L Solano-Gallego

Autonomous University of Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain

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Publications (38)84.46 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: In rural parts of Africa, dogs live in close association with humans and livestock, roam freely, and usually do not receive prophylactic measures. Thus, they are a source of infectious disease for humans and for wildlife such as protected carnivores. In 2011, an epidemiological study was carried out around three conservation areas in Uganda to detect the presence and determine the prevalence of vector-borne pathogens in rural dogs and associated ticks to evaluate the risk that these pathogens pose to humans and wildlife. Methods: Serum samples (n=105), blood smears (n=43) and blood preserved on FTA cards (n=38) and ticks (58 monospecific pools of Haemaphysalis leachi and Rhipicephalus praetextatus including 312 ticks from 52 dogs) were collected from dogs. Dog sera were tested by indirect immunofluorescence to detect the presence of antibodies against Rickettsia conorii and Ehrlichia canis. Antibodies against R. conorii were also examined by indirect enzyme immunoassay. Real time PCR for the detection of Rickettsia sp., Anaplasmataceae, Bartonella sp. and Babesia sp. was performed in DNA extracted from FTA cards and ticks. Results: 99% of the dogs were seropositive to Rickettsia sp. and 29.5% to Ehrlichia sp. Molecular analyses revealed that 7.8% of the blood samples were infected with Babesia rossi, and all were negative for Rickettsia sp. and Ehrlichia sp. Ticks were infected with Rickettsia sp. (18.9%), including R. conorii and R. massiliae; Ehrlichia sp. (18.9%), including E. chaffeensis and Anaplasma platys; and B. rossi (1.7%). Bartonella sp. was not detected in any of the blood or tick samples. Conclusions: This study confirms the presence of previously undetected vector-borne pathogens of humans and animals in East Africa. We recommend that dog owners in rural Uganda be advised to protect their animals against ectoparasites to prevent the transmission of pathogens to humans and wildlife.
    Parasites & Vectors 06/2015; In Press(1). DOI:10.1186/s13071-015-0919-x · 3.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A broad spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from a chronic subclinical infection to a non-self-limiting illness has been described for canine leishmaniosis (CanL). This clinical variation is determined by a variable immune response, presumably genetically determined, against the infection. Although different types of adaptive immune response in dogs with CanL have been investigated in several studies, the mechanisms that underlie and determine this variability are still poorly understood. It is currently thought that innate immune response, and particularly the role of specific mediators of the innate immune system, such as toll-like receptors (TLRs), plays a central role in this polarization. However, there is limited data available concerning the role that TLRs play in canine Leishmania infantum infection. The objective of this descriptive study was to characterize and compare the inflammatory pattern, the Leishmania burden and expression of TLR2 in skin lesions derived from dogs with different clinical stages of leishmaniosis and cutaneous lesions. Routine histology, Leishmania and TLR2 immunohistochemistry assays were performed in 11 patients with papular dermatitis (stage I - mild disease) and 10 patients with other cutaneous lesions (stage II-III - moderate to severe disease). A significantly higher frequency of granuloma formation was demonstrated in skin samples of dogs with stage I when compared with dogs of stage II-III. Although not statistically significant, a trend for a lower parasite burden was observed for skin lesions of dogs with stage I when compared with dogs of stage II-III. A lower expression of TLR2 in skin biopsies from dogs with stage I was statistically significant compared with stage II-III. The results obtained in this study indicated an association with TLR2 in the pathogenesis of canine cutaneous leishmaniosis. Further studies are required to fully elucidate these findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Veterinary Parasitology 03/2015; 209(3-4). DOI:10.1016/j.vetpar.2015.03.004 · 2.55 Impact Factor
  • Veterinary Clinical Pathology 01/2015; 44(2). DOI:10.1111/vcp.12232 · 1.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) is an important zoonotic disease; however, the efficacy of available vaccines for the prevention of naturally-occurring Leishmania infantum (L. infantum) infection in dogs remains unclear. The objective of this review was to determine the efficacy of currently available vaccines to prevent naturally-occurring L. infantum infection in dogs. Four bibliographic databases (CAB Direct 2011, Web of Science 2011, U.S. National Library of Medicine 2011 and Literatura Latino Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde) were searched along with eight sets of conference proceedings and the International Veterinary Information Service (IVIS) database, from 1980 to November 2012. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomized clinical trials (NRCTs), cohort studies and case-–control studies that investigated vaccine efficacy for natural L. infantum infection in dogs were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed each study against the inclusion criteria, independently extracted relevant data from all included studies and assessed the risk of methodological shortcomings in each individual study. The odds ratio (OR) and absolute risk reduction (ARR) for dichotomous outcomes and mean difference for continuous outcomes were calculated. Meta-analysis was not performed due to heterogeneity of the studies identified. The search was conducted for all mitigations for CanL and yielded the title and abstract of 937 articles, from which 84 articles were screened based on full text. Twelve studies on vaccinations (five RCTs, seven NRCTs) were identified. Ten studies were at a high risk of methodological shortcomings, whilst two were at an unclear risk. The use of 200 μg ALM protein, Leishmune , CaniLeish , LiESAp with MDP, and ALM with BCG tended to significantly reduce the proportion of dogs infected with L. infantum based on either parasitological or serological evidence. The use of lyophilized protein vaccine significantly increased the proportion of dogs infected with L. infantum based on either parasitological or serological evidence. There is peer-reviewed evidence that control measures are effective in preventing CanL with the results suggesting that between 6 and 54% of infections could be prevented with vaccination. However, this evidence is based on a small number of RCTs, all of which are either at high or unclear risk of methodological shortcomings. Well-designed, adequately powered and properly reported randomiszed (Sp) clinical trials are needed to clearly establish efficacy of vaccines as CanL control measures.
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine 11/2014; 117(1). DOI:10.1016/j.prevetmed.2014.06.015 · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to systematically review the efficacy of topically applied insecticide treatments of dogs (impregnated collars, spot-ons), and prophylactic medications to prevent natural L. infantum (L. infantum) infection in dogs. Randomised controlled trials (RCT), non-randomised clinical trials, cohort studies and case-control studies that investigated preventive efficacy for natural L. infantum infection in dogs were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed each study against the inclusion criteria and independently extracted relevant data from all included studies and assessed the risk of methodological shortcomings in each individual study. The odds ratio (OR) and absolute risk reduction (ARR) for dichotomous outcomes and mean difference for continuous outcomes were calculated. Meta-analysis was not performed due to heterogeneity of the studies identified. The search yielded 937 articles, from which 84 full text articles for second stage screening. Eleven eligible studies were included; four on collars (two RCTs), three on spot-ons (two RCTs – one looking at two different dosing regimens), three on prophylactic medications (all RCTs) and one on both collars and spot-ons summarized in this paper. All of the studies were considered to be at a high risk of methodological shortcomings, with the exception of one spot-on study which was considered to be at an unclear risk of methodological shortcomings. Deltamethrin collars, 65% permethrin, 10% imidacloprid with 50% permethrin spot-ons and domperidone prophylactic medication tended to significantly reduce the proportion of dogs infected with L. infantum based on either parasitological or serological evidence.
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine 11/2014; 117(1). DOI:10.1016/j.prevetmed.2014.06.016 · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the frequency and spatial distribution of canine leishmaniosis (CanL) in France, Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain. An online questionnaire investigated the location and frequency of CanL cases diagnosed by veterinary practitioners. Further data from the practice management systems of veterinary clinics in France were provided by a financial benchmarking company in relation to all treatment and test invoice data from participating practices. The geographical and temporal web interest in leishmaniosis was explored using Google Trends. Veterinary practitioners from France, Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain completed 1,231 questionnaires. The percentage of practice-attending dogs with a veterinary diagnosis of CanL ranged from 0.71% in France to 7.80% in Greece. However, due to regional differences in response rates, particularly in France, the mean regional estimates may better reflect the disease burden. Benchmarking data relating to approximately 180,000 dogs estimated that 0.05% of dogs attending veterinary clinics were treated for CanL or euthanased with suspected CanL in France. The regional frequency of Google web queries for leishmaniosis generally reflected the spatial patterns of disease identified from the other data sources. In conclusion, CanL was a relatively common diagnosis in veterinary clinics in many regions of the countries studied. Knowledge of CanL in endemic areas can direct the use of preventative measures and help estimate the likelihood of infection in dogs visiting or inhabiting these countries.
    The Veterinary Journal 06/2014; 200(3). DOI:10.1016/j.tvjl.2014.03.033 · 2.17 Impact Factor
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    Javier Millán, Ezio Ferroglio, Laia Solano-Gallego
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    ABSTRACT: Although dogs are considered the main reservoir of Leishmania infantum infection in endemic areas in Europe, the existence of other wild vertebrate reservoirs has been proposed as a possible cause of the lack of success of control measures. Evidence of L. infantum infection in European wildlife has been reported in carnivores, lagomorphs, and rodents. The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) received most attention, probably due to its taxonomic relationship with the dog and because it is the most abundant wild carnivore in Europe. Foxes and other wild carnivores often displayed high prevalences of infection but their infectiveness to the sandfly vector has never been demonstrated. However, xenodiagnosis demonstrated that black rats (Rattus rattus), are infectious to sandflies. This, together with their relative abundance, high rates of infection, and the fact that infected rats have been found on a Mediterranean island where dogs are not present, makes rats good candidate to be reservoirs of L. infantum. Recently, the Iberian hare (Lepus granatensis) has been recognized as the origin of a leishmaniosis outbreak in humans in Spain and xenodiagnosis showed that this species is also able to infect sandflies. In contrast, a recent survey in cave bats failed to detect infected individuals. In the future, the comparison of parasite isolates from humans, dogs and wildlife, xenodiagnosis studies in wild carnivores, and the study of other vertebrate taxonomic groups will help determine the current role of European wildlife in the epidemiology of leishmaniosis.
    Parasitology Research 05/2014; 113(6). DOI:10.1007/s00436-014-3929-2 · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of piroplasm (order Piroplasmida) infection was assessed in blood and bone marrow samples from 91 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from northern, central and southern Portugal by means of molecular methods. PCR for the 18S rRNA gene of Babesia spp. followed by sequencing revealed 63 foxes positive for the Babesia microti-like piroplasm (syn. Theileria annae) (69.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 58.7-78.5%) and one fox positive for Babesia canis (1.1%; 95% CI: 0.0-6.0%). Positivity to the B. microti-like piroplasm or B. canis in 43 blood samples (83.7%) was significantly higher (p<0.001) than in 43 paired bone marrow samples (20.9%). There were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence of infection between genders (p=0.219) or age groups (<2 years vs. ≥2 years) (p=1.0). This is the first report of the B. microti-like piroplasm in foxes from Portugal as well as the first report on detection by PCR and genotyping of B. canis in a red fox worldwide. A natural cycle of the B. microti-like piroplasm is suggested in red fox populations based on the high prevalence of the protozoan. Red foxes might be a reservoir of the B. microti-like piroplasm and a source of infection to dogs.
    Veterinary Parasitology 01/2013; 196(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.vetpar.2012.12.060 · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cytologic evaluation plays an important role in the diagnosis of ovarian neoplasia in dogs, but is supported by only scant information on cytologic features of canine ovaries. The aim of this study was to provide detailed cytologic descriptions of normal canine ovaries in different stages of estrus with comparison to histologic features. Client-owned dogs admitted for elective ovariohysterectomy were studied. For each dog, fine-needle aspirates of both ovaries were collected, stained, and examined and were compared with histologic sections of the same ovary. The stage of estrus was confirmed by examination of histologic sections and cytologic specimens of vaginal cells collected with swabs. Thirty-two ovaries from 16 dogs were examined. Luteal cells were observed in 82% of the dogs in diestrus. In early diestrus these cells were polygonal with amphophilic to deeply basophilic cytoplasm, and in late diestrus luteal cells had blebbed cell borders and clear cytoplasm with numerous small vacuoles. Perivascular arrangements and leuko-emperipolesis were noted in both phases of diestrus. Granulosa cells and spindle cells were found in cytologic specimens from most of the ovaries, and blue-gray extracellular material, sometimes associated with granulosa cells, was present. Medium-sized discrete round cells of undetermined origin were observed in some stages of estrus, and structures classified as corpora albicans were noted occasionally. Knowledge of specific cytologic features of normal canine ovaries is important for identification of pathologic processes in this organ. The novel findings of luteal cell emperipolesis, extracellular material associated with granulosa cells, and round cells of undetermined lineage warrant further study, which may provide new information on canine ovarian structure and function.
    Veterinary Clinical Pathology 09/2012; 41(3):396-404. DOI:10.1111/j.1939-165X.2012.00453.x · 1.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (pANCA) in dogs with confirmed or suspected immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) or dogs infected with various vector-borne pathogens, including Rickettsia rickettsii, Bartonella henselae, Bartonella vinsonii subsp berkhoffii, Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Leishmania infantum. 55 dogs with confirmed or suspected IMHA, 140 dogs seroreactive for vector-borne pathogens, and 62 healthy dogs and dogs seronegative for vector-borne pathogens. Samples were allocated to subgroups on the basis of the health status of the dogs and the degree of seroreactivity against various vector-borne pathogens. Serum samples were tested retrospectively via indirect immunofluorescence assay to determine pANCA status. 26 of 55 (47%) dogs with confirmed or suspected IMHA and 67 of 140 (48%) dogs seroreactive for vector-borne pathogens had positive results when tested for pANCA. Serum samples with the highest antibody concentrations against L infantum antigen had the highest proportion (28/43 [65%]) that were positive for pANCA. One of 20 (5%) dogs seronegative for tick-borne pathogens and 8 of 22 (36%) dogs seronegative for L infantum had positive results for pANCA. One of 20 (5%) healthy dogs had serum antibodies against pANCA. pANCA were detected in a high percentage of dogs with IMHA and vector-borne infectious diseases. Therefore, pANCA may be a relatively nonspecific marker for dogs with inflammatory bowel disease, although they could represent a biomarker for immune-mediated diseases and infections.
    American Journal of Veterinary Research 09/2012; 73(9):1403-9. DOI:10.2460/ajvr.73.9.1403 · 1.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This is the first report of detection of Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae in alpacas in England. The primary case occurred in a three year-old male alpaca in the south-east of England which presented with a history of progressive weight loss, lethargy, swelling of the scrotum and pale mucous membranes. Blood smear examination revealed a moderate, regenerative anaemia, with numerous small basophilic coccoid structures consistent with Candidatus M haemolamae. To confirm the presence of Candidatus M haemolamae, a portion of the 16S rDNA gene was amplified and analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). 16S rDNA gene sequencing showed a 99.8 per cent homology with Candidatus M haemolamae sequences deposited in GenBank. Subsequently, a cross-sectional study was carried out to investigate the presence of Candidatus M haemolamae infection in the alpaca herd from which the primary case was detected (n=131). Blood smear examinations and PCR with DGGE were used and compared with a species-specific PCR. The prevalence of infection when PCR positive results were combined was 29 per cent. A substantial agreement between the PCR/DGGE and the species-specific PCR was found (κ=0.86). A significant association was also found between age and infection (P=0.04) while no significant association was found with sex or origin.
    07/2012; 171(3):71. DOI:10.1136/vr.100611
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    ABSTRACT: Information about epidemiological and clinicopathological aspects of domestic cat infection by species of Cytauxzoon other than Cytauxzoon felis is limited and it has rarely been reported. Following the detection of clinical cytauxzoonosis in three cats from Trieste (Italy), an epidemiological study was carried out in colony (n=63) and owned (n=52) cats from the same city to investigate the presence of Cytauxzoon sp. infection and to assess clinicopathological findings and variables associated with this infection. Cytauxzoon sp. infection was detected by 18S rRNA gene PCR in 23% (27/118) and by blood smear examination in 15% (18/118) of domestic cats. The 18S rRNA gene sequences obtained were 99% identical to the Cytauxzoon sp. sequences deposited in GenBank(®) from Spanish, French and Mongolian wild and domestic cats. Erythroparasitemia was observed mainly in apparently healthy cats. Cytauxzoon sp. infection was statistically associated with the colony group and the outdoor life style. No statistical association was found between positivity by PCR and breed, gender, age, presence of ticks and/or fleas, clinical status, laboratory findings such as anemia, FIV and/or FeLV status and mortality rate. Persistence of the infection was monitored and documented in four clinical cases. We reported the first clinicopathological description of naturally occurring Cytauxzoon sp. infection in domestic cats living in Italy. The predominance of subclinical erythroparasitemia and the evidence of persistent infection support the hypothesis that the domestic cat might serve as a reservoir host for this infection.
    Veterinary Parasitology 07/2011; 183(3-4):343-52. DOI:10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.07.025 · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A male Jack Russell terrier developed bilateral uveitis and glaucoma at 1 year of age. Since the ocular disease was painful and unresponsive to treatment, both globes were enucleated. Microscopical evaluation of one enucleated globe revealed panuveitis, with pigment dispersion and phagocytosis consistent with the ocular lesions of canine Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH)-like syndrome. Three years later the dog was represented with severe muscle disease and skin lesions. Due to rapid clinical deterioration the dog was humanely destroyed. Necropsy examination revealed lichenoid interface inflammation in the skin and mucous membranes, with pigmentary incontinence consistent with VKH-like syndrome and lymphocytic and histiocytic polymyositis with marked muscle atrophy. Canine VKH-like syndrome is an autoimmune disease that targets melanocyte antigens. Some human patients with VKH disease develop additional autoimmune diseases. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of polymyositis subsequent to VKH-like disease in a dog. In addition, VKH-like disease has not been previously reported in a Jack Russell terrier.
    Journal of comparative pathology 12/2010; 144(4):317-23. DOI:10.1016/j.jcpa.2010.10.006 · 1.10 Impact Factor
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    E Piseddu, M Trotta, E Tortoli, M Avanzi, S Tasca, L Solano-Gallego
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    ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium celatum is a slow growing non-tuberculous mycobacterium described mainly as occurring in human patients. Only two cases of infection with this pathogen have been reported previously in animals. A 5-year-old, neutered male ferret was presented with progressive weight loss and muscle atrophy. Pale mucous membranes, slight alopecia of the tail and splenomegaly, confirmed by abdominal ultrasound, were observed. Fine-needle aspirations of the spleen revealed extramedullary haematopoiesis and marked macrophage-dominated inflammation associated with mycobacterial infection. Ziehl-Neelsen staining demonstrated sporadic acid-fast bacilli within macrophages. These organisms were identified as M. celatum by microbiological and molecular methods. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rDNA gene compared this isolate with previously reported strains and demonstrated close relatedness to the human strains of M. celatum types 1 and 3. The ferret was treated with enrofloxacin, rifampicin and azithromycin, resulting in clinical improvement. After 40 days of treatment, the spleen was re-evaluated. Cytological evaluation revealed only extramedullary haematopoiesis without evidence of infection. Discontinuation of therapy was followed by rapid deterioration and death.
    Journal of comparative pathology 09/2010; 144(2-3):214-8. DOI:10.1016/j.jcpa.2010.08.004 · 1.10 Impact Factor
  • Veterinary Parasitology 05/2010; 169(3-4). DOI:10.1016/j.vetpar.2009.12.039 · 2.55 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Comparative Pathology 11/2009; 141(4):281-281. DOI:10.1016/j.jcpa.2009.08.014 · 1.10 Impact Factor
  • M Trotta, E Carli, G Novari, T Furlanello, L Solano-Gallego
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    ABSTRACT: A 4-year-old intact female American Pit Bull Terrier from Italy descendant of an American-born bitch was evaluated for anorexia, lethargy, weakness, and intermittent vomiting. On physical examination, the dog was dehydrated, had pale mucous membranes, hunched posture and abdominal pain. A moderate anemia was observed. Splenomegaly and hyperechoic regions suspected as infarcts in the spleen were seen on abdominal ultrasound. Based on the suspicion of splenic torsion, splenectomy was performed. After surgery, the clinical condition deteriorated. A follow-up complete blood count demonstrated severe macrocytic normochromic anemia with evidence of marked regeneration, left shift neutrophilia, monocytosis and marked thrombocytopenia. Blood smear evaluation revealed single to multiple, variable sized (1-3 microm in diameter), and round to oval to band-like piroplasms within many red blood cells consistent with small form Babesia spp. or Theileria spp. A partial segment of the 18S rRNA gene was amplified and the PCR product was analyzed by direct sequencing. The nucleotide sequence was completely identical to that of Babesia gibsoni present in GenBank. This is the first molecular detection and characterization of B. gibsoni infection in a sick dog from Italy.
    Veterinary Parasitology 08/2009; 165(3-4):318-22. DOI:10.1016/j.vetpar.2009.07.022 · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) due to Leishmania infantum is a life threatening zoonotic disease with a wide distribution in four continents and importance also in non-endemic regions. The purpose of this report is to present a consensus of opinions on the diagnosis, treatment, prognosis and prevention of CanL in order to standardize the management of this infection. CanL is a disease in which infection does not equal clinical illness due to the high prevalence of subclinical infection among endemic canine populations. The most useful diagnostic approaches include serology by quantitative techniques and PCR. High antibody levels are associated with severe parasitism and disease and are diagnostic of clinical leishmaniosis. However, the presence of lower antibody levels is not necessarily indicative of disease and further work-up is necessary to confirm CanL by other diagnostic methods such as cytology, histopathology and PCR. We propose a system of four clinical stages, based on clinical signs, clinicopathological abnormalities and serological status. Suitable therapy and expected prognosis are presented for each of the stages. The combination of meglumine antimoniate and allopurinol constitutes the first line pharmaceutical protocol. However, although most dogs recover clinically after therapy, complete elimination of the parasite is usually not achieved and infected dogs may eventually relapse. Follow-up of treated dogs with blood counts, serum biochemistry, urinalysis, serology and PCR is essential for prevention of relapses. Protection against sand fly bites by topical insecticides is effective in reducing infection, and recent development of vaccines has indicated that prevention by vaccination is feasible.
    Veterinary Parasitology 07/2009; 165(1-2):1-18. DOI:10.1016/j.vetpar.2009.05.022 · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    M Trotta, A Fogliazza, T Furlanello, L Solano-Gallego
    Clinical Microbiology and Infection 06/2009; 15 Suppl 2:62-3. DOI:10.1111/j.1469-0691.2008.02279.x · 5.20 Impact Factor
  • D De Lorenzi, L Solano-Gallego
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    ABSTRACT: A 15-year-old domestic shorthair feline immunodeficiency virus-positive cat was presented with a five day history of productive cough and acute respiratory distress. Physical examination revealed inspiratory dyspnoea and diffuse gingivostomatitis. Radiographs showed an intratracheal mass located at the level of the sixth and the seventh cervical vertebrae. Bronchoscopy revealed a unique intratracheal mass occluding about 85 per cent of the tracheal lumen. The tracheal mass was removed bronchoscopically. A diagnosis of pyogranulomatous inflammation referable to a mycobacterial infection was made based on cytological and histopathological findings. 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction testing and sequence analysis identified a novel mycobacterial species, likely a slow grower, with 95 per cent identity with Mycobacterium xenopi. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a tracheal mycobacterial granuloma in a cat, and the first time, a mycobacterium with this sequence has been identified.
    Journal of Small Animal Practice 04/2009; 50(3):143-6. DOI:10.1111/j.1748-5827.2008.00697.x · 0.91 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
84.46 Total Impact Points


  • 2003–2015
    • Autonomous University of Barcelona
      • • Faculty of Veterinary
      • • Department of Pharmacology, Therapeutic and Toxicology
      Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2008–2012
    • Royal Veterinary College
      • Department of Pathology and Infectious Diseases
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2005–2009
    • Clinica Veterinaria Privata San Marco
      Venetia, Veneto, Italy