of its antiproliferative effects, which appear to be manifold and cell-specific in adrenocortical cancer lines.
Experimental Cell Research 03/2011; 317(10):1397-410. · 3.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several findings suggest that the patient's hormonal context plays a crucial role in determining cancer outcome. The exact nature of thyroid hormone action on tumour growth has not been established yet, in fact contrasting data show thyroid hormones have a promotory or an inhibitory action on cancer cell proliferation depending on the case. We hypothesized that not only tissue specificity, but also specific mutations occurring during tumoral development in different thyroid hormone cellular targets are responsible for this dual effect. To test our hypothesis we analysed, by time-course and bromodeoxyuridine assay, thyroid hormone effects on the proliferation of six cancer cell lines originating from the same tissue or organ but carrying different mutations (in phospho-inositide 3 kinase or β-catenin genes). The data obtained in this study show how mutations that affect the balance between degradation and stabilization of β-catenin assume a remarkable importance in determining the cell-specific thyroid hormone effect on cell growth.
Anticancer research 01/2011; 31(1):89-96. · 1.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: β-Thalassemias are a group of hereditary blood disorders characterized by abnormalities in the synthesis of the β hemoglobin (Hb) chains. This disease causes excessive storage of iron in all organs and endocrine glands. Treatment of β-thalassemia major (β-TM) consists of regular blood transfusions, iron chelation and management of secondary complications of iron overload. Endocrine abnormalities are frequently observed. In the last 25 years, the clinical picture of the disease has changed progressively thanks to improvement of treatments. Today, the majority of thalassemic patients reach adult age. The better prognosis and the longer lifespan of affected patients could be responsible for the susceptibility to other concomitant diseases which can manifest during their life. In this context, the possibility and recent literature reports about some cases of malignancy in thalassemic patients open new scenarios for oncoming years. We describe first reports of endocrine malignancies in thalassemic patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study intended to demonstrate that the thyroid hormone T3 counteracts the onset of a Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes in wild type mice. To test our hypothesis diabetes has been induced in Balb/c male mice by multiple low dose Streptozotocin injection; and a group of mice was contemporaneously injected with T3. After 48 h mice were tested for glucose tolerance test, insulin serum levels and then sacrificed. Whole pancreata were utilized for morphological and biochemical analyses, while protein extracts and RNA were utilized for expression analyses of specific molecules. The results showed that islets from T3 treated mice were comparable to age- and sex-matched control, untreated mice in number, shape, dimension, consistency, ultrastructure, insulin and glucagon levels, Tunel positivity and caspases activation, while all the cited parameters and molecules were altered by STZ alone. The T3-induced pro survival effect was associated with a strong increase in phosphorylated Akt. Moreover, T3 administration prevented the STZ-dependent alterations in glucose blood level, both during fasting and after glucose challenge, as well as in insulin serum level. In conclusion we demonstrated that T3 could act as a protective factor against STZ induced diabetes.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(5):e19839. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In hyperandrogenic women, hyperinsulinaemia amplifies 17 α-hydroxycorticosteroid intermediate response to ACTH, without alterations in serum cortisol or androgen response to stimulation. The aim of the study is to assess whether acute hyperinsulinaemia determines absolute changes in either basal or ACTH-stimulated adrenal steroidogenesis in these subjects.
Twelve young hyperandrogenic women were submitted in two separate days to an 8 h hyperinsulinaemic (80 mU/m² × min) euglycaemic clamp, and to an 8 h saline infusion. In the second half of both the protocols, a 4 h ACTH infusion (62.5 μg/h) was carried out. Serum cortisol, progesterone, 17 α-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), 17 α-hydroxypregnenolone (17-OHPREG), DHEA and androstenedione were measured at basal level and during the protocols. Absolute adrenal hormone secretion was quantified by measuring C19 and C21 steroid metabolites in urine collected after the first 4 h of insulin or saline infusion, and subsequently after 4 h of concurrent ACTH infusion.
During insulin infusion, ACTH-stimulated 17-OHPREG and 17-OHP were significantly higher than during saline infusion. No significant differences in cortisol and androgens response to ACTH were found between the protocols. Nevertheless, urinary excretion of ACTH-stimulated C19 and C21 steroid metabolites was significantly higher during hyperinsulinaemia than at basal insulin levels (both P < 0.005). Changes in steroid metabolites molar ratios suggested stimulation by insulin of 5 α-reductase activity.
These in vivo data support the hypothesis that insulin acutely enhances ACTH effects on both the androgen and glucocorticoid pathways.
European Journal of Endocrinology 11/2010; 164(2):197-203. · 3.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitotane inhibits steroid synthesis by an action on steroidogenic enzymes, as 11beta-hydroxylase and cholesterol side chain cleavage. It also has a cytotoxic effect on the adrenocortical cells and represents a primary drug used in the adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). H295R and SW13 cell lines were treated with mitotane 10(-5) M and ionizing radiations (IR) in combination therapy, inducing an irreversible inhibition of cell growth in both adrenocortical cancer cells. As shown in a previous report, mitotane/IR combination treatment induced a cell accumulation in the G2 phase. Here, we report the radiosensitizing properties of mitotane in two different ACC cell lines. The drug reveals the effectiveness to enhance the cytotoxic effects of IR by attenuating DNA repair and interfering on the activation of mitosis promoting factor (MPF), mainly regulated by the degradation of cyclin B1 in the mitotic process. These events may explain the inappropriate activation of cdc2, implicated in G2/M phase arrest and probably induced by the mitotane and IR in the combined treatment. Indeed, treatment with purvalanol, a cdc2-inhibitor prevents cell cycle arrest, triggering the G2/M transition. The observation that mitotane and IR in combination treatment amplifies the activation level of cyclin B/cdc2 complexes contributing to cell cycle arrest, suggests that the MPF could function as a master signal for controlling the temporal order of different mitotic events. Moreover, we report that mitotane interferes in modulation of mismatch repair (MMR) enzymes, revealing radiosensitizing drug ability.
International Journal of Oncology 08/2010; 37(2):493-501. · 2.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dysfunction of GH-IGF-I axis has been described in many patients affected by β-thalassemia major (TM), especially in children and in adolescents. Recent studies have demonstrated the necessity to evaluate adult patients affected by TM to establish the presence of this alteration which could be relevant in the pathogenesis of cardiac and bone disease, frequently present in this hematological condition. The pathogenesis of this alteration, correlated in the past with iron overload, is not yet completely understood.
The aim of this paper is to evaluate GH-IGF-I axis in a group of adult polytransfused β-thalassemic patients (TM) and to correlate the results with transfusional and chelation parameters.
We performed an arginine plus GHRH stimulation test in 28 adult TM patients. Ferritin, IGF-I, liver enzymes, and liver iron concentration, assessed by a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) susceptometer were also determined. Moreover, in each patient we evaluated the bone status by a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry study.
We found the presence of GH deficit in 9 patients (32.1%). There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding the value of ferritin, liver enzymes, and liver iron concentration, assessed by SQUID. The group affected by GH deficit showed a worse bone profile.
This study confirms the necessity to screen the status of GH/IGF-I axis in this group of patients, even in adult age. The presence of GH deficiency does not seem to be correlated with the efficacy parameters of transfusional and chelation therapy. Other mechanisms, additional to iron overload, could therefore play a role in the pathogenesis of this clinical condition. The presence of GH deficit seems to be very important on clinical aspects, like bone disease, that are crucial for quality of life in these patients.
Journal of endocrinological investigation 02/2010; 33(8):534-8. · 1.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ex vivo islet cell culture in the presence of stimulating factors prior to transplantation is considered a good strategy in contrast to the short conclusion of islets transplantation. Previously, we demonstrated how T3 can increase b-cell function via specific activation of Akt; therefore we hypothesized that thyroid hormone T3 can be considered a promising candidate for the in vitro expansion of islet cell mass. Rat pancreatic islets have been isolated by the collagenase digestion and cultured in the presence or not of the thyroid hormone T3 10⁻⁷ M. Islets viability has been evaluated by the use of two different dyes, one cell-permeable green fluorescent dye and propidium iodide, and by the analysis of core cell damage upcoming. Moreover, islets function has been evaluated by insulin secretion. The ability of b-cells to counteract apoptosis induced by streptozotocin has been analyzed by TUNEL assay. We demonstrated that treatment of primary cultures of rat pancreatic islets with T3 results in augmented β-cell vitality with an increase of their functional properties. In addition, a sensible reduction of the core cell damage has been observed in the T3 treated islets, suggesting the preservation of the β-cells integrity during the culture period. Nonetheless, the insulin secretion is sensibly augmented after T3 stimulation. The strong increment shown in Akt activation suggests the involvement of this pathway in the observed phenomena. In conclusion we indicate T3 as a good factor to improve ex vivo islets cell culture.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA4) gene polymorphism has been associated with human autoimmune diseases, but discordant data are available on its association with autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD). We tested the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-independent association of CTLA4+49 (A/G) (Ala 17) and/or CTLA4 CT60 (A/G) polymorphism with AAD.
DNA samples from 180 AAD patients and 394 healthy control subjects from continental Italy were analyzed, and association statistical analyses and meta-analysis of published studies were performed. Methods TaqMan minor groove binder chemistry assays and PCR fragment length polymorphism assays were used.
Frequency of allele G of CTLA4+49 was significantly increased among AAD patients (40% alleles) than among healthy controls (27% alleles; P<0.0001). CTLA4 CT60 polymorphism was associated with AAD only in the heterozygous A/G individuals. The frequency of +49 AG+GG genotypes was significantly higher among AAD patients than among healthy control subjects, in both a co-dominant (P<0.0001) and G dominant model (P<0.0001). CTLA4+49 allele G was significantly associated with disease risk in both patients with isolated AAD and in patients with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that CTLA4+49 allele G was positively associated with AAD (P<0.0001, odds ratio (OR)=2.43, 95% confidence interval=1.54-3.86) also after correction for DRB1*03-DQA1*0501-DQB1*0201, DRB1*04-DQA1*0301-DQB1*0302, and sex. Meta-analysis of five studies revealed a significant association of CTLA4+49 allele G with AAD (P<0.0001) with an overall OR of 1.48 (1.28-1.71).
The CTLA4+49 polymorphism is strongly associated with genetic risk for AAD, independently from the well-known association with HLA class II genes.
European Journal of Endocrinology 11/2009; 162(2):361-9. · 3.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) represent the most common causes of hyperandrogenism. Although the etiopathogeneses of these syndromes are different, they share many clinical and biochemical signs, such as hirsutism, acne, and chronic anovulation. Experimental data have shown that peripheral T-lymphocytes function as molecular sensors, being able to record molecular signals either at staminal and mature cell levels, or hormones at systemic levels.
Twenty PCOS women and 10 CAH with 21-hydroxylase deficiency, aged between 18-35 yr, were studied. T-cells purified from all patients and 20 healthy donors have been analyzed by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Silver-stained proteomic map of each patient was compared with a control map obtained by pooling protein samples of the 20 healthy subjects.
Spots of interest were identified by peptide mass fingerprint. Computer analysis evidenced several peptidic spots significantly modulated in all patients examined. Some proteins were modulated in both syndromes, others only in PCOS or in CAH. These proteins are involved in many physiological processes as the functional state of immune system, the regulation of the cytoskeleton structure, the oxidative stress, the coagulation process, and the insulin resistance.
Identification of the physiological function of these proteins could help to understand ethiopathogenetic mechanisms of hyperandrogenic syndromes and its complications.
Journal of endocrinological investigation 10/2009; 33(3):156-64. · 1.65 Impact Factor