[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oncoretrovirus vectors pseudotyped with the feline endogenous retrovirus (RD114) envelope protein produced by the FLYRD18 packaging cell line have previously been shown to transduce human hematopoietic progenitor cells with a greater efficiency than similar amphotropic envelope-pseudotyped vectors. In this report, we describe the production and efficient concentration of RD114-pseudotyped murine leukemia virus (MLV)-based vectors. Following a single round of centrifugation, vector supernatants were concentrated approximately 200-fold with a 50 to 70% yield. Concentrated vector stocks transduced prestimulated human CD34(+) (hCD34(+)) cells with approximately 69% efficiency (n = 7, standard deviation = 4.4%) using a single addition of vector at a low multiplicity of infection (MOI = 5). Introduction of transduced hCD34(+) cells into irradiated NOD/SCID recipients resulted in multilineage engraftment with long-term transgene expression. These data demonstrate that RD114-pseudotyped MLV-based vectors can be efficiently concentrated to high titers and that hCD34(+) cells transduced with concentrated vector stocks retain in vivo repopulating potential. These results highlight the potential of RD114-pseudotyped oncoretrovirus vectors for future clinical implementation in hematopoietic stem cell gene transfer.
Journal of Virology 11/2001; 75(20):9995-9. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The efficient genetic modification of CD34+ cell-derived dendritic cells (DC) will provide a significant advancement towards the development of immunotherapy protocols for cancer, autoimmune disorders and infectious diseases. Recent reports have described the transduction of CD34+ cells via retrovirus- and lentivirus-based gene transfer vectors and subsequent differentiation into functional DC. Since there is significant apprehension regarding the clinical uses of HIV-based vectors, in this report, we compare a murine leukemia virus (MLV)- and a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-based bicistronic vector for gene transfer into human CD34+ cells and subsequent differentiation into mature DC. Each vector expressed both EGFP and the dominant selectable marker DHFR(L22Y) allowing for the enrichment of marked cells in the presence of the antifolate drug trimetrexate (TMTX). Both MLV-based and HIV-based vectors efficiently transduced cytokine mobilized human peripheral blood CD34+ cells. However, in vitro expansion and differentiation in the presence of GM-CSF, TNF-alpha, Flt-3L, SCF and IL-4 resulted in a reduction in the percentage of DC expressing the transgene. Selection with TMTX during differentiation increased the percentage of marked DC, resulting in up to 79% (MLV vector) and up to 94% (lentivirus-vector) transduced cells expressing EGFP without loss of DC phenotype. Thus, MLV-based vectors and in vitro selection of transduced human DC show great promise for immunotherapy protocols.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Xenopus laevis dermal melanophores provide an excellent model system for the investigation of complex cellular processes. Specifically, the expression of exogenous genes in Xenopus melanophores is the basis of recombinant bioassays for the study of receptor-ligand interactions. However, due to their slow rate of cell division and to the relatively low efficiency of current transfection protocols, long-term expression of exogenous genes and the generation of stable melanophore cell lines remains problematic. In this report we demonstrate the efficient, long-term expression of two exogenous proteins, the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and the human CD4 (hCD4) cell surface receptor, following stable introduction into Xenopus melanophores via an HIV-1 based vector. Transduction of melanophores with the EGFP expression vector resulted in up to 80% EGFP+ cells. After 1 year in continuous culture in the absence of antibiotic selection, more than 60% of the cells remained EGFP+. Furthermore, we demonstrate the expression of hCD4 melanophores for over 9 months in continuous culture in the absence of antibiotic selection. Our results indicate that lentivirus vectors provide an efficient means of introducing genetic information into Xenopus melanophores, resulting in sustained levels of gene expression. The significance of this gene transfer system for the study of cellular signal transduction pathways is discussed.
Pigment Cell Research 09/2001; 14(4):275-82. · 4.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human hematopoietic cells with in vivo repopulating potential hold much promise as a target for corrective gene transfer for numerous inherited or acquired hematopoietic disorders. Here we demonstrate long-term hematopoietic reconstitution of nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) mice with human CD34(+) cells transduced by an HIV-1-based self-inactivating (SIN) vector encoding the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Human umbilical cord CD34(+) cells were transduced (up to 76%) at a low multiplicity of infection (MOI of 5) in the absence of cytokine prestimulation. Introduction of transduced hCD34(+) cells into irradiated recipients resulted in multilineage engraftment and stable transgene expression for 18 weeks posttransplantation. Bone marrow from transplanted mice contained up to 50% hCD45(+) cells and up to 63% hCD45(+)/EGFP(+) cells. Analysis of extramedullar splenic reconstitution showed up to 13% hCD45(+) cells and up to 41% hCD45(+)/EGFP(+) cells. Analysis of human progenitor cells isolated from bone marrow of recipient animals showed equivalent percentages of EGFP(+) colony-forming cells (CFCs) by fluorescence microscopy and by PCR analysis of provirus sequences, indicating minimal transgene silencing in vivo. These findings demonstrate the utility of lentivirus-based SIN vectors for hematopoietic stem cell gene transfer and provide strong support for their future clinical evaluation.
Human Gene Therapy 07/2001; 12(9):1079-89. · 4.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One well-characterized in vitro function of Nef is its ability to remove CD4, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) receptor, from the cell surface. Nef accomplishes this by accelerating the internalization and degradation of CD4. Current models propose that Nef promotes CD4 internalization via an increased association of CD4 with clathrin-coated pits (CCP). Here, we investigated the effect of a naturally occurring antiprotozoan antibiotic, ikarugamycin (IKA), on CD4 cell surface expression in human monocytic cells stably expressing HIV type 1 SF2 Nef. IKA was able to efficiently restore CD4 cell surface expression in Nef-expressing cells without affecting either CD4 synthesis or Nef expression. In addition, we demonstrate that IKA is also capable of efficiently blocking CD4 down-modulation in response to phorbol myristate acetate. Our data suggest that IKA may be an efficient and useful inhibitor of CCP-dependent endocytosis.
Journal of Virology 04/2001; 75(5):2488-92. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have characterized the functional integrity of seven primary Nef isolates: five from a long-term nonprogressing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individual and one each from two patients with AIDS. One of the seven Nefs was defective for CD4 downregulation, two others were defective for PAK-2 activation, and one Nef was defective for PAK-2 activation and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I downregulation. Five of the Nefs were tested and found to be functional for the enhancement of virus particle infectivity. The structural basis for each of the functional defects has been analyzed by constructing a consensus nef, followed by mutational analysis of the variant amino acid residues. Mutations A29V and F193I were deleterious to CD4 downregulation and PAK-2 activation, respectively, while S189R rendered Nef defective for both MHC class I downregulation and PAK-2 activation. A search of the literature identified HIVs from five patients with Nefs predominantly mutated at F193 and from one patient with Nefs predominantly mutated at A29. A29 is highly conserved in all HIV subtypes except for subtype E. F193 is conserved in subtype B (and possibly in the closely related subtype D), but none of the other HIV group M subtypes. Our results suggest that functional distinctions may exist between HIV subtypes.
Journal of Virology 03/2001; 75(4):1672-80. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nef proteins from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) have been found to associate with an active cellular serine/threonine kinase designated Nef-associated kinase (Nak). The exact identity of Nak remains controversial, with two recent studies indicating that Nak may be either Pak1 or Pak2. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that such discrepancies arise from the use of different Nef alleles or different cell types by individual investigators. We first confirm that Pak2 but not Pak1 is cleaved by caspase 3 in vitro and then demonstrate that Nak is caspase 3 sensitive, regardless of Nef allele or cell type used. We tested nef alleles from three lentiviruses (HIV-1 SF2, HIV-1 NL4-3, and SIVmac239) and used multiple cell lines of myeloid, lymphoid, and nonhematopoietic origin to evaluate the identity of Nak. We demonstrate that ectopically expressed Pak2 can substitute for Nak, while ectopically expressed Pak1 cannot. We then show that Nef specifically mediates the robust activation of ectopically expressed Pak2, directly demonstrating that Nef regulates Pak2 activity and does not merely associate with activated Pak2. We report that most of the active Pak2 is found bound to Nef, although a fraction is not. In contrast, only a small amount of Nef is found associated with Pak2. We conclude that Nak is Pak2 and that Nef specifically mediates Pak2 activation in a low-abundance complex. These results will facilitate both the elucidation of the role of Nef in pathogenesis and the development of specific inhibitors of this highly conserved function of Nef.
Journal of Virology 01/2001; 74(23):11081-7. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The in vitro genetic manipulation of dendritic cells (DCs) for the expression of foreign proteins or peptides will assist in the development of immunotherapeutic approaches to treat cancer, immunological disorders, and/or infectious diseases. Reports have shown the expansion and differentiation of CD34(+) progenitor cells into mature DCs. In this article we describe the differentiation and expansion of lentivirus vector-marked DCs from umbilical cord blood, bone marrow, and cytokine-mobilized peripheral blood CD34(+) cells in the presence of GM-CSF, TNF-alpha, SCF, Flt-3, and IL-4. Lentivirus-marked DCs expressed high levels of enhanced green fluorescent protein and the characteristic DC surface markers CD1a, CD83, HLA-DR, and CD80. Transduced DCs activated allogeneic CD3(+) T cells as efficiently as control (nontransduced) DCs in mixed lymphocyte reactions. These results demonstrate the potential utility of lentivirus-transduced DCs in future immunotherapy protocols.
Human Gene Therapy 01/2001; 11(18):2483-92. · 4.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Changes in thymic function and immune system homeostasis associated with HIV infection or chemotherapy have significant effects on the ability of patients to maintain a complete T cell receptor repertoire. Therefore, the development of in vitro systems to evaluate thymic function in children and adults may aid in the understanding of thymopoiesis and the development of new therapies to improve thymic output. Here we use a lentivirus-based gene transfer system to mark CD34(+) cells with EGFP and follow their differentiation into CD4(+) and CD8(+) single positive thymocytes in human thymic organ cultures. Lentivirus-marked cells entered the thymus and were detected in both the cortex and medulla. Pretreatment of the thymus with 2-deoxyguanosine depleted resident thymocytes and significantly increased the percentage of EGFP(+) thymocytes. High frequency gene transfer into CD34(+) cells and maintained expression throughout differentiation allows for the in vitro assessment of thymic function. In thymuses ranging in age from fetal to adult we observed EGFP(+) thymocytes at all stages of development suggesting that thymuses of all ages are capable of accepting new T cell progenitors and contributing to the maintenance of T cell homeostasis.
Journal of Immunological Methods 12/2000; 245(1-2):31-43. · 2.23 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The rapid advancement of lentivirus-based gene transfer systems and their demonstrated utility in a variety of in vitro and in vivo settings has heightened the need for assays to evaluate the safety of these vectors prior to human clinical trials. Two major concerns relating to the use of lentivirus-based vectors in a clinical setting are the presence of contaminating replication-competent retroviruses in vector preparations and the efficiency of vector mobilization and spread by wild-type helper virus (rescue). This article describes an in vitro system to study the rescue of lentivirus-based vectors by wild-type HIV. We show that lentivirus-based vectors can be readily rescued from T cell lines and to a lesser extent from primary human lymphocytes by wildtype HIV, resulting in the spread of mobilized vector particles to previously untransduced cells. Furthermore, we show that vector mobilization can be prevented by antiretroviral drugs such as AZT. In contrast to recently published reports by Bukovsky et al. and An et al., the lentivirus vectors used in these studies had little or no effect on the replication and spread of HIV in transduced cells [Bukovsky et al. (1999). J. Virol. 73, 7087-7092; An et al. (1999). J. Virol. 73, 7671-7677]. Whereas vector spread is a significant concern for most gene therapy applications, in the context of gene therapy for HIV infection it may have beneficial effects.
Human Gene Therapy 12/2000; 11(17):2331-9. · 4.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human CD34(+) cells with in vivo repopulating potential hold much promise as a target for corrective gene transfer for numerous hematopoietic disorders. However, the efficient introduction of exogenous genes into this small, quiescent population of cells continues to present a significant challenge. To circumvent the need for high initial transduction efficiency of human hematopoietic cells, we investigated a dominant selection strategy using a variant of the DHFR gene (DHFR(L22Y)). For this purpose, we constructed a lentivirus-based bicistronic vector expressing EGFP and DHFR(L22Y). Here we demonstrate efficient in vitro selection and enrichment of lentivirus vector-transduced human CD34(+) hematopoietic cells from fetal liver, umbilical cord blood, bone marrow, and peripheral blood after cytokine mobilization. Growth of transduced human CD34(+) cells in semisolid culture under selective pressure resulted in enrichment of transduced progenitor cells to 99.5% (n = 14). Selection for DHFR(L22Y)(+) cells after expansion of transduced progenitors in liquid culture resulted in a 7- to 13-fold increase in the percentage of marked cells. Thus we have shown that transduced human hematopoietic cells may be effectively enriched in vitro by dominant selection, suggesting that development of such strategies holds promise for future in vivo application.
Human Gene Therapy 10/2000; 11(13):1949-57. · 4.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intestinal epithelial cells secrete a protective luminal mucus barrier inhibiting viral gene transfer. Quiescent, polarized monolayers of primary epithelial cells from dog gallbladder and human colon are efficiently transduced through the apical mucus side by lentivirus vectors, suggesting their application to intestinal gene therapy.
Journal of Virology 09/2000; 74(16):7642-5. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Efficient transduction of primary human T cells is an important goal toward treating a number of genetic defects. Patient T cells could be harvested by leukapheresis, transduced, and returned to the donor. A wide range of secreted or cell surface therapeutic proteins may be delivered in this way. The ability to produce antibodies is the consequence of interactions between T cells and B cells and lack of expression of CD40 ligand (CD40L) on T cells causes X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome (XHIM). We are investigating delivery of a normal CD40 ligand to treat this disorder. We tested promoters driving the expression of either reporter genes such as enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) or human CDC40L. Using murine retroviruses, the best able to drive gene expression in T cells was the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter enhancer element; however, transduction efficiency was low. To achieve efficient, high-level gene expression we tested lentiviral gene delivery vectors. At a low multiplicity of infection (MOI) (0.5-2) a large fraction of target cells was transduced by lentiviral vectors (40-93%), and the strength of gene expression was high, as determined by flow cytometric analysis. We monitored the expression of eGFP or human CD40L on T cell lines and untransformed primary human T cells from normal and CD40L-deficient patients. We achieved efficient gene expression without an extended exposure to virus, and without the need for selection. These results are encouraging for efficient lentivirus-mediated transduction of refractory human cells to achieve therapeutic gene delivery.
Human Gene Therapy 02/2000; 11(2):323-32. · 4.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ALL is the least responsive of all leukemias to immunotherapy with DLI after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. The absence of the GVL effect is probably due to 1) poor immunogenicity of ALL cells and 2) a high proliferative capacity of the leukemia, resulting in the need for frequent chemotherapy to control the leukemic clone which has the deleterious effect of eradicating any expanding ALL-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs). We have shown that the immunogenicity of ALL cells can be increased by upregulating essential (co)stimulatory molecules (B7.1&2, CD40, ICAM-1, LFA-3) using CD40 ligand. CD40 ligated ALL cells are highly efficient in inducing allogeneic T-cells to proliferate compared to untreated ALL cells. CD40ligated ALL cells can also be used to generate ALL-specific CTLs from the donor. The CTLs are protected from the toxic effects of methotrexate (MTX) or trimetrexate (TMTX) chemotherapy by introducing a drug resistant variant of dihydrofolate reductase (L22YDHFR). Gene modified ALL-specific CTLs will allow for the administration of antifolate chemotherapy which will control the leukemia and reduce the leukemia burden while the ALL-specific CTLs will be protected from the chemotherapy, expand, and eradicate the leukemia. Transduction efficiency of T-cells was measured by flow cytometry after gene modification with a replication incompetent lentivirus-based vector encoding Green Fluorescent Protein & L22YDHFR. After TMTX selection the transduction efficiency was 50% compared to 13% of T-cells not exposed to TMTX. We are currently investigating if L22YDHFR transduction significantly alters the function of antigen specific CTLs.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The efficient transfer and sustained expression of a transgene in human hematopoietic cells with in vivo repopulating potential would provide a significant advancement in the development of protocols for the treatment of hematopoietic diseases. Recent advances in the ability to purify and culture hematopoietic cells with the CD34+CD38- phenotype and with in vivo repopulating potential from human umbilical cord blood provide a direct means of testing the ability of transfer vectors to transduce these cells. Here we demonstrate the efficient transduction and expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in human umbilical cord-derived CD34+CD38- cells, without prestimulation, using a lentivirus-based gene transfer system. Transduced CD34+CD38- cells cultured in serum-free medium supplemented with SCF, Flt-3, IL-3, and IL-6 maintained their surface phenotype for 5 days and expressed readily detectable levels of the transgene. The average transduction efficiency of the CD34+CD38- cells was 59 +/- 7% as determined by flow cytometry. Erythroid and myeloid colonies derived from transduced CD34+CD38- cells were EGFP positive at a high frequency (66 +/- 9%). In contrast, a murine leukemia virus-based vector transduced the CD34+CD38- cells at a low frequency (<4%). These results demonstrate the utility of lentiviral-based gene transfer vectors in the transduction of primitive human hematopoietic CD34+CD38- cells.
Human Gene Therapy 06/1999; 10(9):1479-89. · 4.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development of gene transfer systems for the efficient transduction of human primary cells including lymphocytes and CD34+ cells is a significant step in the advancement of gene therapy and cell marking protocols. Efficient gene transfer systems also represent useful tools for basic research. Here we show that human primary lymphocytes and CD34+ cells can be efficiently transduced using a VSV-G pseudotyped HIV-1-based gene transfer system. The enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was chosen as the marker transgene, because it can be easily visualized and quantitated using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, thus eliminating the need for selection or PCR to score transduction. Vectors produced with this system did not generate replication-competent retroviruses (RCRs) and efficiently transduced human cell lines (40-90%), PBMCs (60%), mobilized CD34+ cells (39%), and CD34+ cells from umbilical cord blood (60%) as measured by flow cytometry. Cells treated with AZT prior to infection did not express EGFP, ruling out passive protein or plasmid DNA transfer. This was further confirmed in methylcellulose cultures, where expression in myeloid and erythroid colonies was maintained for at least 3 weeks. In addition, this HIV-based vector was able to efficiently transduce freshly isolated, not-prestimulated CD34+ cells (70% EGFP positive) in serum-free medium. Under these same conditions, a Moloney murine leukemia virus-based vector failed to transduce not-prestimulated CD34+ cells. These characteristics make this gene transfer system an excellent choice for both basic science and possible gene therapy applications.
Human Gene Therapy 05/1999; 10(6):935-45. · 4.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Through its specific receptor, the amphotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV) infects cells from many mammals, including humans. We have previously demonstrated that levels of human amphotropic MLV receptor (pit2) mRNA varied considerably in different human cell lines. Removal of phosphate from the culture medium led to increases in the amount of pit2 mRNA and the quantity of a 71-kDa protein specifically recognized by antibodies against Pit2. To determine if the increases in pit2 mRNA and protein levels were due to a transcriptional effect, the pit2 promoter region was cloned. This region was characterized and found to contain a functional TATA-less promoter that under our experimental conditions does not respond to phosphate depletion. Instead, pit2 mRNA was found to be more stable in response to Pi depletion. These results suggest that the increase in pit2 mRNA levels observed in response to Pi depletion occurs at a posttranscriptional level and is due to enhanced mRNA stability.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nef proteins from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolate SF2 (HIV-1SF2) and simian immunodeficiency virus isolate mac239 (SIVmac239) have been found to associate with a cellular serine/threonine kinase designated NAK. We have recently shown that the association of Nef with NAK is isolate dependent. To identify the structural basis for Nef-kinase association, several chimeric molecules were constructed between SF2 Nef (binding NAK) and 233 Nef (a primary isolate not binding NAK) and stably expressed in HuT-78 human T cells via retrovirus-mediated gene transfer. The Nef 233/SF2/SF2 chimera in which the N-terminal 37 amino acids of SF2 Nef were replaced by those of 233 Nef showed the same ability as SF2 Nef to bind NAK. The Nef 233/SF2/233 chimera in which the N-terminal 37 amino acids and the C-terminal 72 amino acids of SF2 Nef were replaced by corresponding sequences from 233 Nef completely lost the ability to associate with the kinase activity. Furthermore, replacement of the C-terminal 72 amino acids of 233 Nef with the equivalent SF2 sequence (chimera 233/233/SF2) fully restored kinase association to 233 Nef. These results suggest that (i) the core of Nef is not sufficient for NAK binding, (ii) the C terminus of SF2 Nef contains structural determinants important for association with NAK, and (iii) the failure of 233 Nef to bind NAK is due to a defect in its C terminus. Taking advantage of the C terminus of 233 Nef being nonfunctional and using an infectious clone of HIV-1SF2, we show that association with NAK is not required for Nef-mediated infectivity enhancement. While the strong and reproducible association of some Nef isolates with NAK has been clearly established, the role of NAK in Nef function remains to be fully elucidated.
Journal of Virology 01/1998; 71(12):9524-30. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The amphotropic murine leukemia virus (MuLV) can infect cells from a number of mammals, including humans, via its specific receptor. Basic knowledge of amphotropic MuLV receptor expression is likely to be useful in the development and improvement of gene therapy protocols based on amphotropic-pseudotyped vectors. To investigate the expression of the human receptor for the amphotropic MuLV (GLVR-2, newly termed Pit2), we determined its mRNA levels in several cell lines and found them to vary significantly. Induction of increased levels of mRNA after removal of phosphate from the media was observed in two osteosarcoma cell lines. The increase in GLVR-2 mRNA resulted in a concomitant rise in the levels of a 71-kDa protein specifically recognized by affinity-purified antibodies against GLVR-2. Using these antibodies, we were able to confirm the intracellular topology of the large hydrophilic domain between the proposed sixth and seventh transmembrane domains of the GLVR-2 protein. This assignment is in agreement with the fourth extracellular loop being outside the cell, consistent with the proposal that the fourth extracellular loop of GLVR-2 contains the envelope binding site.
Journal of Virology 07/1997; 71(6):4564-70. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA sequences corresponding to a novel herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8 [HHV8]) are associated with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), Castleman's disease, and body cavity-based lymphomas (BCBL). Studies of a BCBL-derived cell line suggest a direct correlation between seropositivity against antigens specifically present in such lines and the development of KS. We have generated recombinant proteins corresponding to open reading frame (ORF) 26 of HHV8 and have produced affinity-purified antibodies. Using these antibodies, we studied the expression of HHV8 ORF26 in a BCBL-derived cell line and found that it encodes a cytoplasmic protein whose expression is induced 16-fold by treatment with phorbol ester or sodium butyrate. This protein induction correlates with a significant induction of viral RNA transcripts. Interestingly, under our experimental conditions minimal increases in viral DNA were observed. No antibodies to the ORF26 protein of HHV8 were found in the sera from two human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients with KS as determined by immunoprecipitation analysis. However, antibodies in the sera from the two KS patients immunoprecipitated a 34-kDa protein found in extracts from induced BCBL1 cells that was not recognized by the control sera.
Journal of Virology 07/1997; 71(6):4791-7. · 5.08 Impact Factor