[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atmospheric concentration of Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured on diurnal basis by active air sampling during Dec 2006 to Feb 2007 in seven major cities from the northern (New Delhi and Agra), eastern (Kolkata), western (Mumbai and Goa) and southern (Chennai and Bangalore) parts of India. Average concentration of Σ25PCBs in the Indian atmosphere was 4460 (±2200) pg/m(-3) with a dominance of congeners with 4-7 chlorine atoms. Model results (HYSPLIT, FLEXPART) indicate that the source areas are likely confined to local or regional proximity. Results from the FLEXPART model show that existing emission inventories cannot explain the high concentrations observed for PCB-28. Electronic waste, ship breaking activities and dumped solid waste are attributed as the possible sources of PCBs in India. Σ25PCB concentrations for each city showed significant linear correlation with Toxicity equivalence (TEQ) and Neurotoxic equivalence (NEQ) values.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fourteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) including short-chain perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs, C4-C6) and perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs, C4 and C6) were measured in surface sediment samples from 26 stations collected in 2008 and sediment core samples from three stations (Niagara, Mississauga, and Rochester basins) collected in 2006 in Lake Ontario. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorodecanoate (PFDA), and perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA) were detected in all 26 surface sediment samples, whereas perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA), perfluorododecanoate (PFDoDA) and perfluorobutanoate (PFBA) were detected in over 70% of the surface sediment samples. PFOS was detected in all of the sediment core samples (range: 0.492-30.1ngg(-1) d.w.) over the period 1952-2005. The C8 to C11 PFCAs, FOSA, and PFBA increased in early 1970s. An overall increasing trend in sediment PFAS concentrations/fluxes from older to more recently deposited sediments was evident in the three sediment cores. The known PFCAs and PFSAs accounted for 2-44% of the anionic fraction of the extractable organic fluorine in surface sediment, suggesting that a large proportion of fluorine in this fraction remained unknown. Sediment core samples collected from Niagara basin showed an increase in unidentified organic fluorine in recent years (1995-2006). These results suggest that the use and manufacture of fluorinated organic compounds other than known PFCAs and PFSAs has diversified and increased.
Environment international 07/2013; 59C:389-397. · 4.79 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The occurrence and distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and eleven non-PBDE halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) were investigated through the collection of marine and river sediment from Yangtze River Delta (YRD), East China. Among them, PBDEs, decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (TBECH) were the three predominant HFRs with the highest detection frequencies in the sediment. Significant correlation between PBDEs and DBDPE indicated that they may have the similar emission sources. The production and use of DBDPE is growing rapidly and comparable concentrations between PBDEs and DBDPE in YRD sediment may suggest that DBDPE will likely become one of the major HFRs emerging in the environment in China. Of the seven detected non-PBDE HFRs, this is the first time that TBECH was reported in the Chinese environment and its predominance and prevalence in the YRD may imply its extensive use in these areas.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fourteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were measured in serum of the highly endangered captive Chinese alligators, whole body homogenates of six kinds of fish (alligator prey species), and pond water (alligator habitat) in the Anhui Research Center for Chinese Alligator Reproduction. Six PFASs, including PFOS and five perfluorinated carboxylates, were detected in all alligator samples. The most dominant PFAS was PFUnDA, with a mean value of 31.4 ng/mL. Significant positive correlations were observed among the six PFASs, suggesting that they shared similar sources of contamination. Significantly higher PFOS and PFUnDA levels were observed in males, but the other four PFCAs did not differ between genders. An age related PFAS bioaccumulation analysis showed a significant negative correlation of the concentrations for five PFCAs to age, which means that higher concentrations were found in younger animals. Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) in fish for PFASs ranged from 21 to 28,000, with lower BAF for PFOA than that for longer carbon chain PFCAs, including PFUnDA, PFDA, and PFNA.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ISO 25101 (International Organization for Standardization, Geneva) describes a new international standard method for the determination of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in unfiltered samples of drinking and surface waters. The method is based on the extraction of target analytes by solid phase extraction, solvent elution, and determination by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). For the determination of the performance of this method, more than 20 laboratories from 9 different countries participated in an inter-laboratory trial in 2006. In addition, inter-laboratory trials were conducted in 2008 and 2009 for the analysis of perfluoroalkylsubstances (PFASs), including PFOS and PFOA, in water samples by following the protocols of Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS). Overall, the repeatability coefficients of variation (i.e., within-laboratory precision) for PFOS and PFOA in all water samples were between 3 and 11%, showing a adequate precision of the ISO and JIS methods. The reproducibility coefficients of variation (i.e., between-laboratory precision) were found to vary within a range of 7-31% for surface water and 20-40% for wastewater. The recoveries of PFOS and PFOA, as a measure of accuracy, varied from 84 to 100% for surface water and from 84 to 100% for wastewater among the samples with acceptable criteria for internal standards recovery. The determined concentrations of PFASs in samples compared well with the "true" values. The results of the inter-laboratory trial confirmed that the analytical methods are robust and reliable and can be used as a standard method for the analysis of target compounds in water samples.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) have been found widely in the environment including remote marine locations. The mode of transport of PFASs to remote marine locations is a subject of considerable scientific interest. Assessment of distribution of PFASs in wet precipitation samples (i.e., rainfall and snow) collected over an area covering continental, coastal, and open ocean will enable an understanding of not only the global transport but also the regional transport of PFASs. Nevertheless, it is imperative to examine the representativeness and suitability of wet precipitation matrixes to allow for drawing conclusions on the transport PFASs. In this study, we collected wet precipitation samples including rainfall, surface snow, and snow core from several locations in Japan to elucidate the suitability of these matrixes for describing local and regional transport of PFASs. Rain water collected at various time intervals within a single rainfall event showed high fluxes of PFASs in the first 1-mm deposition. The scavenging rate of PFASs by wet deposition varied depending on the fluorocarbon chain length of PFAS. The depositional fluxes of PFASs measured for continental (Tsukuba, Japan) and open ocean (Pacific Ocean, 1000km off Japanese coast) locations were similar, on the order of a few nanograms per square meter. The PFAS profiles in "freshly" deposited and "aged" (deposited on the ground for a few days) snow samples taken from the same location varied considerably. The freshly deposited snow represents current atmospheric profiles of PFASs, whereas the aged snow sample reflects sequestration of local sources of PFASs from the atmosphere. Post-depositional modifications in PFAS profiles were evident, suggesting reactions of PFASs on snow/ice surface. Transformation of precursor chemicals such as fluorotelomer alcohols into perfluoroalkylcarboxylates is evident on snow surface. Snow cores have been used to evaluate time trends of PFAS contamination in remote environments. Snow collected at various depths from a core of up to 7.7m deep, at Mt. Tateyama (2450m), Japan, showed the highest concentrations of PFASs in the surface layer and the concentrations decreased with increasing depth for most PFASs, except for perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS). Downward movement of highly water soluble PFASs such as PFBS, following melting and freezing cycles of snow, was evident from the analysis of snow core.
Environment international 03/2013; 55C:25-32. · 4.79 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a food intoxication caused by exposure to ciguatoxins (CTXs) in coral reef fish. Rapid analytical methods have been developed recently to quantify Pacific-CTX-1 (P-CTX-1) in fish muscle, but it is destructive and can cause harm to valuable live coral reef fish. Also fish muscle extract was complex making CTX quantification challenging. Not only P-CTX-1, but also P-CTX-2 and P-CTX-3 could be present in fish, contributing to ciguatoxicity. Therefore, an analytical method for simultaneous quantification of P-CTX-1, P-CTX-2, and P-CTX-3 in whole blood of marketed coral reef fish using sonication, solid-phase extraction (SPE), and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed. The optimized method gave acceptable recoveries of P-CTXs (74-103 %) in fish blood. Matrix effects (6-26 %) in blood extracts were found to be significantly reduced compared with those in muscle extracts (suppressed by 34-75 % as reported in other studies), thereby minimizing potential for false negative results. The target P-CTXs were detectable in whole blood from four coral reef fish species collected in a CFP-endemic region. Similar trends in total P-CTX levels and patterns of P-CTX composition profiles in blood and muscle of these fish were observed, suggesting a relationship between blood and muscle levels of P-CTXs. This optimized method provides an essential tool for studies of P-CTX pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in fish, which are needed for establishing the use of fish blood as a reliable sample for the assessment and control of CFP.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 02/2013; · 3.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are a significant source for poly-/perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) entering the environment. The presence of PFASs in twenty-eight municipal WWTPs from eleven cites in economically developed areas of China were screened. Overall, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were dominant in wastewater and sludge, and were not effectively removed during wastewater treatment. Elevated influent concentration ratios of perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) to PFOA and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) to PFOS in some WWTPs suggested that short chains substitution were adopted in these cities. Cluster analysis showed treatment processes had important impacts on PFASs profiles in effluent and sludge. Average concentration of total PFCAs in influent from each city and its gross domestic product (GDP) had significant positive correlation. This study provides a snapshot of both domestic and industrial discharges of PFAS to WWTPs as well as PFAS discharge from WWTPs to the aquatic environment in China.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have been globally detected in various environmental matrices, yet their fate and transport to the Arctic is still unclear, especially for the European Arctic. In this study, concentrations of 17 PFAS were quantified in two ice cores (n=26), surface snow (n=9) and surface water samples (n=14) collected along a spatial gradient in Svalbard, Norway. Concentrations of selected ions (Na(+), SO(4)(2-), etc.) were also determined for tracing the origins and sources of PFAS. Perfluorobutanoate (PFBA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) were the dominant compounds found in ice core samples. Taking PFOA, PFNA and perfluorooctane-sulfonate (PFOS) as examples, higher concentrations were detected in the middle layers of the ice cores representing the period of 1997-2000. Lower concentrations of C8-C12 perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) were detected in comparison with concentrations measured previously in an ice core from the Canadian Arctic, indicating that contamination levels in the European Arctic are lower. Average PFAS concentrations were found to be lower in surface snow and melted glacier water samples, while increased concentrations were observed in river water downstream near the coastal area. Perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) was detected in the downstream locations, but not in the glacier, suggesting existence of local sources of this compound. Long-range atmospheric transport of PFAS was the major deposition pathway for the glaciers, while local sources (e.g., skiing activities) were identified in the downstream locations.
Science of The Total Environment 01/2013; 447C:46-55. · 3.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fish consumption is an important source of human exposure to heavy metals. To determine the health risks for metals by consumption of marine fish in China, three species of fish, namely large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea), small yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena polyactis) and silver pomfret (Pampus argenteus) were collected and analyzed for methylmercury (MeHg), total mercury (T-Hg), selenium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, strontium and zinc. The large yellow croakers had the highest concentrations of mercury, lead, nickel and zinc, and the levels of MeHg were positively correlated to T-Hg. The ratios of MeHg to T-Hg in yellow croakers were significantly higher than those in silver pomfret, indicating differences in accumulation and magnification of MeHg in these two types of fish. The concentration of T-Hg was found to decrease as the Se level in fish tissues increased. Cadmium levels in 16% of the samples were higher than the criterion recommended by the European Commission Regulation. The concentrations of other metals were well below international standards. A human health risk assessment showed that the estimated daily intake of these metals did not exceed the reference dose established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The hazard quotients (HQs) were all less than 1, indicating a situation of no risk for consumption of these fish.
Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 01/2013; 48(12):1491-1501.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The measurement of illicit drug metabolites in raw wastewater is increasingly being adopted as an approach to objectively monitor population-level drug use, and is an effective complement to traditional epidemiological methods. As such, it has been widely applied in western countries. In this study, we utilised this approach to assess drug use patterns over nine days during April 2011 in Hong Kong. Raw wastewater samples were collected from the largest wastewater treatment plant serving a community of approximately 3.5 million people and analysed for excreted drug residues including cocaine, ketamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and key metabolites using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The overall drug use pattern determined by wastewater analysis was consistent with that have seen amongst people coming into contact with services in relation to substance use; among our target drugs, ketamine (estimated consumption: 1400–1600 mg/day/1000 people) was the predominant drug followed by methamphetamine (180–200 mg/day/1000 people), cocaine (160–180 mg/day/1000 people) and MDMA (not detected). The levels of these drugs were relatively steady throughout the monitoring period. Analysing samples at higher temporal resolution provided data on diurnal variations of drug residue loads. Elevated ratios of cocaine to benzoylecgonine were identified unexpectedly in three samples during the evening and night, providing evidence for potential dumping events of cocaine. This study provides the first application of wastewater analysis to quantitatively evaluate daily drug use in an Asian metropolitan community. Our data reinforces the benefit of wastewater monitoring to health and law enforcement authorities for strategic planning and evaluation of drug intervention strategies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We analyzed 68 green and blue mussels collected from Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam and the USA during 2003 and 2007, to elucidate the occurrence and widespread distributions of emerging pollutants, synthetic musks and benzotriazole UV stabilizers (BUVSs) in Asia-Pacific coastal waters. Synthetic musks and BUVSs were detected in mussels from all countries, suggesting their ubiquitous contamination and widespread distribution. High concentrations of musks and BUVSs were detected in mussels from Japan and Korea, where the levels were comparable or greater than those of PCBs, DDTs and PBDEs. Significant correlations were found between the concentrations of HHCB and AHTN, and also between the concentrations of UV-327 and UV-328, which suggest similar sources and compositions of these compounds in commercial and industrial products. To our knowledge, this is the first study of large-scale monitoring of synthetic musks and BUVSs in Asia-Pacific coastal waters.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Parental exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in animals has been found to be transferred to the offspring. The environmental health risk and toxicity to the offspring are still unclear. The objective of the present study was to identify environmentally relevant concentrations of PBDEs for parental exposure that would cause developmental neurotoxicity in the offspring. Adult zebrafish were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of DE-71 (0.16, 0.8, 4.0 μg/L) via water. The results showed that PBDE exposure did not affect larvae hatching, malformation, or survival. The residue of PBDEs was detected in F1 eggs upon parental exposure. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was significantly inhibited in F1 larvae. Genes of central nervous system development (e.g., myelin basic protein, synapsin IIa, α1-tubulin) were significantly downregulated in larvae. Protein levels of α1-tubulin and synapsin IIa were also reduced. Decreased locomotion activity was observed in the larvae. This study provides the first evidence that parental exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of PBDEs could cause adverse effects on neurodevelopment in zebrafish offspring.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Muscle tissues of large yellow croakers (Pseudosciaena crocea) and sliver pomfret (Pampus argenteus) from nine coastal cities of East China including Dalian, Tianjin, Qingdao, Shanghai, Zhoushan, Wenzhou, Fuzhou, Quanzhou and Xiamen were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations. Thirty-six PCB congeners were quantified in the fishes, of which 11 congeners were dioxin-like PCBs. The total PCB concentrations of the present study were at the low end of the global range, which may be related to the smaller usage and shorter consumption history of PCBs in China. PCBs 18, 29, 52, 66, 101, 104, 138, 153, 180 and 194 were the major constituents found in the fish samples. Regression analysis showed a strong positive correlation (R(2)=0.800; p<0.001) between total dioxin-like PCBs and total PCB concentrations, and that total PCB concentrations explain 80% of the variability in total dioxin-like PCB concentrations. Among the species investigated, significantly higher concentrations of total PCBs were found in croakers than in pomfrets, which may be attributed to their different feeding and living habits. No significant difference in total PCB concentrations among the cities was observed; principal component analysis (PCA) of PCB profiles indicated that PCB pollution came from similar sources in the sampling areas and that there may be other PCB sources in Dalian and Wenzhou. The calculated carcinogenic risks (CRs) from the two species based on a low consumption group and high consumption group were all greater than 10(-6), suggesting that daily exposure to dioxin-like PCBs via fish consumption results in a lifetime cancer risk of greater than one in one million. In contrast, the hazard quotients (HQs) of noncancer risks were all less than unity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs were measured in 56 egg samples collected from waterbirds of different species (Great Egret, Little Egret, Night Heron and Chinese Pond Heron) from different regions of Hong Kong (Ho Sheung Heung, Mai Po Village and Mai Po Lung Village) during 2000 and 2006. Dominance of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF indicates a signature associated with commercial usage of PCBs. Although no significant variations were observed within- and between-site in the levels of PCDD/Fs, coplanar PCBs and PBDEs, the concentrations of coplanar PCBs were much higher than PCDD/Fs. Similarity in composition profiles of PCDD/F and coplanar PCBs from different egretries is possibly associated with non-point sources of these contaminants to Hong Kong. Predominant accumulation of BDE-47, BDE-99 and BDE-100 suggested the penta-BDE technical mixtures usage in Hong Kong and its vicinity. Toxic equivalency and Monte Carlo simulation technique showed potential risks on waterbirds due to their exposure to PCDD/Fs.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytotoxicity of 6-HO-BDE-47 and its two analogues, BDE-47 and 6-MeO-BDE-47, and the associated molecular mechanisms were assessed by use of a live cell reporter assay system which contains a library of 1820 modified green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing promoter reporter vectors constructed from E. coli K12 strains. 6-HO-BDE-47 inhibited growth of E. coli with a 4 h median effect concentration (EC50) of 22.52 ± 2.20 mg/L, but neither BDE-47 nor 6-MeO-BDE-47 were cytotoxic. Thus, 6-HO-BDE-47 might serve as an antibiotic in some living organisms. Exposure to 6-HO-BDE-47 resulted in 65 (fold change >2) or 129 (fold change >1.5) genes being differentially expressed. The no observed transcriptional effect concentration (NOTEC) and median transcriptional effect concentration (TEC50) based on transcriptional end points, of 6-HO-BDE-47 were 0.0438 and 0.580 mg/L, respectively. The transcriptional responses were 514- and 39-fold more sensitive than the acute EC50 to inhibit cell growth. Most of the genes that were differentially expressed in response to 6-HO-BDE-47 were not modulated by BDE-47 or 6-MeO-BDE-47. These results suggest that cytotoxicity of 6-HO-BDE-47 to E. coli was via a mechanism that was different from that of either BDE-47 or 6-MeO-BDE-47. Gene expression associated with metabolic pathways was more responsive to 6-HO-BDE-47, which suggests that this pathway might be the primary target of this compound.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have the potential to disrupt the thyroid endocrine system. The objective of the present study was to characterize the disrupting effects of long-term exposure on the thyroid endocrine system in adult fish and their progeny following parental exposure to PBDEs. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations (1, 3, and 10 μg/L) of the PBDE mixture DE-71 for 5 months until sexual maturation. In the F0 generation, exposure to DE-71 significantly increased plasma thyroxine (T4) but not 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) in females. This increased T4 was accompanied by decreased mRNA levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and thyrotropin β-subunit (TSHβ) in the brain. The F1 generation was further examined with or without continued DE-71 treatment conditions. Exposure to DE-71 in the F0 fish caused significant increases in T4 and T3 levels in the F1 larvae and modified gene expressions in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT axis) under both conditions. Decreased hatching and inhibition of growth in the F1 offspring were observed in the condition without DE-71 treatment. Continued DE-71 treatment in the F1 embryos/larvae resulted in further decreased hatching, and increased malformation rates compared with those without DE-71 exposure. Analysis of F1 eggs indicated that parental exposure to DE-71 could result in a transfer of PBDEs and thyroid hormones (THs) to their offspring. For the first time, we demonstrated that parental exposure to low concentrations of PBDEs could affect THs in the offspring and the transgenerational PBDE-induced toxicity in subsequent nonexposed generations.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chlorophenols in the aquatic environment have been of concern due to their potential effects on human and wildlife. In the present study, the endocrine disrupting effects of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) were investigated in vitro and in vivo. In the in vitro assay, H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells were used to determine the potential effects of 2,4-DCP on steroidogenesis. Exposure to 0, 0.1, 0.3 or 1.0 mg 2,4-DCP/L resulted in less production of 17β-estradiol (E2) and alterations in transcript expressions of genes involved in steroidogenesis, including cytochrome P450 (CYP11A, CYP17, CYP19), 3βHSD, 17βHSD and StAR. In the in vivo study, effects of 0, 0.03, 0.1 or 0.3 mg 2,4-DCP/L on concentrations of steroid hormones in plasma of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were measured and expression of mRNA of selected genes in hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and liver were determined. Exposure of zebrafish to 2,4-DCP resulted in lesser concentrations of E2 accompanied by down-regulation of CYP19A mRNA in the females. In males, exposure to 2,4-DCP resulted in greater concentrations of testosterone (T) and E2 along with greater mRNA expression of CYP17 and CYP19A. The mRNA expression of prostaglandin synthase (Ptgs2) gene, which regulates ovulation, was down-regulated in females, but up-regulated in males. The hepatic estrogenic receptor (ERα and ERβ) and vitellogenin (VTG1 and VTG3) mRNAs were up-regulated in both females and males. The average number of eggs spawned was significantly less upon exposure to 2,4-DCP. Exposure of adult zebrafish to 2,4-DCP resulted in lesser rates of hatching of eggs. The results demonstrated that 2,4-DCP modulates transcription of steroidogenetic genes in both H295R cells and in the zebrafish HPG-axis and disrupts steroidogenesis, which in turn, can cause adverse effects on reproduction in fish.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Organofluorous compounds have been developed for myriad purposes in a variety of fields, including manufacturing, industry, agriculture, and medicine. The widespread use and application of these compounds has led to increasing concern about their potential ecological toxicity, particularly because of the stability of the C-F bond, which can result in chemical persistence in the environment. This chapter reviews the chemical properties and ecotoxicology of four groups of organofluorous compounds: fluorinated refrigerants and propellants, per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs), fluorinated pesticides, and fluoroquinolone antibiotics. These groups vary in their environmental fate and partitioning, but each raises concern in terms of ecological risk on both the regional and global scale, particularly those compounds with long environmental half-lives. Further research on the occurrence and toxicities of many of these compounds is needed for a more comprehensive understanding of their ecological effects.
Topics in current chemistry 09/2011; 308:339-63. · 8.46 Impact Factor