G Wolfram

Technische Universität München, München, Bavaria, Germany

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Publications (295)374.57 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The relative contribution of nutrition-related chronic diseases to the total disease burden of the society and the healthcare costs have risen continuously over the last decades. This challenge requires to explore and use the potential of dietary prevention of diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidaemia, cardiovascular disease and cancer. This evidence-based guideline systematically assessed the potential role of carbohydrates in the primary prevention of these diseases. The major findings were: a high consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages increases the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes (strength of evidence: probable), whereas a high dietary fibre intake, mainly from whole-grain products, reduces the risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, coronary heart disease and colorectal cancer (strength of evidence: probable and convincing, respectively). The practical consequences for current dietary recommendations are presented.
    DMW - Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift 02/2012; 137(8):389-93. · 0.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The relative contribution of nutrition-related chronic diseases to the total disease burden of the society and the health care costs has risen continuously over the last decades. Thus, there is an urgent necessity to better exploit the potential of dietary prevention of diseases. Carbohydrates play a major role in human nutrition - next to fat, carbohydrates are the second biggest group of energy-yielding nutrients. Obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipoproteinaemia, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, coronary heart disease and cancer are wide-spread diseases, in which carbohydrates could have a pathophysiologic relevance. Correspondingly, modification of carbohydrate intake could have a preventive potential. In the present evidence-based guideline of the German Nutrition Society, the potential role of carbohydrates in the primary prevention of the named diseases was judged systematically. The major findings were: a high carbohydrate intake at the expense of total fat and saturated fatty acids reduces the concentrations of total, LDL and HDL cholesterol. A high carbohydrate consumption at the expense of polyunsaturated fatty acids increases total and LDL cholesterol, but reduces HDL cholesterol. Regardless of the type of fat being replaced, a high carbohydrate intake promotes an increase in the triglyceride concentration. Furthermore, a high consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages increases the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, whereas a high dietary fibre intake, mainly from whole-grain products, reduces the risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipoproteinaemia, cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer at varying evidence levels. The practical consequences for current dietary recommendations are presented.
    Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 01/2012; 60 Suppl 1:1-58. · 1.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although there are indications for modulatory effects of PUFA on associations between SNP and obesity risk, scientific evidence in human subjects is still scarce. The present analyses investigated interaction effects between SNP in candidate genes for obesity and PUFA in erythrocyte membranes on obesity risk. Within the second Bavarian Food Consumption Survey (cross-sectional, population-based), 568 adults provided blood samples. Fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes was analysed by means of GC. Genotyping was performed for twenty-one genes, including cytokines, adipokines, neurotransmitters and transcription factors. In addition, plasma IL-6 concentrations were analysed. For the statistical analysis, a logistic regression model assuming additive genetic effects was chosen. About 20 % of the study participants were classified as obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)). Several significant gene-PUFA interactions were found, indicating regulatory effects of PUFA by gene variants of IL-2, IL-6, IL-18, TNF receptor family member 1B and 21, leptin receptor and adiponectin on obesity risk. After stratification by genotype, the strongest effects were found for rs2069779 (IL-2) and all tested PUFA as well as for rs1800795 (IL-6) and linoleic or arachidonic acid. The obesity risk of minor allele carriers significantly decreased with increasing fatty acid content. The genetic PUFA-IL-6 interaction was also reflected in plasma IL-6 concentrations. If replicated in a prospective study with sufficient statistical power, the results would indicate a beneficial effect of high PUFA supply for a substantial proportion of the population with respect to obesity risk.
    The British journal of nutrition 05/2011; 106(8):1263-72. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Herausgegeben von der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Ernährung e. V. (DGE), Godesberger Allee 18, 53175 Bonn, mit Förderung des Bundesministeriums für Ernährung, Landwirtschaft und Verbraucherschutz aufgrund eines Beschlusses des Deutschen Bundestages. © 2011 Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährung e. V. Wichtiger Hinweis Die Erkenntnisse der Wissenschaft, speziell auch der Ernährungswissenschaft und der Medizin, unter-liegen einem laufenden Wandel durch Forschung und klinischen Erfahrung. Autoren, Redaktion und Herausgeber haben die Inhalte des vorliegenden Werkes mit größter Sorgfalt erarbeitet und geprüft und die Ratschläge sorgfältig erwogen, dennoch kann eine Garantie nicht übernommen werden. Eine Haftung für Personen-, Sach-und Vermögensschäden ist ausgeschlossen.
    01/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: The polypeptide leptin exerts a multitude of regulatory functions. It has been implicated in the pathophysiology of inflammatory, metabolic and psychiatric disorders and has been found to be differentially expressed in men and women. Although a clear increase of leptin levels with age has been repeatedly observed in men, the association of leptin levels and age in women is an issue of scientific discussion. To investigate the association of age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and selected diseases with plasma levels of leptin in 551 adults randomly chosen from the Bavarian population, we assessed subjects' characteristics, lifestyle, and medical history including life time history of frequent diseases and performed blood sampling and standardized anthropometric measurements. Leptin plasma levels were measured using a Radioimmunoassay. Leptin levels were significantly higher in women as compared to men and this difference persisted even after controlling for differences in age or BMI. Leptin levels increased across the age groups in both men and women. Controlling for differences in BMI substantially attenuated the influence of age on leptin levels. In women, age was no longer significantly associated with leptin levels after controlling for BMI. With regard to medical history, hyperuricemia and gout were significantly associated with higher leptin levels, even after controlling for BMI, whereas subjects with high blood pressure or dyslipoproteinemia showed higher leptin levels only if the BMI was not considered as control variable. The BMI and its influence on the interrelations of gender, age and leptin should be considered when interpreting leptin levels.
    Protein and Peptide Letters 11/2010; 17(11):1436-40. · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    Diabetologie und Stoffwechsel 01/2009; 4. · 0.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin K acts as a cofactor during the gamma-carboxylation of vitamin K-dependent proteins. Undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) is a suggested biomarker of vitamin K status. The +2255 polymorphism of the vitamin K epoxide reductase gene (VKORC1) was shown to be associated with the recycling rate of the active form of vitamin K. We investigated the association between dietary vitamin K intake and serum ucOC and hypothesized that this association might vary by VKORC1 genotype. ucOC and total intact osteocalcin (iOC) concentrations were quantified using specific ELISA tests in serum samples of 548 male and female participants (aged 18-81 years) of the Bavarian Food Consumption Survey II. ucOC was expressed relative to iOC (ucOC/iOC ratio). Dietary intake of vitamin K (phylloquinone and menaquinones) was estimated from three 24 h dietary recalls using previously published food composition data. The association between dietary vitamin K intake and ucOC/iOC ratio was analysed using linear and non-linear regression models. Median intakes of phylloquinone/menaquinones were 83.4/37.6 microg/d in men and 79.6/29.8 microg/d in women, respectively. As expected, vitamin K intake was significantly inversely associated with the ucOC/iOC ratio. The ucOC/iOC ratio differed significantly across variants of the +2255 polymorphism in the VKORC1 gene. Stratification by VKORC1+2255 genotype revealed that only in carriers of the GG genotype (39 % of all participants) did the ucOC/iOC ratio significantly decrease with increasing intake of vitamin K. Thus, the results show that the inverse association between dietary vitamin K intake and serum ucOC depends on a functionally relevant allelic variant of the VKORC1 gene.
    The British journal of nutrition 12/2008; 101(12):1812-20. · 3.45 Impact Factor
  • O Adam, A Tesche, G Wolfram
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    ABSTRACT: Long-chain conversion of linoleic acid (LA) and eicosanoid formation was followed in 6 healthy females who were given for 6 weeks liquid formula diets which contained no arachidonic acid but, for 2 weeks each, a LA supply of 0 energy% (en%), 4 en%, and 20 en%, respectively. RESULTS: higher LA intake resulted in higher LA percentages in investigated lipids, but not in higher amounts of LA present in plasma cholesterol esters or phosphatidylcholine of LDL and HDL comparing liquid formula diet (LFD) 4 and LFD 20. A higher intake of LA resulted in a decrease of arachidonic acid, which was most prominent in HDL phosphatidycholine. Eicosanoids derived from cyclo-oxygenase activity were unchanged by LA intake, while an increase of cytochrome P450-dependent tetranorprostanedioic acid formation was observed with LFD 20. CONCLUSION: LA intake of 4 en% appears to be a recommendable intake, without signs of stimulated eicosanoid biosynthesis or oxidation.
    Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 11/2008; 79(3-5):177-81. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study gives further evidence for the recently found association between variants of the fatty acid desaturase 1 fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS1 FADS2) gene cluster and PUFA in blood phospholipids and explores this association for cellular fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes. In a subgroup of adults participating in the Bavarian Nutrition Survey II, a cross-sectional population-based study conducted in Bavaria, Germany, allelic variation in three selected loci of the FADS1 FADS2 gene cluster was analysed and used for haplotype construction. Associations with plasma phospholipid PUFA (n 163) and PUFA in erythrocyte membranes (n 535) were investigated by regression analysis. All haplotypes of the original five-loci haplotypes of our previous study could be replicated. In addition, associations with serum phospholipid PUFA were confirmed in the present data set. Although less pronounced, associations between FADS1 FADS2 haplotypes and PUFA in erythrocyte membranes, particularly arachidonic and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, could be established. We provide the first replication of the association of the FADS1 FADS2 gene cluster with PUFA in blood phospholipids. For the first time, such associations were also shown for PUFA in cell membranes.
    The British journal of nutrition 06/2008; 101(1):20-6. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Depression has frequently been reported to be associated with other physical diseases and changes in the cytokine system. We aimed to investigate associations between a medical history of depression, its comorbidities and cytokine plasma levels in the Bavarian Nutrition Survey II (BVS II) study sample and in patients suffering from an acute depressive episode. The BVS II is a representative study of the Bavarian population aged 13-80years. The disease history of its 1050 participants was assessed through face-to-face interviews. A sub-sample of 568 subjects and 62 additional acutely depressed inpatients of the Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry participated in anthropometric measurements and blood sampling. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and soluble TNF receptor (sTNF-R) p55 and sTNF-R p75 plasma levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. A history of depression was associated with a higher incidence of high blood pressure, peptic ulcer, dyslipoproteinemia, osteoporosis, allergic skin rash, atopic eczema and thyroid disease. Within the BVS II sample, participants with a history of depression differed from subjects who had never had depression with regard to sTNF-R p55 and sTNF-R p75 levels even when controlling for age, BMI and smoking status. Acutely depressed inpatients showed even higher levels of sTNF-R p55 and sTNF-R p75 than subjects in the normal population. TNF-alpha levels were also significantly elevated in acutely depressed patients. These results confirm earlier studies regarding the comorbidities of depression and support the hypothesis that activation of the TNF-alpha system may contribute to the development of a depressive disorder.
    European Psychiatry 06/2008; 23(6):421-9. · 3.29 Impact Factor
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    Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition - J PARENT ENTER NUTR. 01/2007; 31(1):12-17.
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    ABSTRACT: The cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), soluble TNF receptors p55 and p75, and interleukin 6 (IL-6) are involved in host defense against several microbiological agents, in the process of inflammation and also in body weight regulation. In the present study, we sought to assess the influence of age, gender, smoking, and body mass index on plasma levels of TNF-alpha, TNF receptors, and IL-6 in more than 550 adult subjects randomly selected from the Bavarian population. None of the cytokine parameters had a normal distribution and all distributions were significantly skewed. The cytokine plasma levels investigated increased significantly with age, while gender had a relatively weaker influence on the plasma levels. Plasma levels of TNF-alpha, TNF receptors, and IL-6 correlated significantly with the BMI. The study provides insights into factors influencing the cytokine levels investigated in a randomly chosen study sample.
    European cytokine network 10/2006; 17(3):196-201. · 1.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Narcolepsy is a disabling sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis. Recent studies suggest that the immune system might play a pathogenic role pointing to a possible involvement of inflammatory cytokines. We investigated a sample of 30 patients with narcolepsy in comparison with 120 sex- and age-matched and 101 sex-, body mass index (BMI)-, and age-matched randomly selected normal controls. In these groups, plasma concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and its soluble receptors p55 and p75 (soluble TNF receptor [sTNF-R] p55 and sTNF-R p75) were measured using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The narcoleptic patients showed a significantly higher BMI compared with controls of the same age. Soluble TNF-R p75 levels were consistently elevated in the narcoleptic patients compared with their sex- and age-matched (P = .001) as well as sex-, BMI-, and age-matched counterparts (P = .003). Female narcoleptic patients exhibited higher sTNF-R p55 levels compared with their sex- and age-matched controls (P = .01), but this difference disappeared when comparing patients with sex-, BMI-, and age-matched normal controls. Tumor necrosis factor alpha levels did not differ significantly between groups. Narcoleptic patients show increased plasma levels of sTNF-R p75, suggesting a functional alteration of the TNF-alpha cytokine system, further corroborating a possible pathogenic role of the immune system in this sleep disorder.
    Archives of Internal Medicine 10/2006; 166(16):1739-43. · 11.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antioxidant nutrients like carotenoids, tocopherols and vitamin C have been suggested to protect against allergic rhinitis and allergic sensitisation but scientific evidence is scarce. The aims of the study were to measure the plasma concentration of six carotenoids, alpha- and gamma-tocopherol and vitamin C as biomarkers of the intake, absorption and subsequent metabolism of these nutrients, and to assess their association with allergic rhinitis and sensitisation. Data from a cross-sectional study on representative dietary and lifestyle habits of the population of Bavaria, Germany, were analysed. The plasma levels of six carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein/zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin and cryptoxanthin) as well as of alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol and vitamin C were measured in 547 adults aged between 19 and 81 years. Participants with specific serum immunoglobulin E > or =700 U l(-1) were categorised as sensitised. The association of plasma antioxidant levels, allergic rhinitis and allergic sensitisation was assessed by means of unconditional logistic regression models. We observed a negative association between plasma total carotenoids and the prevalence of allergic rhinitis, with odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 1.13 (0.54-2.39) for the second, 0.72 (0.33-1.58) for the third and 0.44 (0.19-1.03) for the fourth quartile of total carotenoids concentration (P for trend=0.0332); results for lycopene failed to reach statistical significance (P=0.0608). Other single carotenoids, tocopherols and vitamin C were unrelated to allergic rhinitis. Allergic sensitisation was negatively associated with plasma gamma-tocopherol, with odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.92 (0.51-1.65) for the second, 1.00 (0.56-1.80) for the third and 0.45 (0.23-0.88) for the fourth quartile of plasma gamma-tocopherol concentration (P for trend=0.0410). No other antioxidant was significantly related to allergic sensitisation. High plasma carotenoid concentrations reflecting a diet high in various fruits and vegetables might have a protective effect on allergic rhinitis in adulthood.
    Public Health Nutrition 06/2006; 9(4):472-9. · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Absorption and excretion of apigenin after the ingestion of apiin-rich food, i.e. parsley, was tested. Eleven healthy subjects (5 women, 6 men) in the age range of 23-41 years and with an average body mass index of 23.9 +/- 4.1 kg/m2 took part in this study. After an apigenin- and luteolin-free diet, a single oral bolus of 2 g blanched parsley (corresponding to 65.8 +/- 15.5 micromol apigenin) per kilogram body weight was consumed. Blood samples were taken at 0, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 28 h after parsley consumption and 24-hour urine samples were collected. Apigenin was analyzed in plasma, urine and red blood cells by means of HPLC-ECD. On average, a maximum apigenin plasma concentration of 127 +/- 81 nmol/l was reached after 7.2 +/- 1.3 h with a high range of variation between subjects. For all participants, plasma apigenin concentration rose after bolus ingestion and fell within 28 h under the detection limit (2.3 nmol/l). The average apigenin content in 24-hour urine was 144 +/- 110 nmol/24 h corresponding to 0.22 +/- 0.16% of the ingested dose. The flavone could be detected in red blood cells without showing dose-response characteristics. A small portion of apigenin provided by food reaches the human circulation and, therefore, may reveal biological effects.
    Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 02/2006; 50(3):167-72. · 1.66 Impact Factor
  • Vera C Yeomans, Jakob Linseisen, Günther Wolfram
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    ABSTRACT: Only limited knowledge is available about any interactions between phenolic compounds and other antioxidants in inhibiting LDL oxidation. Many foods and beverages contain high levels of phenolic compounds; therefore, these compounds should not be considered in isolation from each other. The aim of this study was to examine the structure-antioxidant activity relationship of quercetin, caffeic acid, epicatechin, hesperetin and phloretin as well as alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid through their ability to interact with copper ions. Isolated human LDL were incubated with single antioxidants or a combination of two and the kinetics of lipid peroxidation were assessed by measurement of conjugated diene formation (lag phase) via monitoring the absorbance at 234 nm after addition of copper ions. In addition, the degree of oxidation of the LDL protein moiety was followed by tryptophan fluorescence and carbonyl content measurements. Alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid showed a lower antioxidant activity in all test systems as compared to polyphenols at equimolar concentrations. Quercetin was the most effective compound in all three systems (p < 0.001 for lag phase and carbonyl content determination). A significant (p < 0.001) prolongation of the lag phase was found when combinations of ascorbic acid/quercetin, ascorbic acid/epicatechin, epicatechin/caffeic acid, and quercetin/epicatechin were tested as compared to the sum of the individual effects. Concerning the effects on LDL protein oxidation, the results from carbonyl content and the tryptophan fluorescence measurements showed that the combination of quercetin and caffeic acid revealed the strongest inhibitory effect (p < 0.001 carbonyl content; p < or = 0.002 tryptohan fluorescence) on protein oxidation which was higher than the effect of the single compounds. The results of the present study indicate that a combination of different antioxidants can be superior to the action of single antioxidants in protecting LDL lipid and protein moiety against oxidation. However, the substances may act by different antioxidative mechanisms, which are not necessarily complementary.
    European Journal of Nutrition 10/2005; 44(7):422-8. · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Due to inconsistent results based on dietary intake data, unsaturated fatty acids in red blood cell (RBC) membranes and diet were used to investigate their association with allergic sensitisation and allergic rhinitis. Cross-sectional, population-based study. Bavarian Nutrition Survey II (2002-03), Germany. A total of 568 adult participants, 325 women and 243 men. By means of logistic regression models, the relation of fatty acids to (i) allergic sensitisation as defined by means of specific serum immunoglobulin E analysis (CAPSX1 class > or = 2), and (ii) self-reported allergic rhinitis was examined. A high cell membrane level of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) was inversely associated with allergic sensitisation, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were 0.52 (0.30-0.90) for the highest (vs lowest) quartile. A similar effect was observed for allergic rhinitis with an OR (95% CI) of 0.50 (0.24-1.03; P = 0.027 for trend). A higher dietary intake of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3 n-3) was associated with a decreased risk of allergic sensitisation and allergic rhinitis with ORs (95% CIs) of 0.51 (0.28-0.93) and 0.43 (0.20-0.93), respectively, in the highest quartiles. No other dietary or cell membrane unsaturated fatty acid was significantly associated with the outcome variables, nor was the n-6/n-3 ratio. The strongest effects were observed among subjects under the age of 40 y. In this cross-sectional study among adults, a high content of n-3 fatty acids in RBC membranes (EPA) or in the diet (ALA) is associated with a decreased risk of allergic sensitisation and allergic rhinitis.
    European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 10/2005; 59(9):1071-80. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adequate physical activity (PA) is considered as a key factor in the fight against the obesity epidemic. Therefore, detailed description of the actual PA and its components in the population is necessary. Additionally, this study aims to investigate the association between PA and obesity risk in a representative population sample in Bavaria, Germany. Data from 893 participants (age 13-80 years) of the Bavarian Food Consumption Survey II (BVS II) were used. In each participant, three computer-based 24-hour recalls were conducted by telephone assessing type and duration of PA in the domains occupation, sports, other strenuous leisure time activities (of mostly moderate intensity) as well as TV/PC use in leisure time and duration of sleeping. After assigning metabolic equivalents (METs) to each activity, estimates of energy expenditure (MET*h) and total daily PA level (PALest.) were calculated. In a subgroup of adults (n = 568) with anthropometric measurements logistic regression models were used to quantify the impact of PA on obesity risk. Estimated average PA in women and men was 38.5 +/- 5.0 and 40.6 +/- 9.3 MET*h/d, respectively, corresponding to PALest. values of 1.66 +/- 0.22 and 1.75 +/- 0.40. Obese subjects showed lower energy expenditure in the categories sports, occupation, and sleeping, while the time spent with TV/PC during leisure time was highest. This is confirmed in logistic regression analyses revealing a statistically significant association between obesity and TV/PC use during leisure time, while sports activity was inversely related to obesity risk. Overall, less than 1/3 of the study participants reached the recommended PAL of >or= 1.75. Subjects within the recommended range of PA had an about 60 % (odds ratio = 0.43; 95% CI: 0.21-0.85) reduced risk of obesity as compared to inactive subjects with a PALest. <1.5. Based on the results of short-term PA patterns, a major part of the Bavarian adult population does not reach the recommendations (PAL>1.75; moderate PA of > 30 min/d). Despite the limitations of the study design, the existing associations between sports activity, TV/PC use and obesity risk in this population give further support to the recommendation of increasing sports activity and reducing sedentary behaviour in order to prevent rising rates of obesity.
    International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 07/2005; 2:6. · 3.58 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition - J PARENT ENTER NUTR. 01/2005; 29(4):236-240.
  • G Wolfram
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies have confirmed a strong association between fat intake, especially saturated and trans fatty acids, plasma cholesterol levels and rate of coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality. Meanwhile it is clear, that early atherosclerosis is largely preventable by modifying nutritional behaviour and lifestyle. There is clear evidence that a diet moderate in total fat (25-35 % energy) is superior to extremes in dietary fat. Because fat is energy dense moderation in fat intake is also essential for weight control. Saturated fatty acids are very potent in increasing LDL-cholesterol concentration in plasma a dangerous risk factor for early CHD. Unsaturated fatty acids have numerous beneficial health effects. The results of prospective cohort studies fit well to the experimental experience of the antihypercholesterolemic action of Omega-6 fatty acids and the antithrombotic, vasodilatory and antiarrhythmic properties of Omega-3 fatty acids, while the optimistic rating of Omega-9 fatty acids is less supported by epidemiologic studies. The results of prospective cohort studies are confirmed by intervention trials revealing that saturated fatty acids enhance early development of CHD whereas polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially of the Omega-3 type, significantly preserve from CHD. In context with a prudent diet pattern favourable dietary fatty acid composition offers the best chance for a reduced risk of CHD.
    European journal of medical research 09/2003; 8(8):321-4. · 1.10 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
374.57 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1987–2012
    • Technische Universität München
      • Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik III - Hämatologie/Onkologie
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2008
    • German Cancer Research Center
      • Division of Cancer Epidemiology
      Heidelberg, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany
    • Helmholtz Zentrum München
      • Institute of Epidemiology II
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1994–2008
    • Ludwig-Maximilian-University of Munich
      • • Department of Internal Medicine II
      • • Department of Internal Medicine I
      • • Cardiac Surgery Clinic
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2000
    • RWTH Aachen University
      • Institute of Aerospace Medicine
      Aachen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 1999–2000
    • German Aerospace Center (DLR)
      • Institute of Aerospace Medicine
      Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 1996
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • Ruhr-Universität Bochum
      Bochum, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 1982–1995
    • Deutsches Herzzentrum München
      München, Bavaria, Germany
  • 1979–1995
    • University Hospital München
      München, Bavaria, Germany