Natalija Hohnjec

Leibniz Universität Hannover, Hanover, Lower Saxony, Germany

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Publications (25)95.86 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The formation of root nodules and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) roots is controlled by a common signaling pathway including the calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase Doesn't Make Infection3 (DMI3). While nodule initiation by lipochitooligosaccharide (LCO) Nod factors is well characterized, diffusible AM fungal signals were only recently identified as sulfated and nonsulfated LCOs. Irrespective of different outcomes, the perception of symbiotic LCOs in Medicago truncatula is mediated by the LysM receptor kinase M. truncatula Nod factor perception (MtNFP). To shed light on transcriptional responses toward symbiotic LCOs and their dependence on MtNFP and Ca(2+) signaling, we performed genome-wide expression studies of wild-type, Nod-factor-perception mutant1, and dmi3 mutant roots challenged with Myc- and Nod-LCOs. We show that Myc-LCOs lead to transient, quick responses in the wild type, whereas Nod-LCOs require prolonged incubation for maximal expression activation. While Nod-LCOs are most efficient for an induction of persistent transcriptional changes, sulfated Myc-LCOs are less active, and nonsulfated Myc-LCOs display the lowest capacity to activate and sustain expression. Although all symbiotic LCOs up-regulated a common set of genes, discrete subsets were induced by individual LCOs, suggesting common and specific functions for these in presymbiotic signaling. Surprisingly, even sulfated fungal Myc-LCOs and Sinorhizobium meliloti Nod-LCOs, having very similar structures, each elicited discrete subsets of genes, while a mixture of both Myc-LCOs activated responses deviating from those induced by single treatments. Focusing on the precontact phase, we identified signaling-related and transcription factor genes specifically up-regulated by Myc-LCOs. Comparative gene expression studies in symbiotic mutants demonstrated that transcriptional reprogramming by AM fungal LCOs strictly depends on MtNFP and largely requires MtDMI3.
    Plant physiology 05/2012; 159(4):1671-85. · 6.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) are the most widespread symbioses on Earth, promoting nutrient supply of most terrestrial plant species. To unravel gene expression in defined stages of Medicago truncatula root colonization by AM fungi, we here combined genome-wide transcriptome profiling based on whole mycorrhizal roots with real-time reverse transcription-PCR experiments that relied on characteristic cell types obtained via laser microdissection. Our genome-wide approach delivered a core set of 512 genes significantly activated by the two mycorrhizal fungi Glomus intraradices and Glomus mossae. Focusing on 62 of these genes being related to membrane transport, signaling, and transcriptional regulation, we distinguished whether they are activated in arbuscule-containing or the neighboring cortical cells harboring fungal hyphae. In addition, cortical cells from nonmycorrhizal roots served as a reference for gene expression under noncolonized conditions. Our analysis identified 25 novel arbuscule-specific genes and 37 genes expressed both in the arbuscule-containing and the adjacent cortical cells colonized by fungal hyphae. Among the AM-induced genes specifying transcriptional regulators were two members encoding CAAT-box binding transcription factors (CBFs), designated MtCbf1 and MtCbf2. Promoter analyses demonstrated that both genes were already activated by the first physical contact between the symbionts. Subsequently, and corresponding to our cell-type expression patterns, they were progressively up-regulated in those cortical areas colonized by fungal hyphae, including the arbuscule-containing cells. The encoded CBFs thus represent excellent candidates for regulators that mediate a sequential reprogramming of root tissues during the establishment of an AM symbiosis.
    Plant physiology 12/2011; 157(4):2023-43. · 6.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The expression and physiology of purine receptors of the human blood–brain barrier endothelial cells were characterised by application of molecular biological, gene-silencing and Ca2+-imaging techniques to hCMEC/D3 cells. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed the expression of the G-protein-coupled receptors P2Y2-, P2Y6-, P2Y11- as well as the ionotropic P2X4-, P2X5- and P2X7-receptors. Fura-2 ratiometry revealed that adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or uridine triphosphate (UTP) mediated a change in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) from 150 to 300 nM in single cells. The change in [Ca2+]i corresponded to a fourfold to fivefold increase in the fluorescence intensity of Fluo-4, which was used for high-throughput experiments. Pharmacological dissection using different agonists [UTPγS, ATPγS, uridine diphosphate (UDP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), BzATP, αβ-meATP] and antagonist (MRS2578 or NF340) as well as inhibitors of intracellular mediators (U73122 and 2-APB) showed a PLC-IP3 cascade-mediated Ca2+ release, indicating that the nucleotide-induced Ca2+ signal was mainly related to P2Y2, 6 and 11 receptors. The gene silencing of the P2Y2 receptor reduced the ATP- or UTP-induced Ca2+ signal and suppressed the Ca2+ signal mediated by P2Y6 and P2Y11 more specific agonists like UDP (P2Y6), BzATP (P2Y11) and ATPγS (P2Y11). This report identifies the P2Y2 receptor subtype as the main purine receptor involved in Ca2+ signalling of the hCMEC/D3 cells.
    Purinergic Signalling 01/2011; 8(1). · 2.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The relevance of the symbiosis-induced Medicago truncatula sucrose synthase gene MtSucS1 for an efficient arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) was studied using two independent antisense lines that displayed up to 10-fold reduced SucS1 levels in roots. Mycorrhizal MtSucS1-reduced lines exhibited an overall stunted aboveground growth under inorganic phosphorus limitation. Apart from a reduced plant height, shoot weight, and leaf development, a delayed flowering, resulting in a lower seed yield, was observed. In addition, the root-to-shoot and root weight ratios increased significantly. Gene expression studies demonstrated a major reversion of AM-associated transcription, exhibiting a significant repression of well-known plant AM marker and mycosymbiont genes, together indicating a diminished AM fungus colonization of MtSucS1-antisense lines. Concomitantly, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolite profiling revealed that mycorrhizal MtSucS1-reduced lines were affected in important nodes of the carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus metabolism, accentuating a physiological significance of MtSucS1 for AM. In fact, antisensing MtSucS1 provoked an impaired fungal colonization within the less abundant infected regions, evident from strongly reduced frequencies of internal hyphae, vesicles, and arbuscules. Moreover, arbuscules were early senescing, accompanied with a reduced development of mature arbuscules. This defective mycorrhiza status correlated with reduced phosphorus and nitrogen levels and was proportional to the extent of MtSucS1 knockdown. Together, our results point to an important role for MtSucS1 in the establishment and maintenance of arbuscules in the AM symbiosis.
    Plant physiology 12/2009; 152(2):1000-14. · 6.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Symbiosis- and pathogenesis-related early protein induction patterns in the model legume Medicago truncatula were analysed with two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis. Two symbiotic soil microorganisms (Glomus intraradices, Sinorhizobium meliloti) were used in single infections and in combination with a secondary pathogenic infection by the oomycete Aphanomyces euteiches. Proteomic analyses performed 6 and 24h after inoculations led to identification of 87 differentially induced proteins which likely represent the M. truncatula root 'interactome'. A set of proteins involved in a primary antioxidant defense reaction was detected during all associations investigated. Symbiosis-related protein induction includes a typical factor of early symbiosis-specific signalling (CaM-2), two Ran-binding proteins of nucleocytoplasmic signalling, and a set of energy-related enzymes together with proteins involved in symbiosis-initiated C- and N-fixation. Pathogen-associated protein induction consists of mainly PR proteins, Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitors, a lectin, and proteins related to primary carbohydrate metabolism and phytoalexin synthesis. Absence of PR proteins and decreased pathogen-induced protein patterns during mixed symbiotic and pathogenic infections indicate bioprotective effects due to symbiotic co-infection. Several 14-3-3 proteins were found as predominant proteins during mixed infections. With respect to hormone-regulation, A. euteiches infection led to induction of ABA-related pathways, while auxin-related pathways are induced during symbiosis.
    Journal of proteomics 11/2009; 73(4):753-68. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The nodule-specific MtNOD25 gene of the model legume Medicago truncatula encodes a modular nodulin composed of different repetitive modules flanked by distinct N- and C-termini. Although similarities are low with respect to all repetitive modules, both the N-terminal signal peptide (SP) and the C-terminus are highly conserved in modular nodulins from different legumes. On the cellular level, MtNOD25 is only transcribed in the infected cells of root nodules, and this activation is mediated by a 299-bp minimal promoter containing an organ-specific element. By expressing mGFP6 translational fusions in transgenic nodules, we show that MtNOD25 proteins are exclusively translocated to the symbiosomes of infected cells. This specific targeting only requires an N-terminal MtNOD25 SP that is highly conserved across a family of legume-specific symbiosome proteins. Our finding sheds light on one possible mechanism for the delivery of host proteins to the symbiosomes of infected root nodule cells and, in addition, defines a short molecular address label of only 24 amino acids whose N-terminal presence is sufficient to translocate proteins across the peribacteroid membrane.
    Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 02/2009; 22(1):63-72. · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nod factors are key bacterial signaling molecules regulating the symbiotic interaction between bacteria known as rhizobia and leguminous plants. Studying plant host genes whose expression is affected by Nod factors has given insights into early symbiotic signaling and development. Here, we used a double supernodulating mutant line that shows increased sensitivity to Nod factors to study the Nod factor-regulated transcriptome. Using microarrays containing more than 16,000 70-mer oligonucleotide probes, we identified 643 Nod-factor-regulated genes, including 225 new Nod-factor-upregulated genes encoding many potential regulators. Among the genes found to be Nod factor upregulated, we identified and characterized MtRALFL1 and MtDVL1, which code for two small putative peptide regulators of 135 and 53 amino acids, respectively. Expression analysis confirmed that these genes are upregulated during initial phases of nodulation. Overexpression of MtRALFL1 and MtDVL1 in Medicago truncatula roots resulted in a marked reduction in the number of nodules formed and in a strong increase in the number of aborted infection threads. In addition, abnormal nodule development was observed when MtRALFL1 was overexpressed. This work provides evidence for the involvement of new putative small-peptide regulators during nodulation.
    Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 09/2008; 21(8):1118-27. · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nitrogen fixation (NF) in legume nodules is very sensitive to environmental constraints. Nodule sucrose synthase (SS; EC 2.4.1.13) has been suggested to play a crucial role in those circumstances because its downregulation leads to an impaired glycolytic carbon flux and, therefore, a depletion of carbon substrates for bacteroids. In the present study, the likelihood of SS being regulated by oxidative signaling has been addressed by the in vivo supply of paraquat (PQ) to nodulated pea plants and the in vitro effects of oxidizing and reducing agents on nodule SS. PQ produced cellular redox imbalance leading to an inhibition of NF. This was preceded by the downregulation of SS gene expression, protein content, and activity. In vitro, oxidizing agents were able to inhibit SS activity and this inhibition was completely reversed by the addition of dithiothreitol. The overall results are consistent with a regulation model of nodule SS exerted by the cellular redox state at both the transcriptional and post-translational levels. The importance of such mechanisms for the regulation of NF in response to environmental stresses are discussed.
    Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 06/2008; 21(5):622-30. · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We analyzed the role of the sucrose (Suc) synthase MtSucS1 during nodulation of the model legume Medicago truncatula, integrating data for the developmental, transcriptional, and metabolic processes affected downstream of an impaired Suc cleavage in root nodules. To reduce carbohydrate supply to nodule tissues, transgenic plants expressing a p35S-driven MtSucS1-antisense fusion were constructed. These plants displayed an up to 90% reduction of MtSucS1 proteins in roots and nodules. Phenotypic studies of two independent MtSucS1-reduced lines demonstrated that only under conditions depending on nodulation, these plants appeared to be impaired in above-ground growth. Specifically plant height, shoot weight, leaf development, flowering, as well as seed maturation were reduced, and the efficiency of photosynthesis was affected. Concomitantly, a significantly enhanced root to shoot ratio with a marked increase in root tip numbers was observed. Root nodule formation was found retarded and the impaired nodulation was accompanied by a less efficient nitrogen (N) acquisition. The decreased total N content of MtSucS1-antisense lines and an enhanced carbon to N ratio in roots, nodules, and shoots correlated with the extent of MtSucS1 knockdown. On the level of transcription, effects of an MtSucS1 reduction were evident for genes representing important nodes of the nodule carbon and N metabolism, while metabolite profiling revealed significantly lower levels of amino acids and their derivatives particularly in strongly MtSucS1-reduced nodules. Our results support the model that nodule-enhanced Suc synthase 1 of the model legume M. truncatula is required for the establishment and maintenance of an efficient N-fixing symbiosis.
    Plant physiology 01/2008; 145(4):1600-18. · 6.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Legume plants are able to enter two different endosymbioses with soil prokaryotes and soil fungi, leading to nitrogen-fixing root nodules and to arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM), respectively. We applied in silico and microarray-based transcriptome profiling approaches to uncover the transcriptome of developing root nodules and AM roots of the model legume Medicago truncatula. Several hundred genes were found to be activated in different stages of either symbiosis, with almost 100 genes being co-induced during nodulation and in arbuscular mycorrhiza. These co-induced genes can be associated with different cellular functions required for symbiotic efficiency, such as the facilitation of transport processes across the perisymbiotic membranes that surround the endosymbiotic bacteroids in root nodules and the arbuscules in AM roots. To specify promoter elements required for gene expression in arbuscule-containing cells, reporter gene fusions of the promoter of the Vicia faba leghemoglobin gene VfLb29 were studied by loss-of-function and gain-of-function approaches in transgenic hairy roots. These analyses specified a 85-bp fragment that was necessary for gene expression in arbuscule-containing cells but was dispensible for gene activation in root nodules. In contrast to promoters mediating gene expression in the infected cells of root nodules, the activation of genes in AM appears to be governed by more complex regulatory systems requiring different promoter modules.
    Phytochemistry 02/2007; 68(1):8-18. · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The great majority of terrestrial plants enters a beneficial arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) or ectomycorrhiza (ECM) symbiosis with soil fungi. In the SPP 1084 "MolMyk: Molecular Basics of Mycorrhizal Symbioses", high-throughput EST-sequencing was performed to obtain snapshots of the plant and fungal transcriptome in mycorrhizal roots and in extraradical hyphae. To focus activities, the interactions between Medicago truncatula and Glomus intraradices as well as Populus tremula and Amanita muscaria were selected as models for AM and ECM symbioses, respectively. Together, almost, 20.000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were generated from different random and suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA libraries, providing a comprehensive overview of the mycorrhizal transcriptome. To automatically cluster and annotate EST-sequences, the BioMake and SAMS software tools were developed. In connection with the eNorthern software SteN, plant genes with a predicted mycorrhiza-induced expression were identified. To support experimental transcriptome profiling, macro- and microarray tools have been constructed for the two model mycorrhizae, based either on PCR-amplified cDNAs or 70mer oligonucleotides. These arrays were used to profile the transcriptome of AM and ECM roots under different conditions, and the data obtained were uploaded to the ArrayLIMS and EMMA databases that are designed to store and evaluate expression profiles from DNA arrays. Together, the EST- and transcriptome databases can be mined to identify candidate genes for targeted functional studies.
    Phytochemistry 02/2007; 68(1):19-32. · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During the parasitic interaction between the model legume Medicago truncatula and the oomycete Aphanomyces euteiches, a plant protease inhibitor (PI)-encoding gene, MtTi2, was found to be induced. Sequence and database analyses showed that MtTi2 belongs to a group of at least four PIs, which are all specifically expressed upon pathogen infection or elicitor treatment. Reporter analysis showed that the MtTi2 promoter is activated in infected root tissues and revealed a distinct promoter area involved in this transcriptional induction. In order to elucidate the function of MtTi2, RNAi-mediated silencing experiments were carried out. After introduction of double-stranded MtTi2 RNA into M. truncatula roots, no endogenous transcripts were observed, indicating efficient gene suppression. Since some plant protease inhibitors were shown to suppress pathogen growth, the MtTi2i-phenotype was analyzed with respect to pathogen spreading after root infection. No altered pathogen development was observed in MtTi2i-roots as compared to control roots, indicating that MtTi2 does not directly influence the pathogen. In order to investigate whether suppression of MtTi2 results in transcriptional changes, transcriptome profiles of MtTi2i roots and control roots were analyzed using an 8000 gene M. truncatula microarray. A cluster analysis of genes regulated in roots upon infection in two MtTi2i-lines or two vector lines revealed groups of genes showing different regulation in MtTi2i- and wild type roots. Hence, it is likely that MtTi2 has endogenous functions other than directly suppressing the pathogen. Furthermore, the transcriptome approach revealed insight into the transcriptional changes in response to A. euteiches infection.
    Plant Science. 01/2007;
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    ABSTRACT: Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is a widespread symbiotic association between plants and fungal microsymbionts that supports plant development under nutrient-limiting and various stress conditions. In this study, we focused on the overlapping genetic program activated by two commonly studied microsymbionts in addition to identifying AM-related genes. We thus applied 16,086 probe microarrays to profile the transcriptome of the model legume Medicago truncatula during interactions with Glomus mosseae and Glomus intraradices and specified a total of 201 plant genes as significantly coinduced at least 2-fold, with more than 160 being reported as AM induced for the first time. Several hundred genes were additionally up-regulated during a sole interaction, indicating that the plant genetic program activated in AM to some extent depends on the colonizing microsymbiont. Genes induced during both interactions specified AM-related nitrate, ion, and sugar transporters, enzymes involved in secondary metabolism, proteases, and Kunitz-type protease inhibitors. Furthermore, coinduced genes encoded receptor kinases and other components of signal transduction pathways as well as AM-induced transcriptional regulators, thus reflecting changes in signaling. By the use of reporter gene expression, we demonstrated that one member of the AM-induced gene family encoding blue copper binding proteins (MtBcp1) was both specifically and strongly up-regulated in arbuscule-containing regions of mycorrhizal roots. A comparison of the AM expression profiles to those of nitrogen-fixing root nodules suggested only a limited overlap between the genetic programs orchestrating root endosymbioses.
    Plant physiology 05/2005; 137(4):1283-301. · 6.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study the further characterization of the Vicia faba leghaemoglobin promoter pVfLb29 is presented that was previously shown to be specifically active in the infected cells of root nodules and in arbuscule-containing cells of mycorrhizal roots. Using promoter studies in transgenic hairy roots of the Pisum sativum mutant RisNod24, disabled in the formation of functional arbuscules, VfLb29 promoter activity is assigned to later stages of arbuscule development. In order to narrow down the regions containing cis-acting elements of pVfLb29, the activity of five VfLb29 promoter deletions (-797/-31 to -175/-31 in relation to the start codon) fused to the gusAint coding region were tested in transgenic V. hirsuta hairy roots. The results specify a promoter region ranging from position -410 to -326 (85 bp) as necessary for gus expression in arbuscule-containing cells, whereas this segment is not involved in the nodule-specific activity. Sequence analysis of the pVfLb29 fragment -410/-326 (85 bp) revealed sequence motifs previously shown to be cis-acting elements of diverse promoters. To investigate the autonomous function of pVfLb29 regions for activation in arbuscule-containing cells, different regions of pVfLb29 from positions -410 to -198 were used to prepare chimeric promoter constructs for trans-activation studies. These fragments alone did not activate the mycorrhiza inactive promoter of the Vicia faba leghaemoglobin gene VfLb3, showing that the activation of pVfLb29 in arbuscule-containing cells is governed by a complex regulatory system that requires at least two modules located between position -410 and -31 of the VfLb29 gene.
    Journal of Experimental Botany 04/2005; 56(413):799-806. · 5.79 Impact Factor
  • Martin F Vieweg, Natalija Hohnjec, Helge Küster
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    ABSTRACT: The MtTrHb1 and MtTrHb2 genes of the model legume Medicago truncatula Gaertn. encode proteins homologous to truncated hemoglobins (TrHb) from plants and a range of different microorganisms. Induction of MtTrHb1 in root nodules and expression of MtTrHb2 in root nodules, as well as in mycorrhizal roots, were shown by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The promoters of both genes were PCR-amplified and fused to the gusAint coding region. By analysing these gusAint-fusions in transgenic root tissues, we were able to localize their activity in root nodules and in roots colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Whereas the promoter of MtTrHb1 was activated in the infected cells of the nitrogen-fixing zone of root nodules, the MtTrHb2 promoter was predominantly active in the nodule vascular tissue. This expression pattern correlates with the presence of an 'organ-specific element' (OSE)-like sequence in the MtTrHb1 promoter, which is not present in the MtTrHb2 regulatory unit. Concerning the AM symbiosis, only the MtTrHb2 promoter mediated an expression in arbuscule-containing cells and in the root vascular tissue of mycorrhizal root segments colonized by the fungus Glomus intraradices.
    Planta 04/2005; 220(5):757-66. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transcriptome profiling based on cDNA array hybridizations and in silico screening was used to identify Medicago truncatula genes induced in both root nodules and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM). By array hybridizations, we detected several hundred genes that were upregulated in the root nodule and the AM symbiosis, respectively, with a total of 75 genes being induced during both interactions. The second approach based on in silico data mining yielded several hundred additional candidate genes with a predicted symbiosis-enhanced expression. A subset of the genes identified by either expression profiling tool was subjected to quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction for a verification of their symbiosis-induced expression. That way, induction in root nodules and AM was confirmed for 26 genes, most of them being reported as symbiosis-induced for the first time. In addition to delivering a number of novel symbiosis-induced genes, our approach identified several genes that were induced in only one of the two root endosymbioses. The spatial expression patterns of two symbiosis-induced genes encoding an annexin and a beta-tubulin were characterized in transgenic roots using promoter-reporter gene fusions.
    Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 11/2004; 17(10):1063-77. · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we describe a large-scale expression-profiling approach to identify genes differentially regulated during the symbiotic interaction between the model legume Medicago truncatula and the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti. Macro- and microarrays containing about 6,000 probes were generated on the basis of three cDNA libraries dedicated to the study of root symbiotic interactions. The experiments performed on wild-type and symbiotic mutant material led us to identify a set of 756 genes either up- or down-regulated at different stages of the nodulation process. Among these, 41 known nodulation marker genes were up-regulated as expected, suggesting that we have identified hundreds of new nodulation marker genes. We discuss the possible involvement of this wide range of genes in various aspects of the symbiotic interaction, such as bacterial infection, nodule formation and functioning, and defense responses. Importantly, we found at least 13 genes that are good candidates to play a role in the regulation of the symbiotic program. This represents substantial progress toward a better understanding of this complex developmental program.
    Plant physiology 11/2004; 136(2):3159-76. · 6.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To construct macro- and microarray tools suitable for expression profiling in root endosymbioses of the model legume Medicago truncatula, we PCR-amplified a total of 6048 cDNA probes representing genes expressed in uninfected roots, mycorrhizal roots and young root nodules [Nucleic Acids Res. 30 (2002) 5579]. Including additional probes for either tissue-specific or constitutively expressed control genes, 5651 successfully amplified gene-specific probes were used to grid macro- and to spot microarrays designated Mt6k-RIT (M. truncatula 6k root interaction transcriptome). Subsequent to a technical validation of microarray printing, we performed two pilot expression profiling experiments using Cy-labeled targets from Sinorhizobium meliloti-induced root nodules and Glomus intraradices-colonized arbuscular mycorrhizal roots. These targets detected marker genes for nodule and arbuscular mycorrhiza development, amongst them different nodule-specific leghemoglobin and nodulin genes as well as a mycorrhiza-specific phosphate transporter gene. In addition, we identified several dozens of genes that have so far not been reported to be differentially expressed in nodules or arbuscular mycorrhiza thus demonstrating that Mt6k-RIT arrays serve as useful tools for an identification of genes relevant for legume root endosymbioses. A comprehensive profiling of such candidate genes will be very helpful to the development of breeding strategies and for the improvement of cultivation management targeted at increasing legume use in sustainable agricultural systems.
    Journal of Biotechnology 04/2004; 108(2):95-113. · 3.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The MtSucS1 gene encodes a sucrose synthase (EC 2.4.1.13) in the model legume Medicago truncatula. To determine the expression pattern of this gene in different organs and in particular during root endosymbioses, we transformed M. truncatula with specific regions of MtSucS1 fused to the gusAint reporter gene. These fusions directed an induction to the vasculature of leaves, stems, and roots as well as to flowers, developing seeds, young pods, and germinating seedlings. In root nodules, strong promoter activity occurred in the infected cells of the nitrogen-fixing zone but was additionally observed in the meristematic region, the prefixing zone, and the inner cortex, including the vasculature. Concerning endomycorrhizal roots, the MtSucS1 promoter mediated strongest expression in cortical cells harboring arbuscules. Specifically in highly colonized root sections, GUS-staining was furthermore detected in the surrounding cortical cells, irrespective of a direct contact with fungal structures. In accordance with the presence of an orthologous PsSus1 gene, we observed a comparable regulation of MtSucS1 expression in the grain legume Pisum sativum in response to microbial symbionts. Unlike other members of the MtSucS gene family, the presence of rhizobial or Glomus microsymbionts significantly altered and enhanced MtSucS1 gene expression, leading us to propose that MtSucS1 is involved in generating sink-strength, not only in root nodules but also in mycorrhizal roots.
    Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 11/2003; 16(10):903-15. · 4.31 Impact Factor