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Publications (4)26.78 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling regulates mammalian development and metabolism, and its dysregulation is implicated in many inherited and acquired diseases, including cancer. Heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans (HSGAGs) are essential for FGF signaling as they promote FGF.FGF receptor (FGFR) binding and dimerization. Using novel organic synthesis protocols to prepare homogeneously sulfated heparin mimetics (HM), including hexasaccharide (HM(6)), octasaccharide (HM(8)), and decasaccharide (HM(10)), we tested the ability of these HM to support FGF1 and FGF2 signaling through FGFR4. Biological assays show that both HM(8) and HM(10) are significantly more potent than HM(6) in promoting FGF2-mediated FGFR4 signaling. In contrast, all three HM have comparable activity in promoting FGF1.FGFR4 signaling. To understand the molecular basis for these differential activities in FGF1/2.FGFR4 signaling, we used NMR spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry, and size-exclusion chromatography to characterize binding interactions of FGF1/2 with the isolated Ig-domain 2 (D2) of FGFR4 in the presence of HM, and binary interactions of FGFs and D2 with HM. Our data confirm the existence of both a secondary FGF1.FGFR4 interaction site and a direct FGFR4.FGFR4 interaction site thus supporting the formation of the symmetric mode of FGF.FGFR dimerization in solution. Moreover, our results show that the observed higher activity of HM(8) relative to HM(6) in stimulating FGF2.FGFR4 signaling correlates with the higher affinity of HM(8) to bind and dimerize FGF2. Notably FGF2.HM(8) exhibits pronounced positive binding cooperativity. Based on our findings we propose a refined symmetric FGF.FGFR dimerization model, which incorporates the differential ability of HM to dimerize FGFs.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2010; 285(34):26628-40. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling regulates mammalian development and metabolism, and its dysregulation is implicated in many inherited and acquired diseases, including cancer. Heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans (HSGAGs) are essential for FGF signaling as they promote FGF·FGF receptor (FGFR) binding and dimerization. Using novel organic synthesis protocols to prepare homogeneously sulfated heparin mimetics (HM), including hexasaccharide (HM6), octasaccharide (HM8), and decasaccharide (HM10), we tested the ability of these HM to support FGF1 and FGF2 signaling through FGFR4. Biological assays show that both HM8 and HM10 are significantly more potent than HM6 in promoting FGF2-mediated FGFR4 signaling. In contrast, all three HM have comparable activity in promoting FGF1·FGFR4 signaling. To understand the molecular basis for these differential activities in FGF1/2·FGFR4 signaling, we used NMR spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry, and size-exclusion chromatography to characterize binding interactions of FGF1/2 with the isolated Ig-domain 2 (D2) of FGFR4 in the presence of HM, and binary interactions of FGFs and D2 with HM. Our data confirm the existence of both a secondary FGF1·FGFR4 interaction site and a direct FGFR4·FGFR4 interaction site thus supporting the formation of the symmetric mode of FGF·FGFR dimerization in solution. Moreover, our results show that the observed higher activity of HM8 relative to HM6 in stimulating FGF2·FGFR4 signaling correlates with the higher affinity of HM8 to bind and dimerize FGF2. Notably FGF2·HM8 exhibits pronounced positive binding cooperativity. Based on our findings we propose a refined symmetric FGF·FGFR dimerization model, which incorporates the differential ability of HM to dimerize FGFs.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2010; 285(34):26628-26640. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glycogen phosphorylase (GP) is a validated target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Here we describe highly potent GP inhibitors, AVE5688, AVE2865, and AVE9423. The first two compounds are optimized members of the acyl urea series. The latter represents a novel quinolone class of GP inhibitors, which is introduced in this study. In the enzyme assay, both inhibitor types compete with the physiological activator AMP and act synergistically with glucose. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) shows that the compounds strongly bind to nonphosphorylated, inactive GP (GPb). Binding to phosphorylated, active GP (GPa) is substantially weaker, and the thermodynamic profile reflects a coupled transition to the inactive (tense) conformation. Crystal structures confirm that the three inhibitors bind to the AMP site of tense state GP. These data provide the first direct evidence that acyl urea and quinolone compounds are allosteric inhibitors that selectively bind to and stabilize the inactive conformation of the enzyme. Furthermore, ITC reveals markedly different thermodynamic contributions to inhibitor potency that can be related to the binding modes observed in the cocrystal structures. For AVE5688, which occupies only the lower part of the bifurcated AMP site, binding to GPb (Kd = 170 nM) is exclusively enthalpic (Delta H = -9.0 kcal/mol, TDelta S = 0.3 kcal/mol). The inhibitors AVE2865 (Kd = 9 nM, Delta H = -6.8 kcal/mol, TDelta S = 4.2 kcal/mol) and AVE9423 (Kd = 24 nM, Delta H = -5.9 kcal/mol, TDelta S = 4.6 kcal/mol) fully exploit the volume of the binding pocket. Their pronounced binding entropy can be attributed to the extensive displacement of solvent molecules as well as to ionic interactions with the phosphate recognition site.
    Biochemistry 05/2008; 47(16):4683-91. · 3.38 Impact Factor
  • Markus Kroemer, Matthias K Dreyer, K Ulrich Wendt
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    ABSTRACT: APRV (Automatic Processing, Refinement and Visualization) is a new program that enables high-throughput batch processing of crystallographic data. The program combines processing of raw diffraction images, initial structure refinement and visual inspection of resulting electron density into a seamless one-step procedure, during which all relevant parameters are refined automatically. It is controlled by a user-friendly graphical interface, facilitating operation by non-experts.
    Acta Crystallographica Section D Biological Crystallography 10/2004; 60(Pt 9):1679-82. · 14.10 Impact Factor