Manel Nebot

University Pompeu Fabra, Barcino, Catalonia, Spain

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Publications (219)351.39 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim was to assess the validity of self-reported exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) in 50 hospitality venues of Madrid (Spain) in 2010, taking as a reference vapour-phase nicotine measured by active sampling. The questions posed in the questionnaire permitted distinguishing between the different levels of SHS. However, the moderate relationship found (Spearman׳s correlation=0.387, p<0.001) suggests that intensity of exposure to SHS in hospitality venues, based solely on self-reported information, should be used with caution.
    Environmental research. 06/2014; 133C:1-3.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim was to assess the validity of self-reported exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) in 50 hospitality venues of Madrid (Spain) in 2010, taking as a reference vapour-phase nicotine measured by active sampling. The questions posed in the questionnaire permitted distinguishing between the different levels of SHS. However, the moderate relationship found (Spearman׳s correlation=0.387, p<0.001) suggests that intensity of exposure to SHS in hospitality venues, based solely on self-reported information, should be used with caution.
    Environmental Research. 01/2014; 133:1–3.
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    ABSTRACT: The increasing use of mobile phones in the last decade has decreased landline telephone coverage in Spanish households. This study aimed to analyze sociodemographic characteristics and health indicators by type of telephone service (mobile phone vs. landline or landline and mobile phone). Two telephone surveys were conducted in Spanish samples (February 2010 and February 2011). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to analyze differences in the main sociodemographic characteristics and health indicators according to the type of telephone service available in Spanish households. We obtained 2027 valid responses (1627 landline telephones and 400 mobile phones). Persons contacted through a mobile phone were more likely to be a foreigner, to belong to the manual social class, to have a lower educational level, and to be a smoker than those contacted through a landline telephone. The profile of the population that has only a mobile phone differs from that with a landline telephone. Therefore, telephone surveys that exclude mobile phones could show a selection bias.
    Gaceta Sanitaria 11/2013; · 1.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between particulate matter of diameter≤2.5µm (PM2.5) and airborne nicotine concentration as markers of second-hand smoke exposure with respect to the setting studied, the intensity of exposure, and the type of environment studied (indoors or outdoors). Data are derived from two independent studies that simultaneously measured PM2.5 and nicotine concentrations in the air as airborne markers of second-hand smoke exposure in public places and workplaces, including health care centres, bars, public administration offices, educational centres, and transportation. We obtained 213 simultaneous measures of airborne nicotine and PM2.5. Nicotine in the air was measured with active samplers containing a sodium bisulphate-treated filter that was analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. PM2.5 was measured with a SidePak AM510 Personal Aerosol Monitor. We calculated Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and its 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) between both measures for overall data and stratified by setting, type of environment (indoors/outdoors), and intensity of second-hand smoke exposure (low/high, according to the global median nicotine concentration). We also fitted generalized regression models to further explore these relationships. The median airborne nicotine concentration was 1.36µg/m(3), and the median PM2.5 concentration was 32.13µg/m(3). The overall correlation between both markers was high (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient=0.709; 95% CI: 0.635-0.770). Correlations were higher indoors (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient=0.739; 95% CI: 0.666-0.798) and in environments with high second-hand smoke exposure (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient=0.733; 95% CI: 0.631-0.810). The multivariate analysis adjusted for type of environment and intensity of second-hand smoke exposure confirmed a strong relationship (7.1% increase in geometric mean PM2.5 concentration per µg/m(3) nicotine concentration), but only in indoor environments in a stratified analysis (6.7% increase; 95% CI: 4.3-9.1%). Although the overall correlation between airborne nicotine and PM2.5 is high, there is some variability regarding the type of environment and the intensity of second-hand smoke exposure. In the absence of other sources of combustion, air nicotine and PM2.5 measures can be used indoors, while PM2.5 should be used outdoors with caution.
    Environmental Research 10/2013; · 3.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to describe driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs (DUIAD) and riding in a vehicle with a driver under the influence of alcohol or drugs (RDUIAD) and their associated factors among rural and urban adolescents in Spain. We performed a cross-sectional study including 2067 students from Barcelona and a rural area 60km north of this city. The prevalences of ever DUIAD and RDUIAD were 17% and 41% among 17-18 year-old adolescents. DUIAD was more common in boys. Living in the rural area was independently associated with these behaviours. Exposure to these behaviours is common among Spanish adolescents, especially in rural areas.
    Accident; analysis and prevention 08/2013; 60C:1-4. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the effectiveness of a multi-level (individual, family, and school) school-based intervention to prevent the exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) in a population of schoolchildren (12-14 years old). This was a community trial with cluster randomization of schools to an intervention and comparison group (ClinicalTrials.Gov identifier NCT01881607). The intervention targeted schoolchildren in Terrassa (Catalonia, Spain). We assessed SHS exposure in different settings and tobacco consumption by means of a questionnaire before and one year after the intervention. We analyzed data from 1,734 students with both baseline and follow-up data. The crude analysis showed that SHS exposure among students in the intervention group significantly decreased at school (-14.0%), at home (-19.9%), and on transportation (-21.8%). In the comparison group, SHS exposure significantly decreased only at home (-16.9%) After adjustment for potential confounders, the good accomplishment of the activities showed a possible trend towards a non-significant reduction in exposure at home, transportation, and leisure time. While this school-based multi-level intervention had no overall effect in SHS exposure, the improvement of the activities focused on preventing SHS would be needed in order to achieve a significant decrease in the proportion of children exposed to SHS.
    Preventive Medicine 08/2013; · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To analyse the relationship between the stated consumption of tobacco by pregnant women who say they smoked before pregnancy and the levels of cotinine in their urine at the start and end of pregnancy. Design Observational, longitudinal study. Participants During 1997. Study group: 147 pregnant women at their first pre-natal visit to outclinics of the Hospital del Mar. Control group: 50 non-smoker pregnant women monitored during their pregnancy. Measurements and main results The numbers of cigarettes per day that they said they smoked on their first monitoring visit to our centre and at the last attendance before giving birth were recorded. Cotinine levels in the urine samples taken on these visits were measured. Mean cotinine in pregnant women who said they had given up smoking was higher than in nonsmokers. There was a statistically significant linear relationship between the number of cigarettes stated and cotinine levels at the first and last pregnancy monitoring visits, as well as between the variation in the number of cigarettes and cotinine levels at these two visits. The negative predictive value of what they said about their tobacco habit was 82.9%. Conclusions There was a certain under-declaration by pregnant smokers, although their statements of consumption and cotinine levels correlated closely. The under-declaration did not increase despite reiterated advice to stop smoking, which means that, despite its limitations, it could be a useful indicator for evaluating the effect of interventions aimed at stopping women smoking during pregnancy.
    Atención Primaria. 07/2013; 26(9):629–632.
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to describe changes in attitudes and behaviours regarding influenza A infection 1 year after the end of the pandemic. A cross-sectional study was performed based on two population-based telephone surveys including 1027 (February, 2010) and 1000 (February, 2011) participants in Spain. The percentages of the respondents who reported that they had adopted preventive measures to avoid Influenza infection declined 1 year after the pandemic. Influenza-related consultations decreased, whereas confidence in vaccination increased. Despite the decrease observed in adopting preventive measures, some behaviours were still being adopted long time after the pandemic in general population.
    The European Journal of Public Health 06/2013; · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Some countries have recently extended smoke-free policies to particular outdoor settings; however, there is controversy regarding whether this is scientifically and ethically justifiable. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present study is to review research on second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure in outdoor settings. DATA SOURCES: We conducted different searches in PubMed for the period prior to September 2012. We checked the references of the identified papers, and conducted a similar search in Google Scholar. STUDY SELECTION: We included combinations of secondhand smoke, environmental tobacco smoke, passive smoking OR tobacco smoke pollution AND outdoors AND PM, PM2.5, RSP, particulate matter, nicotine, CO, cotinine, marker, biomarker OR airborne marker. In total, 18 articles and reports met the inclusion criteria. RESULTS: Almost all studies used PM2.5 concentration as an SHS marker. Mean PM2.5 concentrations reported for outdoor smoking areas when smokers were present ranged from 8.32 µg/m(3) to 124 µg/m(3) at hospitality venues, and 4.60 µg/m(3) to 17.80 µg/m(3) at other locations. Mean PM2.5 concentrations in smoke-free indoor settings near outdoor smoking areas ranged from 4 µg/m(3) to 120.51 µg/m(3). SHS levels were increased when smokers were present, and outdoor and indoor SHS levels were related. Most studies reported a positive association between SHS measures and smoker density, enclosure of outdoor locations, wind conditions, and proximity to smokers. CONCLUSIONS: The available evidence indicates high SHS levels at some outdoor smoking areas, and at adjacent smoke-free indoor areas. Further research and standardization of methodology is needed to determine whether smoke-free legislation should be extended to outdoor settings.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 05/2013; · 7.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The increasing use of mobile phones in the last decade has decreased landline telephone coverage in Spanish households. This study aimed to analyze sociodemographic characteristics and health indicators by type of telephone service (mobile phone vs. landline or landline and mobile phone). Two telephone surveys were conducted in Spanish samples (February 2010 and February 2011). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to analyze differences in the main sociodemographic characteristics and health indicators according to the type of telephone service available in Spanish households. We obtained 2027 valid responses (1627 landline telephones and 400 mobile phones). Persons contacted through a mobile phone were more likely to be a foreigner, to belong to the manual social class, to have a lower educational level, and to be a smoker than those contacted through a landline telephone. The profile of the population that has only a mobile phone differs from that with a landline telephone. Therefore, telephone surveys that exclude mobile phones could show a selection bias.
    Gaceta Sanitaria 01/2013; · 1.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Smoking is a preventable cause of early death and the habit starts in adolescence. The aim of this study was to describe tobacco consumption in secondary school students in 2008 and trends in the last 20 years in Barcelona. Material and methods We analyzed the trend in tobacco consumption by comparing data from 8 surveys carried out between 1987 and 2008 in the 8 th (2 nd year of Compulsory Secondary Education), 10th (4 th year of Compulsory Secondary Education) and 12th (2 nd year of Compulsory Secondary Education) years of secondary school. The FRESC questionnaire was used. Data on regular and daily consumption and associated factors in 2008 were gathered and compared with those corresponding to the previous studies. Percentages of annual change were calculated with Joinpoint regression and data were stratified by sex and year of education. Results In 2008, 6.1% of boys and 4.5% of girls in the 8 th year, 15.8% and 20.4% of those in the 10th year, respectively, and 26.1% and 33.1% of those in the 12th year, respectively, were regular smokers. A strong association was noted between regular smoking and cannabis consumption in three school years, as well as with having friends who were smokers and poor school performance. At 15-16 years old, the average annual decrease from 1996 to 2008 was 6.8% in girls and 6.1% in boys. Conclusions Adolescent smoking has been decreasing in the last few years in Barcelona. There is a strong association between tobacco use and cannabis consumption.
    Gaceta Sanitaria 01/2013; · 1.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The Spanish tobacco control law of 2006 was modified in January 2011, banning smoking in all hospitality venues. The objective of the study was to assess the impact of the 2011 Spanish smoking ban on secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in hospitality venues, and to analyze the potential impact of outdoor smokers close to entrances on indoor SHS levels after the law came into force. METHODS: Before-and-after evaluation study with repeated measures. The study was carried out in three regions of Spain (Catalonia, Galicia, and Madrid) and included a random sample of 178 hospitality venues. We measured vapor-phase nicotine and particulate matter 2.5 micrometers or less in diameter (PM2.5) as SHS markers at baseline (November-December 2010) and at follow-up (April-June 2011). We also recorded tobacco consumption variables such as the presence of butts, ashtrays, and smokers. In the posttest assessment, we also recorded the number of outdoor smokers close to the entrance. RESULTS: A total of 351 nicotine and 160 PM2.5 measurements were taken. Both nicotine and PM2.5 concentrations decreased by more than 90% (nicotine from 5.73 to 0.57 µg/m(3), PM2.5 from 233.38 to 18.82 µg/m(3)). After the law came into force, both nicotine and PM2.5 concentrations were significantly higher in venues with outdoor smokers close to the entrance than in those without outdoor smokers. All the observational tobacco consumption variables significantly decreased (p < .001).Conclusions:SHS exposure in hospitality venues dramatically decreased after the 2011 Spanish smoking ban. SHS from outdoor smokers close to entrances seems to drift inside venues. Smoking control legislation should consider outdoor restrictions to ensure complete protection against SHS.
    Nicotine & Tobacco Research 10/2012; · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have assessed second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure but a gold standard remains to be established. This study aimed to review how SHS exposure has been assessed in adults in questionnaire-based epidemiological studies. METHODS: A literature search of original papers in English, French, Italian or Spanish published from January 2000 to May 2011 was performed using PubMed. The variables recorded for each study included target population, sample size, validation of the SHS questions, study design and phrasing of every question used to assess SHS exposure. For each item, information such as the setting where exposure was assessed or the indicator used to ascertain SHS exposure was extracted. RESULTS: We retrieved 977 articles, of which 335 matched the inclusion criteria. The main objective of 75.8% of the studies was to assess SHS exposure.The proportion of validated questions aiming to ascertain SHS exposure was 17.9%. Most studies collected data only for one (40.3%) or two settings (33.4%), most frequently the home (83.9%) and workplace (57%). The most commonly used indicator to ascertain exposure was the presence of smokers and 68.9% of the studies included an item to assess the intensity of SHS exposure. CONCLUSIONS: The variability in the indicators and items used to ascertain SHS exposure is very high, whereas the use of items derived from validated studies remains low. Identifying the diverse settings where SHS exposure may occur is essential to accurately assess exposure over time. A standard set of items to identify SHS exposure in distinct settings is needed.
    The European Journal of Public Health 06/2012; · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clin Microbiol Infect ABSTRACT: The number of elderly patients in the community with immunosuppressive conditions has increased progressively over recent decades. We sought to determine the incidence, causative organisms and outcome of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) occurring in immunocompromised older patients. We prospectively compared cases of CAP in immunocompromised and non-immunocompromised patients admitted to five public hospitals in three Spanish regions. Of 320 cases studied, 115 (36%) occurred in immunocompromised patients, including: solid or hematological malignancy (97), corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive drugs (44), solid organ or stem cell transplant (five), and other conditions (eight). The etiology was established in 44% of immunocompromised patients vs. 32% of non-immunocompromised patients (p 0.03). Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most common causative organism in both groups (29% vs. 21%; p 0.08), followed by Legionella pneumophila (3% vs. 6%; p 0.01). Gram-negative bacilli were more frequent among immunocompromised patients (5% vs. 0.5%; p <0.01), particularly Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3% vs. 0%; p 0.04). Nocardiosis was only observed in immunocompromised patients (two cases). Bacteremia occurred similarly in the two groups. No significant differences were found with respect to ICU admission (8%, in both groups) or the length of stay (12.5 vs. 10.4 days). The early (<48 h) (3.5 vs. 0.5%; p 0.04) and overall case-fatality rates (12% vs. 3%; p <0.01) were higher in immunocompromised patients. In conclusion, a substantial number of older patients hospitalized for CAP are immunocompromised. Although relatively uncommon, CAP due to gram-negative bacilli, including P. aeruginosa, is more frequent among these patients. CAP occurring in immunocompromised patients causes significant morbidity and mortality.
    Clinical Microbiology and Infection 01/2012; · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Outdoor secondhand smoke (SHS) concentrations are usually lower than indoor concentrations, yet some studies have shown that outdoor SHS levels could be comparable to indoor levels under specific conditions. The main objectives of this study were to assess levels of SHS exposure in terraces and other outdoor areas of hospitality venues and to evaluate their potential displacement to adjacent indoor areas. Nicotine and respirable particles (PM2.5) were measured in outdoor and indoor areas of hospitality venues of 8 European countries. Hospitality venues of the study included night bars, restaurants and bars. The fieldwork was carried out between March 2009 and March 2011. We gathered 170 nicotine and 142 PM2.5 measurements during the study. The median indoor SHS concentration was significantly higher in venues where smoking was allowed (nicotine 3.69 µg/m3, PM2.5: 120.51 µg/m3) than in those where smoking was banned (nicotine: 0.48 µg/m3, PM2.5: 36.90 µg/m3). The median outdoor nicotine concentration was higher in places where indoor smoking was banned (1.56 µg/m3) than in venues where smoking was allowed (0.31 µg/m3). Among the different types of outdoor areas, the highest median outdoor SHS levels (nicotine: 4.23 µg/m3, PM2.5: 43.64 µg/m3) were found in the semi-closed outdoor areas of venues where indoor smoking was banned. Banning indoor smoking seems to displace SHS exposure to adjacent outdoor areas. Furthermore, indoor settings where smoking is banned but which have a semi-closed outdoor area have higher levels of SHS than those with open outdoor areas, possibly indicating that SHS also drifts from outdoors to indoors. Current legislation restricting indoor SHS levels seems to be insufficient to protect hospitality workers--and patrons--from SHS exposure. Tobacco-free legislation should take these results into account and consider restrictions in the terraces of some hospitality venues to ensure effective protection.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(8):e42130. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study is to describe the differences in the exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) at home and at leisure time according to the day of the week (working and non-working day) which exposure occurs in Barcelona. We carried out a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of adult (>16 years) non-smokers in Barcelona before the Spanish smoking law came into effect (years 2004-2005). We studied the prevalence of exposure to SHS at home and leisure time by means of a questionnaire and a biomarker (salivary cotinine). The questionnaire included questions on exposure to SHS on working days and nonworking days. The prevalence of exposure to SHS at home was 27.4% (6.8% exposed only on working days, 5.7% exposed only on non-working days, and 14.9% exposed on both working and non-working days). The prevalence of exposure to SHS at leisure time was 61.3% (10.7% exposed only on working days, 13.6% exposed only on non-working days, and 37.0% exposed on both working and non-working days). The exposure to SHS only on non-working days at leisure time decreases with age (χ(2) of trend = 183.7; p<0.001) and increases with the educational level (χ(2) of trend = 78.8; p<0.001). Participants who had reported to be exposed to SHS at home on working and non-working days showed higher levels of salivary cotinine concentration, regardless of sex, age group, and educational level. In conclusion, the exposure to SHS occurs mainly during leisure time. Questions on SHS exposure according to working and non-working days allow to characterizing the exposure to SHS, especially when the exposure occurs at leisure time.
    Adicciones 01/2012; 24(2):173-7. · 1.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A new smoking regulation came into force in Mauritius in March 2009. Environmental nicotine and particles less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) were measured in 60 hospitality venues and shopping malls on December 2009. There was presence of secondhand smoke in 69% of the samples. The overall median [IQR] nicotine and PM2.5 concentrations were 0.05 [<L.Q.-0.17] and 20.28 μg/m3 [IQR: 13.00-59.80], respectively. The highest concentrations of both markers were found in night clubs.
    Environmental Research 11/2011; 111(8):1024-6. · 3.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe secondhand smoke (SHS) levels in halls and main entrances (outdoors) in different buildings by measurement of PM(2.5) and airborne nicotine. Cross-sectional study in a sample of 47 public buildings. The authors studied SHS levels derived from PM(2.5) (micrograms per cubic metre) using TSI SidePak Personal Aerosol Monitors. The authors tested four locations within buildings: hall, main entrance (outdoor), control (indoor) and control (outdoor). The authors also measured airborne nicotine concentration (micrograms per cubic metre) in main entrances (outdoor). The authors computed medians and IQRs to describe the data. Spearman correlation coefficient (rsp) was used to explore the association between PM(2.5) concentrations simultaneously measured in halls and main entrances as well as between PM(2.5) and nicotine concentrations. The authors obtained an overall median PM(2.5) concentration of hall 18.20 μg/m(3) (IQR: 10.92-23.92 μg/m(3)), main entrance (outdoor) 17.16 μg/m(3) (IQR: 10.92-24.96 μg/m(3)), control (indoor) 10.40 μg/m(3) (IQR: 6.76-15.60 μg/m(3)) and control (outdoor) 13.00 μg/m(3) (IQR: 8.32-18.72 μg/m(3)). The PM(2.5) concentration in halls was more correlated with concentration in the main entrances (outdoors) (rsp=0.518, 95% CI 0.271 to 0.701) than with the control indoor (rsp=0.316, 95% CI 0.032 to 0.553). The Spearman correlation coefficient between nicotine and PM(2.5) concentration was 0.365 (95% CI -0.009 to 0.650). Indoor locations where smoking is banned are not completely free from SHS with levels similar to those obtained in the immediate entrances (outdoors) where smoking is allowed, indicating that SHS from outdoors settings drifts to adjacent indoors. These results warrant a revision of current smoke-free policies in particular outdoor settings.
    Tobacco control 09/2011; 21(6):543-8. · 3.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the impact of the 28/2005 Spanish smoking law on exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) in Barcelona. We performed a pre-post evaluation study. Two cross-sectional surveys were compared. Data were obtained from the Barcelona Health Surveys of 2000 and 2006. The prevalence of SHS exposure among non-smoking adults was analyzed by setting (home, workplace and leisure time) and sociodemographic variables. SHS exposure in non-smokers significantly decreased between 2000 and 2006 (p < 0.01). Odds ratios adjusted by sex, age and social class were 0.7 (95% CI: 0.6-0.8) for home and 0.2 (95% CI: 0.2-0.3) for workplace exposure in 2006 compared with 2000. In both settings, the decrease in exposure was greater in the higher social classes. After the implementation of the law, almost 50% of the population remained exposed to SHS during leisure time, younger people being the most exposed (83.5%). After the implementation of the law, the prevalence of SHS exposure in non-smokers in Barcelona decreased significantly in workplaces and in the home. Nevertheless, nearly half of the population remained exposed to SHS during leisure time.
    Gaceta Sanitaria 09/2011; 25(6):495-500. · 1.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is considered to be a human carcinogen. In this paper, total (As) and iAs contents of 215 food products and drinks (i.e., seafood, fruits and vegetables, meat products, oils and fats, rice and rice products, seasonings, and alcoholic drinks) marketed in Catalonia (Spain) were quantified by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The analytical method described was used for different food products, obtaining feasible results without the need to couple LC-ICP-MS for iAs. Daily As and iAs intakes for the average adult Catalan consumer were estimated at 354 and 6.1 μg/day/person, respectively, using consumption data from the Catalan Nutrition Survey (ENCAT). The highest As content was found in seafood, contributing 96% of dietary As intake, whereas rice presented the highest iAs values, corresponding to 67% of dietary iAs intake. As cooking process may affect iAs content, boiled rice was evaluated, showing an iAs reduction (up to 86%) when using higher water volumes (30:1 water/rice ratio) than those used in previous studies. This iAs exposure was slightly below the exposure risk range stated by the European Food Safety Authority (0.3-8 μg/kg of body weight/day), although the possibility of a risk to the population with high rice consumption cannot be excluded.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 08/2011; 59(18):10013-22. · 2.91 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
351.39 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009–2014
    • University Pompeu Fabra
      • Department of Experimental and Health Sciences
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2013
    • Institut Universitari d'investigació en Atenció Primària "Jordi Gol"
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 1998–2013
    • Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 1994–2013
    • Instituto de Salud Global de Barcelona
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2012
    • University of Santiago de Compostela
      Santiago, Galicia, Spain
  • 2011–2012
    • Catalan Institute of Oncology
      Badalona, Catalonia, Spain
    • Institut Marqués, Spain, Barcelona
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2008–2011
    • Institut Català d'Oncologia
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2005–2011
    • University of Zaragoza
      • Department of Medicine, Psychiatry and Dermatology
      Zaragoza, Aragon, Spain
  • 2007
    • Universidade da Beira Interior
      • Faculty of Health Sciences
      Ковильян, Castelo Branco, Portugal
    • University of Minho
      Bracara Augusta, Braga, Portugal
  • 2004
    • University of Vienna
      • Institute of Environmental Hygiene
      Vienna, Vienna, Austria
  • 2000
    • Parc de Salut Mar
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 1990–2000
    • Institut Català de la Salut
      Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain
  • 1999
    • Autonomous University of Barcelona
      Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain