[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To estimate the prevalence of preterm birth by categories of birth weight, and to obtain an equation to correct the estimates.
Systematic review of the Brazilian literature published from 1990 to 2012, to identify studies with primary collection of data on birth weight and gestational age. Twelve studies were selected and contributed for tabulations of preterm prevalence according to 100 g birth weight categories. These results were combined using sex-specific fractional polynomial equations and the resulting curves were compared with results from the Live Birth Information System for the years 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2011.
For all birth weight categories, preterm prevalence estimates based on primary studies had a higher prevalence than those of the the Live Birth Information System. The prevalence reported by the Live Birth Information System was of 7.2% in 2010, about 38.0% lower than the estimated prevalence of 11.7% obtained with the correctional equation.
Information reported by the Live Birth Information System on preterm prevalence does not reflect the true magnitude of the problem in Brazil, and should not be used without the correction factors proposed in the present analyses.
Revista de saude publica 10/2013; 47(5):992-1003. · 1.01 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Babies with low birthweight (<2500 g) are at increased risk of early mortality. However, low birthweight includes babies born preterm and with fetal growth restriction, and not all these infants have a birthweight less than 2500 g. We estimated the neonatal and infant mortality associated with these two characteristics in low-income and middle-income countries. Methods For this pooled analysis, we searched all available studies and identifi ed 20 cohorts (providing data for 2 015 019 livebirths) from Asia, Africa, and Latin America that recorded data for birthweight, gestational age, and vital statistics through 28 days of life. Study dates ranged from 1982 through to 2010. We calculated relative risks (RR) and risk diff erences (RD) for mortality associated with preterm birth (<32 weeks, 32 weeks to <34 weeks, 34 weeks to <37 weeks), small-for-gestational-age (SGA; babies with birthweight in the lowest third percentile and between the third and tenth percentile of a US reference population), and preterm and SGA combinations. Findings Pooled overall RRs for preterm were 6·82 (95% CI 3·56–13·07) for neonatal mortality and 2·50 (1·48–4·22) for post-neonatal mortality. Pooled RRs for babies who were SGA (with birthweight in the lowest tenth percentile of the reference population) were 1·83 (95% CI 1·34–2·50) for neonatal mortality and 1·90 (1·32–2·73) for post-neonatal mortality. The neonatal mortality risk of babies who were both preterm and SGA was higher than that of babies with either characteristic alone (15·42; 9·11–26·12). Interpretation Many babies in low-income and middle-income countries are SGA. Preterm birth aff ects a smaller number of neonates than does SGA, but is associated with a higher mortality risk. The mortality risks associated with both characteristics extend beyond the neonatal period. Diff erentiation of the burden and risk of babies born preterm and SGA rather than with low birthweight could guide prevention and management strategies to speed progress towards Millennium Development Goal 4—the reduction of child mortality.
The Lancet 06/2013; 382:417–25. · 39.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the impact of 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 6 candidate genes (APOB, APOA5, APOE, APOC3, SCAP, and LDLR) over dyslipidemia in HIV-infected patients on stable antiretroviral therapy (ART) with undetectable viral loads. Blood samples were collected from 614 patients at reference services in the cities of Porto Alegre, Pelotas, and Rio Grande in Brazil. The SNPs were genotyped by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was particularly high among the protease inhibitors-treated patients (79%). APOE (rs429358 and rs7412) genotypes and APOA5 -1131T>C (rs662799) were associated with plasma triglycerides (TG) and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol levels (LDL-C). The APOA5 -1131T>C (rs662799) and SCAP 2386A>G (rs12487736) polymorphisms were significantly associated with high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The mean values of the total cholesterol and LDL-C levels were associated with both the APOB SP Ins/Del (rs17240441) and APOB XbaI (rs693) polymorphisms. In conclusion, our data support the importance of genetic factors in the determination of lipid levels in HIV-infected individuals. Due to the relatively high number of carriers of these risk variants, studies to verify treatment implications of genotyping before HAART initiation may be advisable to guide the selection of an appropriate antiretroviral therapy regimen.
The Scientific World Journal 01/2013; 2013:608415. · 1.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract
Short and long birth intervals have previously been linked to adverse neonatal outcomes. However, much of the existing literature uses cross-sectional studies, from which deriving causal inference is complex. We examine the association between short/long birth intervals and adverse neonatal outcomes by calculating and meta-analyzing associations using original data from cohort studies conducted in low-and middle-income countries (LMIC).
We identified five cohort studies. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were calculated for each study, with birth interval as the exposure and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and/or preterm birth, and neonatal and infant mortality as outcomes. The associations were controlled for potential confounders and meta-analyzed.
Birth interval of shorter than 18 months had statistically significant increased odds of SGA (pooled aOR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.31-1.75), preterm (pooled aOR: 1.58, 95% CI: 1.19-2.10) and infant mortality (pooled aOR: 1.83, 95% CI: 1.19-2.81) after controlling for potential confounding factors (reference 36-<60 months). It was also significantly associated with term-SGA, preterm-appropriate-for-gestational-age, and preterm-SGA. Birth interval over 60 months had increased risk of SGA (pooled aOR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.07-1.39) and term-SGA (pooled aOR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.03-1.27), but was not associated with other outcomes.
Birth intervals shorter than 18 months are significantly associated with SGA, preterm birth and death in the first year of life. Lack of access to family planning interventions thus contributes to the burden of adverse birth outcomes and infant mortality in LMICs. Programs and policies must assess ways to provide equitable access to reproductive health interventions to mothers before or soon after delivering a child, but also address underlying socioeconomic factors that may modify and worsen the effect of short intervals.
BMC Public Health 01/2013; 13(Suppl 3):S3. · 2.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper concerns a cross-sectional population-based study conducted with adults living in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. It aims to determine the prevalence of weight-loss practices and use of substances for weight-loss during the 12 months preceding the interview. The prevalence of weight-loss attempts was 26.6%. Although dietary control and regular physical exercise were the most commonly used strategies, the prevalence of the combined use of these methods was only 36% for individuals trying to lose weight. The prevalence of use of substances for weight-loss was 12.8% (48.4% of those who tried to lose weight). The use of dietary control and substances was more common among women, while men practiced physical exercise with greater frequency. Teas were the most frequently used substances for weight-loss. Multivariate analysis identified being female, excess weight and self-perception of excess weight as major associated factors for the use of substances for weight-loss. Finally, we found that, although weight-loss attempts are common, the majority of obese individuals do not make attempts to lose weight and only a minority follows the recommended practices.
Cadernos de saúde pública / Ministério da Saúde, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública 08/2012; 28(8):1439-49. · 0.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate genetic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in estrogen receptor-α (ERα) (ESR1, rs2234693, rs1801132, rs7757956 and rs2813544) and ERβ (ESR2, rs3020450, rs7154455 and rs4986938) genes and relate them to the adverse effects lipodystrophy, dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome as well as to differences in their prevalence between sexes in HIV-infected individuals on HAART.
Blood samples and anthropometric measurements were collected from 614 patients at reference services in the cities of Porto Alegre, Pelotas and Rio Grande in Brazil. The SNPs were genotyped by real-time PCR.
The lipodystrophy subtype frequencies in patients of different sexes showed statistically significant differences; the atrophic pattern was more prevalent in men, and the hypertrophic pattern was more prevalent in women. Furthermore, metabolic syndrome prevalence was higher in women than in men. The ESR1 rs2813544 G-allele was associated with higher measurements of several anthropometric variables in women: BMI, total subcutaneous fat and subcutaneous fat of limbs. Additionally, patients who were AA homozygous for ESR2 rs3020450 presented an increased risk for developing lipoatrophy (prevalence ratio 1.37, 95% confidence interval 1.09-1.73, P = 0.007).
Significant differences in lipodystrophy and metabolic syndrome prevalence were detected between sexes. Moreover, the ESR1 gene (rs2813544) presented significant sex-specific associations with anthropometric variables, and the ESR2 gene (rs3020450) was associated with an increased risk of developing lipoatrophy. Our results suggest that these genes are in part responsible for the sexual dimorphism in fat tissue redistribution and patterns of lipodystrophy.
AIDS (London, England) 01/2012; 26(1):19-26. · 4.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has increased the survival of HIV-infected patients. However, adverse effects play a major role in adherence to HAART. Some protease inhibitors (mainly atazanavir and indinavir) act as inhibitors of uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT1A1), the enzyme responsible for hepatic conjugation of bilirubin. Variations in the promoter region of the UGT1A1 gene (UGT1A1*28, rs8175347) can influence bilirubin plasma levels, modulating the susceptibility to hyperbilirubinemia. Aiming to analyze the association between UGT1A1*28 allele and hyperbilirubinemia in individuals exposed to HAART, we evaluated 375 HIV-positive individuals on antiretroviral therapy. Individuals carrying the UGT1A1*28 allele had a higher risk of developing severe hyperbilirubinemia [prevalence ratio (PR)=2.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-5.45, p=0.032] as well as atazanavir users (PR=7.72, 95% CI=3.14-18.98, p<0.001). This is the first description of such an association in Brazilian HIV patients, which shows that in African-American and Euroamerican HAART users, the UGT1A1*28 allele also predisposes to severe hyperbilirubinemia, especially in those exposed to atazanavir.
AIDS research and human retroviruses 11/2011; 28(9):1015-8. · 2.18 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe the patterns of deliveries in a birth cohort and to compare vaginal and cesarean section deliveries.
All children born to mothers from the urban area of Pelotas, Brazil, in 2004, were recruited for a birth cohort study. Mothers were contacted and interviewed during their hospital stay when extensive information on the gestation, the birth and the newborn, along with maternal health history and family characteristics was collected. Maternal characteristics and childbirth care financing - either private or public healthcare (SUS) patients - were the main factors investigated along with a description of C-sections distribution according to day of the week and delivery time. Standard descriptive techniques, Χ² tests for comparing proportions and Poisson regression to explore the independent effect of C-section predictors were the methods used.
The overall C-section rate was 45%, 36% among SUS and 81% among private patients, where 35% of C-sections were reported elective. C-sections were more frequent on Tuesdays and Wednesdays, reducing by about a third on Sundays, while normal deliveries had a uniform distribution along the week. Delivery time for C-sections was markedly different among public and private patients. Maternal schooling was positively associated with C-section among SUS patients, but not among private patients.
C-sections were almost universal among the wealthier mothers, and strongly related to maternal education among SUS patients. The patterns we describe are compatible with the idea that C-sections are largely done to suit the doctor's schedule. Drastic action is called for to change the current situation.
Revista de saude publica 06/2011; 45(4):635-43. · 1.01 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our goal was to define the risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection among pregnant women at a large urban medical centre. In a retrospective study, clinical records at a US maternity unit from July 2005 through February 2008 were reviewed. The study population included all pregnant women with a singleton newborn of at least 20 weeks gestation and antenatal care information. Logistic regression was used to analyse the association between a positive CT test and demographic, behavioural and prenatal care variables. A total of 2127 women were included in this analysis. The prevalence of CT infection was 4.7%. Cases were more likely to be younger, black and single. Other risk factors included tobacco use and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection. Our findings suggest that factors other than age may impact upon the diagnosis of CT in pregnant women and that a more comprehensive testing strategy should be considered.
International Journal of STD & AIDS 05/2010; 21(5):367-70. · 1.00 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To estimate the prevalence of blood donation and factors associated.
A cross-sectional study was carried out with a representative sample of 2,986 individuals, aged 20 or more, in the municipality of Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 2007. Three outcomes were considered: ever donating blood, donation during in the previous year and frequent donation pattern (at least two donations in the previous year). Each outcome was analyzed according to demographic, socioeconomic and health factors, exposure to blood donation publicity campaigns and whether the donor had a relative or friend who donated blood. The crude and multivariable analyses were performed using Poisson's regression, adjusted for sample design effect.
Blood donation prevalence - ever, in the previous year and a frequent donation pattern - were 32%, 7.7% and 3.6%, respectively. Blood donation was more prevalent among males and increased in accordance with the economic level and health self-perception. The prevalence of ever donating blood was higher in the 50 to 65 years age group; in the previous year, it was higher among younger people (20 to 29 years); frequent donation was more prevalent in the 30 to 49 group. There was no association of the outcomes with skin color, marital status, religion, having a relative or friend who donates or knowing about publicity campaigns.
Blood donation was more prevalent in men and in those who have better self-perception of health and a higher economic level. Campaigns encouraging blood donation should diversify the donor profile for reaching those groups of people who are less inclined to donate blood.
Revista de saude publica 02/2010; 44(1):112-20. · 1.01 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prematurity is a leading cause of neonatal mortality and a global health problem that affects high, middle and low-income countries. Several factors may increase the risk of preterm birth. In this article, we test the hypothesis that different risk factors determine preterm birth in different income groups by investigating whether risk factors for preterm deliveries in the 2004 Pelotas (Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil) birth cohort vary among those groups. A total of 4,142 women were included in the analysis. Preterm births were equally common among women who had spontaneous vaginal deliveries as for those with induced or operative births. In the multivariate analysis the factors that remained significantly associated with preterm birth were black skin color, low education, poverty, young maternal age, primiparity, previous preterm birth, inadequacy of prenatal care and reported hypertension. In the analyses repeated after stratification by family income terciles, there was no evidence of effect modification by income and no clear difference between the socioeconomic groups. No association between cesarean section and preterm delivery was found. Further studies are required to understand the causes of the epidemic of preterm births in Brazil.
Cadernos de saúde pública / Ministério da Saúde, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública 01/2010; 26(1):185-94. · 0.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our goal was to define the risks of preterm birth associated with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among pregnant women. We accessed clinical records from July 2005 to February 2008. The study population included all pregnant women who gave birth to a singleton newborn of at least 20 weeks' gestation, and who had antenatal care information. We estimated the impact of CT and other STI on the odds of preterm birth using logistic regression. Overall, 2127 women were included in this analysis. The prevalence of CT infection was 4.7%. CT diagnosis was not associated with preterm birth. In conclusion, this study did not find an association between CT and preterm birth. The lack of an association may be explained by early treatment. Future studies evaluating the timing of screening for STIs may help clarify whether pregnant women would benefit more from earlier screening.
International Journal of STD & AIDS 08/2009; 20(7):465-9. · 1.00 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Monitoring preterm births is essential given their impact on infant morbidity and mortality and their economic and social costs. This article is based on data from the Information System on Live Births (SINASC), implemented in 1990 and expanded gradually to cover 90% of all births in the country. Preterm birth time trends are presented for Brazil, regions, and capitals from 1994 to 2005. At the national level, there was an increase in the preterm birth rate, accompanied by a reduction in the proportion of missing information on gestational age. The Southeast, South, and Central-West regions followed the national trend, while the preterm birth rate fell in the North and Northeast regions. We compared the findings from SINASC with those from population-based studies. The coverage and quality of SINASC has increased over time, but problems with the determination of gestational age still remain, leading to underestimation of preterm birth rates. Due to the importance of SINASC for monitoring, further efforts are needed to improve the system's accuracy.
Cadernos de saúde pública / Ministério da Saúde, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública 07/2009; 25(6):1267-75. · 0.83 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The postnatal period is the ideal time to deliver interventions to improve the health of both the newborn and the mother. However, postnatal care shows low-level coverage in a large number of countries. The objectives of this study were to: 1) investigate inequities in maternal postnatal visits, 2) examine differences in postnatal care coverage between public and private providers and 3) explore the relationship between the absence of maternal postnatal visits and exclusive breastfeeding, use of contraceptive methods and maternal smoking three months after birth.
In the calendar year of 2004 a birth cohort study was started in the city of Pelotas, Brazil. Mothers were interviewed soon after delivery and at three months after birth. The absence of postnatal visits was defined as having no consultations between the time of hospital discharge and the third month post-partum. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association between absence of postnatal visits and type of insurance scheme adjusting for potential confounding factors.
Poorer women, black/mixed, those with lower level of education, single mothers, adolescents, multiparae, smokers, women who delivered vaginally and those who were not assisted by a physician were less likely to attend postnatal care. Postnatal visits were also less frequent among women who relied in the public sector than among private patients (72.4% vs 96% among public and private patients, respectively, x2 p < 0.001) and this difference was not explained either by maternal characteristics or by health care utilization patterns. Women who attended postnatal visits were more likely to exclusively breastfeed their infants, to use contraceptive methods and to be non-smokers three months after birth.
Postpartum care is available for every woman free of charge in the Brazilian Publicly-funded health care system. However, low levels of postpartum care were seen in the study (77%). Efforts should be made to increase the percentage of women receiving postpartum care, particularly those in socially disadvantaged groups. This could include locally-adapted health education interventions that address women's beliefs and attitudes towards postpartum care. There is a need to monitor postpartum care and collected data should be used to guide policies for health care systems.
BMC Public Health 01/2009; 9:335. · 2.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The greatest cause of infant mortality in Brazil is perinatal conditions, mostly associated with preterm delivery. The objective of the study was to evaluate the evolution of preterm delivery rates in Brazil.
A review was conducted using the Medline and Lilacs databases, including published studies in periodicals, thesis and dissertations since 1950. Exclusion criteria were: studies related to clinical trials and those with complications at gestation and preterm delivery and care. Inclusion criteria were: population-based studies on prevalence of preterm delivery in Brazil, with representative sample of the studied population, and using primary data. Out of 71 studies found, analysis was carried out on 12.
The prevalence of preterm delivery found ranged from 3.4% to 15.0% in the Southern and Southeastern regions between 1978 and 2004, with a rising trend from the 1990s onwards. Studies in the Northeastern region between 1984 and 1998 found prevalences of preterm delivery ranging from 3.8% to 10.2%, also with a rising trend.
Data from the national live birth information system do not corroborate these trends. Rather, they show differences between the preterm rates given by this system and the rates measured in the studies included in this review. Because of the important role of preterm birth in relation to infant mortality in Brazil, it is important to identify the cause of these increases and to plan interventions that can diminish their occurrence.
Revista de saude publica 11/2008; 42(5):957-64. · 1.01 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Urinalysis is an essential component of the prenatal routine, as urinary tract infections during pregnancy may lead to preterm delivery and neonatal morbidity. The objective of the study was to analyze factors associated to the solicitation of urinalysis during pregnancy.
During 2004, 4,163 women living in the urban area of Pelotas (Southern Brazil) and who had received prenatal care were interviewed after delivery in the maternity hospitals of the city. Prevalence of the non-performance of urinalysis was analyzed in relation to socioeconomic and demographic variables, as well as to characteristics of prenatal care. After a bivariate analysis, logistic regression was conducted to identify factors associated with the outcome, controlling for possible confusion factors at a 5% level of significance.
The prevalence of not having had the test was 3%. The multivariate analysis showed that black skin color, poverty, low schooling, being unmarried and having fewer than six prenatal visits were associated with a higher probability of not carrying out the test. Women who were black, poor and with low schooling presented a 10% probability of not being examined, compared to 0.4% for mothers who were white, wealthy and highly educated.
Despite the fact that urinalysis is essential for preventing complications for the mother and newborn, 3% of the women were not screened. Screening coverage may serve as an indicator to assess the quality of prenatal care. Pregnant women who are black, poor, with low schooling and unmarried should be targeted in programs for improving the quality of care.
Revista de Saúde Pública 07/2008; 42(3):389-95. · 1.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although neonatal and infant mortality rates have fallen in recent decades in Brazil, the prevalence of preterm deliveries has increased in certain regions, especially in the number of late preterm births. This study was planned to investigate: (1) maternal antenatal characteristics associated with late preterm births and (2) the consequences of late preterm birth on infant health in the neonatal period and until age 3 months. A population-based birth cohort was enrolled in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 2004. Mothers were interviewed and the gestational age of newborns was estimated through last menstrual period, ultrasound and Dubowitz's method. Preterm births between 34 and 36 completed weeks of gestational age were classified as late preterm births. Only singleton live births from mothers living in the urban area of Pelotas were investigated. Three months after birth, mothers were interviewed at home regarding breast feeding, morbidity and hospital admissions. All deaths occurring in the first year of life were recorded. A total of 447 newborns (10.8%) were late preterms. Associations were observed with maternal age <20 years (prevalence ratio [PR] 1.3 [95% CI 1.1, 1.6]), absence of antenatal care (PR 2.4 [1.4, 4.2]) or less than seven prenatal care visits, arterial hypertension (PR 1.3 [1.0, 1.5]), and preterm labour (PR 1.6 [1.3, 1.9]). Compared with term births, late preterm births showed increased risk of depression at birth (Relative risk [RR] 1.7 [1.3, 2.2]), perinatal morbidity (RR 2.8 [2.3, 3.5]), and absence of breast feeding in the first hours after birth (PR 0.9 [0.8, 0.9]). RRs for neonatal and infant mortality were, respectively, 5.1 [1.7, 14.9] and 2.1 [1.0, 4.6] times higher than that observed among term newborns. In conclusion, in our setting, the prevention of all preterm births must be a priority, regardless of whether early or late.
Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 07/2008; 22(4):350-9. · 2.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the association between socioeconomic and behavioral factors and HIV infection and aids in a medium-sized Brazilian city. Cases included HIV-positive women (n=144) and women with aids (n=130) seen at a specialized facility. Controls were a probabilistic, population-based sample of 1,537 women aged 15-49 years. Groups were compared using logistic regression. Both HIV infection and AIDS were more frequent among younger women of non-white skin colour, with lower schooling and income who began sexual activity early. This is the first Brazilian study using population-based controls to show that both HIV-seropositivity and AIDS are concentrated among young, non-white poor women. It is important to prioritize preventive measures targeting these groups.
AIDS Care 04/2008; 20(3):267-72. · 1.60 Impact Factor