[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retroviral integration depends on the interaction between intasomes, host chromatin and cellular targeting cofactors as LEDGF/p75 or BET proteins. Previous studies indicated that the retroviral integrase, by itself, may play a role in the local integration site selection within nucleosomal target DNA. We focused our study on this local association by analyzing the intrinsic properties of various retroviral intasomes to functionally accommodate different chromatin structures in the lack of other cofactors.
Using in vitro conditions allowing the efficient catalysis of full site integration without these cofactors, we show that distinct retroviral integrases are not equally affected by chromatin compactness. Indeed, while PFV and MLV integration reactions are favored into dense and stable nucleosomes, HIV-1 and ASV concerted integration reactions are preferred into poorly dense chromatin regions of our nucleosomal acceptor templates. Predicted nucleosome occupancy around integration sites identified in infected cells suggests the presence of a nucleosome at the MLV and HIV-1 integration sites surrounded by differently dense chromatin. Further analyses of the relationships between the in vitro integration site selectivity and the structure of the inserted DNA indicate that structural constraints within intasomes could account for their ability to accommodate nucleosomal DNA and could dictate their capability to bind nucleosomes functionally in these specific chromatin contexts.
Thus, both intasome architecture and compactness of the chromatin surrounding the targeted nucleosome appear important determinants of the retroviral integration site selectivity. This supports a mechanism involving a global targeting of the intasomes toward suitable chromatin regions followed by a local integration site selection modulated by the intrinsic structural constraints of the intasomes governing the target DNA bending and dictating their sensitivity toward suitable specific nucleosomal structures and density.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The antiviral efficacy of raltegravir (RAL) has been proven against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtypes B and C but remained to be determined against other subtypes. Therefore, the enzymatic activities as well as RAL resistance of HIV-1 subtype A and CRF01_AE integrases (INs) were investigated. Previously published subtype A and CRF01_AE IN sequences from RAL-naïve patients were aligned to generate consensus sequences for both IN subtypes. Subtype A and CRF01_AE INs encoded by these consensus sequences as well as the corresponding enzymes harbouring the N155H resistance mutation were expressed and purified. Enzymatic activities of subtype A and CRF01_AE INs were analysed with regard to typical 3'-end processing (3'-P) and strand transfer (ST) activities both in the presence and absence of RAL and were compared with subtype B IN as well as with the corresponding INs harbouring the N155H resistance mutation. Subtypes B, A and CRF01_AE INs showed similar 3'-P and ST activities. In the presence of RAL, the three wild-type INs exhibited ST activity IC50 values (50% inhibitory concentrations) of 86.3±32.5, 158.3±99.0 and 100.0±65.7nM, respectively. Analysis of 3'-P activity in the presence of RAL revealed IC50>10μM for all three enzymes. The three INs harbouring the N155H mutation presented in vitro low but similar resistance levels to RAL. In conclusion, INs from HIV-1 subtypes B, A and CRF01_AE showed similar responses to RAL in vitro, suggesting the potency of this antiretroviral drug to treat HIV-1 subtype A- and CRF01_AE-infected patients.
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 06/2014; 44(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2014.04.013 · 4.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report herein further insight into the biological activities displayed by a series of 2-hydroxyisoquinoline-1,3(2H,4H)-diones (HIDs). Substitution of the N-hydroxyimide two-metal binding pharmacophore at position 4 by carboxamido sidechains was previously shown by us to be fruitful for this scaffold, since strong human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase (HIV-1 IN) inhibitors in the low nanomolar range associated with low micromolar anti-HIV activities were obtained. We investigated the influence of substitution at position 7 on the biological activity. The introduction of electron withdrawing functional groups such as the nitro moiety at position 7 led to a noticeable improvement of antiviral activity, down to low nanomolar anti-HIV potencies, with advantageous therapeutic indexes going close to those of the clinically-used raltegravir and retained potencies against a panel of IN mutants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polynucleotidyl transferases are enzymes involved in several DNA mobility mechanisms in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Some of them such as retroviral integrases are crucial for pathogenous processes and are therefore good candidates for therapeutic approaches. To identify new therapeutic compounds and new tools for investigating the common functional features of these proteins, we addressed the inhibition properties of natural stilbenoids deriving from resveratrol on two models: the HIV-1 integrase and the eukaryote MOS-1 transposase. Two resveratrol dimers, leachianol F and G, were isolated for the first time in Vitis along with fourteen known stilbenoids: E-resveratrol, E-piceid, E-pterostilbene, E-piceatannol, (+)-E-ε-viniferin, E-ε-viniferinglucoside, E-scirpusin A, quadragularin A, ampelopsin A, pallidol, E-miyabenol C, E-vitisin B, hopeaphenol, and isohopeaphenol and were purified from stalks of Vitis vinifera (Vitaceae), and moracin M from stem bark of Milliciaexelsa (Moraceae). These compounds were tested in in vitro and in vivo assays reproducing the activity of both enzymes. Several molecules presented significant inhibition on both systems. Some of the molecules were found to be active against both proteins while others were specific for one of the two models. Comparison of the differential effects of the molecules suggested that the compounds could target specific intermediate nucleocomplexes of the reactions. Additionally E-pterostilbene was found active on the early lentiviral replication steps in lentiviruses transduced cells. Consequently, in addition to representing new original lead compounds for further modelling of new active agents against HIV-1 integrase, these molecules could be good tools for identifying such reaction intermediates in DNA mobility processes.
PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e81184. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0081184 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of 2-hydroxy-1,3-dioxoisoquinoline-4-carboxamides featuring an N-hydroxyimide chelating functionality was evaluated for their inhibitory properties against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase (HIV-1 IN). Several derivatives displayed low nanomolar IC50 values comparable to that of the clinically used raltegravir. A marked effect of one compound on both primary IN-catalyzed reactions, strand transfer (ST), and 3′ processing (3′-P), emphasizes a novel IN inhibition mechanism establishing it as a potential new generation IN inhibitor. Substitution of the 2-hydroxyisoquinoline-1,3- dione scaffold at position 4 by carboxamido chains was beneficial for antiviral activity since reproducible low micromolar anti- HIV activities were obtained for the first time within this scaffold.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Higher eukaryotic organisms have a variety of specific and nonspecific defense mechanisms against viral invaders. In animal cells, viral replication may be limited through the decrease in translation. Some viruses, however, have evolved mechanisms that counteract the response of the host. We report that infection by HIV-1 triggers acute decrease in translation. The human protein kinase GCN2 (eIF2AK4) is activated by phosphorylation upon HIV-1 infection in the hours following infection. Thus, infection by HIV-1 constitutes a stress that leads to the activation of GCN2 with a resulting decrease in protein synthesis. We have shown that GCN2 interacts with HIV-1 integrase (IN). Transfection of IN in amino acid-starved cells, where GCN2 is activated, increases the protein synthesis level. These results point to an as yet unknown role of GCN2 as an early mediator in the cellular response to HIV-1 infection, and suggest that the virus is able to overcome the involvement of GCN2 in the cellular response by eliciting methods to maintain protein synthesis.
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 02/2013; DOI:10.1007/s00018-013-1272-x · 5.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In contrast to canonical proteases, total immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies (Abs) from HIV-infected patients hydrolyze effectively only HIV integrase (IN), reverse transcriptase (RT), human casein, and serum albumin. Anti-IN IgG and IgM isolated by chromatography on IN-Sepharose hydrolyze specifically only IN but not many other tested proteins. Total Abs from HIV-infected patients hydrolyze not only globular proteins but also different specific and nonspecific tri-, tetra-, and 20- to 25-mer oligopeptides (OPs) with a higher rate than anti-IN Abs isolated using IN-Sepharose. A similar situation was observed for IgG from patients with multiple sclerosis and HIV-infected patients, which after purification on myelin basic protein (MBP)-Sepharose and RT-Sepharose specifically hydrolyze only MBP and RT, respectively. The active sites of all anti-protein abzymes are localized on their light chains, whereas the heavy chain is responsible for the affinity of protein substrates. Interactions of intact globular proteins with both light and heavy chains of abzymes provide the specificity of protein hydrolysis. The affinity of anti-IN and anti-MBP abzymes for intact IN and MBP is approximately 10(2)- to 10(5)-fold higher than for short and long specific and nonspecific OPs. The data suggest that all OPs interact mainly with the light chain of different Abs, which possesses a lower affinity for substrates, and therefore, depending on the OP sequences, their hydrolysis may be less specific or completely nonspecific. The data indicate that the relative activity of Abs not fractionated on specific protein sorbents in the hydrolysis of specific and nonspecific OPs can correspond to an average proteolytic activity of light chains of polyclonal Abs directed against many different proteins.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stable HIV-1 replication requires the DNA repair of the integration locus catalyzed by cellular factors. The human RAD51 (hRAD51) protein plays a major role in homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair and was previously shown to interact with HIV-1 integrase (IN) and inhibit its activity. Here we determined the molecular mechanism of inhibition of IN. Our standard in vitro integration assays performed under various conditions promoting or inhibiting hRAD51 activity demonstrated that the formation of an active hRAD51 nucleofilament is required for optimal inhibition involving an IN-DNA complex dissociation mechanism. Furthermore we show that this inhibition mechanism can be promoted in HIV-1-infected cells by chemical stimulation of the endogenous hRAD51 protein. This hRAD51 stimulation induced both an enhancement of the endogenous DNA repair process and the inhibition of the integration step. Elucidation of this molecular mechanism leading to the restriction of viral proliferation paves the way to a new concept of antiretroviral therapy based on the enhancement of endogenous hRAD51 recombination activity and highlights the functional interaction between HIV-1 IN and hRAD51.
Journal of Virology 01/2012; 86(1):513-26. DOI:10.1128/JVI.05425-11 · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase (IN) catalyzes integration of a DNA copy of the viral genome into the host genome. It was shown previously that IN preincubation with various oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) induces formation of dimers and oligomers of different gyration radii; only specific ODNs stimulate the formation of catalytically active dimers. Here we have shown that preincubation of IN with specific and nonspecific ODNs leads to a significant and comparable decrease in its hydrolysis by chymotrypsin, while nonspecific ODNs protect the enzyme from the hydrolysis by trypsin worse than specific ODNs; all ODNs had little effect on the IN hydrolysis by proteinase K. In contrast to canonical proteweases, IgGs from HIV-infected patients specifically hydrolyze only IN. While d(pT)(n) markedly decreased the IgG-dependent hydrolysis of IN, d(pA)(n) and d(pA)(n) •d(pT)(n) demonstrated no detectable protective effect. The best protection from the hydrolysis by IgGs was observed for specific single- and especially double-stranded ODNs. Although IN was considerably protected by specific ODNs, proteolytic IgGs and IgMs significantly suppressed both 3'-processing and integration reaction catalyzed by IN. Since anti-IN IgGs and IgMs can efficiently hydrolyze IN, a positive role of abzymes in counteracting the infection cannot be excluded.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV-1 integrase (IN) catalyzes integration of a DNA copy of the viral genome into the host genome. In contrast to canonical proteases (trypsin, chymotrypsin and proteinase K), IgGs and IgMs isolated from HIV-infected patients by affinity chromatography on immobilized IN specifically hydrolyzed only IN but not many other tested intact globular proteins. The sites of IN cleavage determined by MALDI mass spectrometry were localized mainly within seven known immunodominant regions of IN. Thin layer chromatography analysis has shown that the abzymes (Abzs) could also cleave 17 to 22-mer oligopeptides (OPs) corresponding to the immunodominant regions of IN sequence with a much higher rate than non-specific long peptides or three- and tetrapeptides of various sequence. Therefore, a prolonged incubation of IN with AIDS IgGs and IgMs having high catalytic activity usually produces many OPs of different length. Since anti-IN IgGs and IgMs can efficiently hydrolyze IN, a positive role of the Abzs in counteracting the infection is possible.
International Immunology 08/2011; 23(10):601-12. DOI:10.1093/intimm/dxr065 · 3.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The HIV-1 integrase (IN) mutations Y143C/R are known as raltegravir (RAL) primary resistance mutations. In a previous study (S. Reigadas et al., PLoS One 5:e10311, 2010), we investigated the genetic pathway and the dynamics of emergence of the Y143C/R mutations in three patients failing RAL-containing regimens. In these patients, the Y143C/R mutation was associated with the T97A mutation. The aim of the present biochemical and molecular studies in vitro was to evaluate whether the secondary mutation, T97A, associated with the Y143C/R mutation could increase the level of resistance to RAL and impact IN activities. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments were performed with expression vectors harboring the region of the pol gene coding for IN. With a 3'-end processing assay, the 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) were 1.2 μM, 1.2 μM, 2.4 μM (fold change [FC], 2), and 20 μM (FC, 16.7) for IN wild type (WT), the IN T97A mutation, the IN Y143C/T97A mutation, and the IN Y143R/T97A mutation, respectively. FCs of 18 and 100 were observed with the strand transfer assay for IN Y143C/T97A and Y143R/T97A mutations, with IC(50) of 0.625 μM and 2.5 μM, respectively. In the strand transfer assay, the IN Y143C or R mutation combined with the secondary mutation T97A severely impaired susceptibility to RAL compared to results with the IN Y143C or R mutation alone. Assays without RAL suggested that the T97A mutation could rescue the catalytic activity which was impaired by the presence of the Y143C/R mutation. The combination of the T97A mutation with the primary RAL resistance mutations Y143C/R strongly reduces the susceptibility to RAL and rescues the catalytic defect due to the Y143C/R mutation. This result indicates that the emergence of the Y143C/R/T97A double-mutation pattern in patients is a signature of a high resistance level.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 2-Hydroxyisoquinoline-1,3(2H,4H)-dione was recently discovered as a scaffold for the inhibition of HIV-1 integrase and the ribonuclease H function of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. First, we investigate its interaction with Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) using different spectroscopic techniques and report that 2-hydroxyisoquinoline-1,3(2H,4H)-dione forms a 1:1 complex with Mg(2+) but a 1:2 complex with Mn(2+). The complex formation requires enolization of the ligand. ESR spectroscopy shows a redox reaction between the ligand and Mn(2+) producing superoxide anions. Second, 2-hydroxyisoquinoline-1,3(2H,4H)-dione, its magnesium complex, and its 4-methyl and 2-hydroxy-4-methoxycarbonylisoquinoline-1,3(2H,4H)-diones were tested as inhibitors of HIV-1 integrase, reverse transcriptase ribonuclease H, and DNA polymerase functions. Their antiviral activities were evaluated and 2-hydroxy-4-methoxycarbonyl-isoquinoline-1,3(2H,4H)-dione was found to inhibit the viral replication of HIV-1 in MT-4 cells. Cross-resistance was measured for this compound on three different viral strains. Experimental data suggest that the antiviral activity of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxycarbonylisoquinoline-1,3(2H,4H)-dione is probably due to the RNase H inhibition.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Author Summary
The infection and pathogenicity of HIV-1 requires the integration of a DNA copy of its genome into host cell chromosomes. This leads to a stable association between the host and the retrovirus, preventing its total eradication from the patient and the constant archiving of drug-resistant viruses. Even if the reaction mechanism catalyzed by the viral integrase is now well known, its interaction with the host chromatin is incompletely understood. Chromatin is highly structured due to DNA compaction in nucleosomes where the DNA accessibility can affect both the efficiency and the selectivity of integration. Using an in vitro assay allowing us to reproduce and monitor easily the integration into an acceptor chromatinized plasmid, we show that the presence of a stable and organized nucleosome prevents the integration of the viral DNA. Additionally, we report that the integration into nucleosome regions can be restored if it is coupled with cellular factors that remodel the chromatin structure. Our results indicate a strong functional interaction between the HIV-1 integration complex and the chromatin maintenance host machinery required for efficient integration of the HIV-1 genome into the cellular DNA. This suggests potentially new therapeutical targets for inhibiting HIV-1 replication, and also potentially new ways for modulating the selectivity of the lentiviral vector-mediated integration in gene therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report herein the synthesis of a series of fifteen 2-hydroxyisoquinoline-1,3(2H,4H)-dione derivatives. Alkyl and arylalkyl groups were introduced on position 4 of the basis scaffold. All the compounds presented poor inhibitory properties against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase ribonuclease H (RNase H). Four compounds inhibited HIV-1 integrase at a low micromolar level. A docking study using the later crystallographic data available for PFV integrase allowed us to explain the slightly improved integrase inhibitory activities of 4-pentyl and 4-(3-phenylpropyl)-2-hydroxyisoquinoline-1,3(2H,4H)-diones, when compared to the basis scaffold. Physicochemical studies were consistent with 1:1 and 1:2 (metal/ligand) stoichiometries of the magnesium complexes in solution. Unfortunately all tested compounds exhibited high cellular cytotoxicity in cell culture which limited their applications as antiviral agents. However these identified integrase inhibitors provide a very good basis for the development of new hits.
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 02/2011; 46(2):535-46. DOI:10.1016/j.ejmech.2010.11.033 · 3.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IgG abzymes (Abzs) with different catalytic activities are a distinctive feature of various autoimmune (AI) diseases. At the same time, data concerning IgMs with catalytic activities are very limited. Electrophoretically and immunologically homogeneous IgMs were isolated from the sera of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients by chromatography on several affinity sorbents. Several rigid criteria have been applied to show that the integrase (IN)-hydrolyzing activity is an intrinsic property of IgMs from HIV-infected patients but not from healthy donors. We present evidence showing that 22 of 24 (91.7%) IgMs purified from the sera of HIV-infected patients specifically hydrolyze only HIV IN but not many other tested proteins. Usually, proteolytic antibodies of AI patients are serine protease-like or metal dependent. Only 30% of IN-hydrolyzing IgMs were inhibited by specific inhibitors of serine proteases and 60% by inhibitors of metal-dependent proteases. Unusually, a significant reduction of the activity by specific inhibitors of acidic (in 20% of IgM preparations) and thiol proteases (in 100% of IgM preparations) was observed. Although HIV infection leads to formation of antibodies to many viral and human antigens, possible biological roles for most of them are unknown. Since anti-IN IgG can efficiently hydrolyze IN, a positive role of Abzs in counteracting the infection cannot be excluded. In addition, detection of IN-hydrolyzing activity can be useful for diagnostic purposes and for assessment of the immune status in AIDS patients.
International Immunology 08/2010; 22(8):671-80. DOI:10.1093/intimm/dxq051 · 3.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resistance to HIV-1 integrase (IN) inhibitor raltegravir (RAL), is encoded by mutations in the IN region of the pol gene. The emergence of the N155H mutation was replaced by a pattern including the Y143R/C/H mutations in three patients with anti-HIV treatment failure. Cloning analysis of the IN gene showed an independent selection of the mutations at loci 155 and 143. Characterization of the phenotypic evolution showed that the switch from N155H to Y143C/R was linked to an increase in resistance to RAL. Wild-type (WT) IN and IN with mutations Y143C or Y143R were assayed in vitro in 3'end-processing, strand transfer and concerted integration assays. Activities of mutants were moderately impaired for 3'end-processing and severely affected for strand transfer. Concerted integration assay demonstrated a decrease in mutant activities using an uncleaved substrate. With 3'end-processing assay, IC(50) were 0.4 microM, 0.9 microM (FC = 2.25) and 1.2 microM (FC = 3) for WT, IN Y143C and IN Y143R, respectively. An FC of 2 was observed only for IN Y143R in the strand transfer assay. In concerted integration, integrases were less sensitive to RAL than in ST or 3'P but mutants were more resistant to RAL than WT.
PLoS ONE 04/2010; 5(4):e10311. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0010311 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autoantibodies with enzymic activities (abzymes) are a distinctive feature of autoimmune diseases. It was interesting whether Abs from patients with viral diseases can hydrolyze viral proteins. Electrophoretically and immunologically homogeneous IgGs were isolated from sera of AIDS patients by chromatography on several affinity sorbents. We present evidence showing that 89.5% IgGs purified from the sera of HIV-infected patients using several affinity resins including Sepharose with immobilized integrase specifically hydrolyze only HIV integrase (IN) but not many other tested proteins. Several rigid criteria have been applied to show that the IN-hydrolyzing activity is an intrinsic property of AIDS IgGs but not from healthy donors. Similar to autoimmune proteolytic abzymes, IN-hydrolyzing IgGs from some patients were inhibited by specific inhibitors of serine and metal-dependent proteases but a significant inhibition of the activity by specific inhibitors of acidic- and thiol-like proteases was observed for the first time. Although HIV infection leads to formation of Abs to many viral and human antigens, no possible biological role for most of them is known. Since anti-IN IgG can efficiently hydrolyze IN, a positive role of abzymes in counteracting the infection cannot be excluded. In addition, detection of IN-hydrolyzing activity can be useful for diagnostic purposes and for estimation of the immune status in AIDS patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intracellular transport of karyophilic cargos comprises translocation to the nuclear envelope and subsequent nuclear import. Small cargos such as isolated proteins can reach the nuclear envelope by diffusion but movement of larger structures depends on active translocation, typically using microtubules. Centripetal transport ends at the perinuclear microtubule organizing centre called the spindle pole body (SPB) in yeast. Previously, we found by two hybrids that the karyophilic lentiviral-encoded integrase (IN) interacts with two yeast microtubule-associated proteins, Dyn2p (dynein light chain protein) and Stu2p, a centrosomal protein (de Soultrait et al., 2002). Thus, to investigate the hinge between cytoplasmic retrograde transport and nuclear import, we decided to analyse HIV-1 IN trafficking in yeast as the model, since each of these biological mechanisms is evolutionarily conserved in eukaryotic cells. Here, we found an accumulation of IN at the SPB in yeast via Stu2p colocalization. Disruption of the microtubule network by nocodazole or IN expression in a dynein 2-deficient yeast strain prevented IN accumulation in the nuclear periphery and additionally inhibited IN transport into the nucleus. By mutagenesis, we showed that trafficking of IN towards the SPB requires the C-terminus of the molecule. Taking our findings together, we proposed a model in which IN nuclear import seems to depend on an essential intermediate step in the SPB. We found that Dyn2p and Stu2p play an important role in driving IN toward MTOC and could optimize nuclear entry of the retroviral enzyme. Our results suggest a new hypothesis in keeping with the current HIV-1 intracellular trafficking model.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV-1 integrase (IN) oligomerization and DNA recognition are crucial steps for the subsequent events of the integration reaction. Recent advances described the involvement of stable intermediary complexes including dimers and tetramers in the in vitro integration processes, but the initial attachment events and IN positioning on viral ends are not clearly understood. In order to determine the role of the different IN oligomeric complexes in these early steps, we performed in vitro functional analysis comparing IN preparations having different oligomerization properties. We demonstrate that in vitro IN concerted integration activity on a long DNA substrate containing both specific viral and nonspecific DNA sequences is highly dependent on binding of preformed dimers to viral ends. In addition, we show that IN monomers bound to nonspecific DNA can also fold into functionally different oligomeric complexes displaying nonspecific double-strand DNA break activity in contrast to the well known single strand cut catalyzed by associated IN. Our results imply that the efficient formation of the active integration complex highly requires the early correct positioning of monomeric integrase or the direct binding of preformed dimers on the viral ends. Taken together the data indicates that IN oligomerization controls both the enzyme specificity and activity.
Nucleic Acids Research 12/2008; 36(22):7043-58. DOI:10.1093/nar/gkn796 · 9.11 Impact Factor