[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Posttraumatic ankylosis of the TMJ can be caused by many different pathogenic mechanisms. Prosthetic alloplastic grafts and autogenous grafts are the options for surgical treatment.
Seven patients were examined clinically and radiologically. Autogenous interpositioners were used for treatment of TMJ ankylosis.
No major complications were seen after surgery. Interincisal distances have significantly widened following mouth opening exercises for one year.
Human skulls have many structure and shape differences, so it is difficult to replace a jaw joint successfully with an artificial one. Using autogenous tissues seems an appropriate choice for treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eosinophilic granuloma is the most common expression of Langerhans cell histiocytosis and corresponds with typical bone lesions. Early clinical signs can occur in the mandible and can cause extensive destruction of the periodontal tissues. Pathologic fracture is an unusual finding. A case of misdiagnosed eosinophilic granuloma in a 45-year-old man treated with free fibula flap and implant-supported overdenture prosthesis is reported. Free fibula flap with dental implants is a safe and reliable method for comprehensive functional and aesthetic mandibular defect reconstruction.
The Journal of craniofacial surgery 07/2012; 23(4):e361-4. DOI:10.1097/SCS.0b013e3182565a93 · 0.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Management of vascularized injured extremity requires careful reconstruction for continuity of leg circulation. Protection of the remaining intact vessels during free flap transfer provides condition for blood flow maintenance in the distal extremity. Latissimus dorsi muscle has the correct vessel anatomy for applying flow-through flap because it protects recipient vessel integrity during soft tissue reconstruction. Flow-through flap circulation may cause decreasing blood flow in the recipient artery and steal phenomenon in distal circulation although the main vessel remains intact. The purpose of this study was to describe blood flow changes in the recipient artery, flap pedicle, and distal leg circulation at early and long-term follow- up periods. For this purpose, evaluations of blood flows by using Doppler ultrasonography were performed in 2 vascularized injured extremities which were reconstructed with flow-through free latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flaps. The results demonstrate that flow-through flaps in our vascularized injured extremity did not disturb distal leg circulation in spite of increased blood flow in the recipient and pedicle arteries.
Annals of plastic surgery 08/2010; 65(2):164-9. DOI:10.1097/SAP.0b013e3181e57cb3 · 1.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reconstruction of head and neck defects may require replacement of the bony structures, external soft tissue, and intraoral mucosa. Most cases, including maxillary defects, often require repair using only soft tissue flaps. Recently, the authors used free superficial circumflex iliac artery/superficial inferior epigastric (SCIA/SIEA) flaps for head and neck reconstruction. This was their first choice over other free flaps due to its versatile advantages. Fifteen patients underwent head and neck reconstruction with free SCIA/SIEA flaps (n = 16). No flap loss was observed; however, emergency vascular reanastomosis was performed in 3 cases to restore the blood supply in compromised flaps. Flap thinning and secondary debulking procedures were performed in 4 cases. The functional and aesthetic results were deemed as acceptable in all patients. Based on our results, we believe that the free SCIA/SIEA flap is useful for soft tissue defect reconstruction in the head and neck. It has the following advantages: (1) Large flap elevation is possible for reaching distant recipient vessels, (2) Two surgical teams may work at the same time preparing the donor and recipient regions, and (3) The flap design uses an abdominoplasty incision, which has minimal donor site morbidity.
Annals of plastic surgery 07/2010; 65(1):32-7. DOI:10.1097/SAP.0b013e3181bb4b24 · 1.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Survival rates for oral cancer are very poor, at approximately 50% overall, and have not improved markedly in recent decades despite advances in therapeutic interventions. Detecting oral cancer at an early stage is believed to be the most effective means of reducing rates of death, morbidity and disfigurement from this disease. Tobacco and alcohol consumption and pre-malign lesions are the most common aetiological factors. The proportion of patients presenting with oral cancer at an advanced stage is troubling. Early diagnosis is the most effective way of reducing the individual burden of the disease, decreasing morbidity and mortality and improving quality of life. For early diagnosis, healthcare providers should perform oral cancer examinations as part of their patient care regime, and need to be knowledgeable about early signs of oral carcinoma. Oral cancer awareness among the public should also be improved.
The Journal of international medical research 06/2010; 38(3):737-49. DOI:10.1177/147323001003800302 · 1.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The primary goal of prosthetic obturation is closure of the maxillectomy defect and separation of the oral cavity from the sinonasal cavities by use of different bulb designs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the articulation performance of obturator patients with three different buccal extension designs.
Five patients with palatal defects of comparable sizes at ages ranging from 42 to 74 were evaluated. Starting at postoperative 4 months, speech intelligibility (SI) was assessed without a prosthetic obturator and with an obturator of buccal extensions 15 mm (high), 10 mm (medium) and 5 mm (low), respectively. Assessments were performed at four week intervals for adaptation. The articulation performance of patients with different buccal extension designs were evaluated on speech intelligibility. The data tested using Friedman test.
The mean SI score without an obturator was 45.04%+/-5.86%. SI was found to be significantly increased with obturators of any buccal extensions with the mean values 90.50%, %94.24% and 91.20% for high, medium, and low buccal extensions respectively. When the SI score was compared between three buccal extension types medium was found to be significantly higher compared to others (P<.05).
Obturators improve speech intelligibility irrespective of their buccal extension levels. Nevertheless, medium size buccal extension enables the optimum sealing for better articulation.
European journal of dentistry 07/2009; 3(3):185-90.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fibrosarcoma of the paranasal sinuses is extremely rare pathology and there is limited report in the literature. We report synchronous presentation of maxillary sinus fibrosarcoma and gemistocytic astrocytoma which is, to our knowledge, unique in the literature. Both tumors metastases to other organ rarely and the metastatic spread of gemistocytic astrocytoma to fibrosarcoma or vice versa have also not been reported in the literature yet. This report discusses the clinical course of the disease, outcome of the treatment approach and survival as well as an unusual occurrence of leukocytoclastic vasculitis during the course of radiotherapy in such unusual presentation.
European journal of dentistry 07/2009; 3(3):233-9.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We used Doppler ultrasound to evaluate postoperative hemodynamic changes in blood flow in skin (n = 11) and muscle (n = 4) flaps. The minimum velocities, resistance indexes, and diameters of the pedicle, the recipient, and control artery (the corresponding contralateral artery that served as a recipient vessel) were recorded intraoperatively and at 10 days, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after surgery. The minimum velocities and blood flow in recipient and pedicle arteries in both groups increased after flap transfer. In control arteries, these values decreased over the follow-up period. The decrease of blood flow in recipient arteries for the skin flaps started at 10 days and in the muscle flap at 1 month. The decrease in minimum velocity was noted after 10 days and 1 month for skin and muscle flaps, respectively. Resistance indexes were higher in skin flaps (99 +/- 6) compared with muscle flaps (89 +/- 9). Also, recipient blood flow after flap transfer, independent from intraoperative values, changed according to flap size; muscle flaps that were larger than skin flaps caused significantly higher blood flow in recipient artery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Free tissue transfer is the most important means of soft tissue reconstruction for the lower extremity. However, cosmetic results and donor site morbidity are only of secondary concern of lower extremity reconstruction. In our efforts to obtain the best possible outcome for patients, as our first priority we chose free superficial circumflex inferior artery (SCIA)/superficial inferior epigastric artery (SIEA) flap over other free flap options in the soft tissue reconstruction of lower extremity because of some advantages. Over the past 3 year, 25 patients underwent lower extremity reconstruction with free SCIA/SIEA flap (n = 27). Twenty-six of 27 flaps were successful (96%), 6 required emergent postoperative re-exploration of the anastomosis, and 1 failed. Although secondary debulking procedure was performed for some flaps (n = 3), most flaps had acceptable thickness for functional and esthetic outcomes especially in the pretibial, ankle, and foot defect reconstruction with an average of 1-year follow-up. Based on our results, free SCIA/SIEA flap has the following advantages in soft tissue reconstruction of lower extremity: (1) large flaps may be harvested for extensive defect and/or to reach recipient artery for passing zone of injury; (2) if necessary, final flap debulking may be performed by surgical procedure using local anesthesia; (3) the donor site is closed in a similar manner to abdominoplasty incision so that excellent cosmetic result may be achieved.
Annals of plastic surgery 01/2009; 61(6):622-6. DOI:10.1097/SAP.0b013e31817433f8 · 1.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A thin skin flap is often required for optimal resurfacing of particular areas of the body such as oral lining, hands, and feet. Using wide and thin flaps provides a higher level of esthetic and functional results in reconstructive surgery. Recently, the authors also applied the thinning procedure for free SCIA/SIEA flaps. From 2003 to 2006, 11 patients underwent soft tissue reconstruction using thin free SCIA/SIEA flaps. In this procedure, deep subcutaneous fat tissue was removed totally while superficial subcutaneous tissue was thinned and a fat tissue layer was left under the skin to protect the subdermal network. All procedures were performed without using an operating microscope. The flap ranged 10 to 60 cm in length and from 6 to 55 cm in width. Ten flaps survived completely, while 1 occurrence of distal superficial necrosis was observed. No secondary flap defatting or revision was necessary. The free SCIA/SIEA flap may be prepared safely using a simple surgical procedure such as wide and thin flap in reconstructive surgery.
Annals of plastic surgery 01/2009; 61(6):627-31. DOI:10.1097/SAP.0b013e31816d82f5 · 1.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The most suitable free flap alternative in upper extremity reconstruction has adequate and quality of tissue with consistent vascular pedicle. Free flap must provide convenient tissue texture to reconstruct aesthetic and functional units of upper extremity. Furthermore, minimal donor site morbidity is preferred features in free flap election. In our efforts to obtain the best possible outcome for patients, we chose, as a first priority, the free superficial circumflex inferior artery (SCIA)/superficial inferior epigastric artery (SIEA) flap over other free flap options for the soft-tissue reconstruction of upper extremities. The authors retrospectively report the results of 20 free SCIA/SIEA flaps for upper extremity reconstruction during the past 3 years. Nineteen of 20 flaps were successful (95%): three required emergent postoperative reexploration of the anastomosis and one failed. Flap thinning (n = 4) was performed during the flap harvest, whereas some flaps were thinned with secondary debulking (n = 4). The functional and aesthetic results were evaluated as acceptable by all patients. Based on our results, a free SCIA/SIEA flap has the following advantages in soft-tissue reconstruction of the upper extremity: (1) if necessary, flap thinning may be performed safely at the time of flap elevation and (2) flaps are harvested using a lower abdominal incision so that it causes minimal donor site scar.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The accidental placement of a back-wall stitch is a mistake easily made by microsurgeons during an end-to-side (ETS) anastomosis, which is technically more difficult compared with an end-to-end (ETE) anastomosis. The thrombogenic effects of a back-wall stitch may aggravate the already existing turbulence and therefore thrombus-prone ETS anastomosis. We investigated this dangerous combination by applying a purposeful back-wall stitch model (PBWS) in an ETS microarterial anastomosis model in various configurations the rat carotid and femoral arteries. We performed femoral and carotid artery bypass grafts via two ETS anastomosis. Carotid (n=28) and femoral (n=28) artery groups were equally divided into four different subgroups according to PBWS placement: Control (no PBWS) and 30-degree, 60-degree, and 90-degree subgroups with PBWS located at 30, 60, and 90 degrees, respectively. We found that there were no significant patency differences with respect to vessel type, PBWS placement, or time of assessment. The results of our current study and previous studies demonstrate that a PBWS in the ETS anastomosis does not have a major effect on thrombus formation. We think that an inadvertent back-wall stitch in the ETS anastomosis may not be a significant cause of thrombosis alone but in combination with retained thrombogenic material into lumen can contribute to thrombus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several vascular carriers for different tissues were used for the purpose of fat tissue prefabrication. However, the inguinal fat pad in rats can be elevated with a vascular pedicle and considered as a vascular carrier. To the best of our knowledge, the fat tissue in rats as a vascular carrier has not been reported in any experimental studies to date. In our study, we aimed to describe a new prefabrication model in rats in which skin prefabrication was accomplished using the inguinal fat pad as a vascular carrier. Inguinal fat pads in rats were elevated over a superficial epigastric vessel pedicle in the pilot study. The contralateral inguinal fat pads were prepared as grafts. After 1 week, we compared the histopathological findings of the inguinal fat pad flaps and grafts and determined that the inguinal fat pad can be safely elevated over the vascular pedicle. In the experimental group, bilateral vascularised inguinal fat pads were transferred to the lower abdomen for skin prefabrication. After 3 weeks, bilateral fat-skin composite flaps including prefabricated lower abdomen skin were elevated over the vascular pedicles. One side was used as a composite flap while pedicle of the other side was transected at its origin at the femoral vessels to create the composite graft. Composite flap and graft were inserted at their original positions. One week later, the composite flaps were stained with India ink, perfused by fluorescein, and filled with contrast material for microangiographic study. In the histological examination, fat and skin tissues of the composite flaps were viable while those of the composite grafts were necrotic. Based on these findings, we can conclude that the fat tissue as a vascular carrier can be successfully used for tissue prefabrication in plastic surgery.
Journal of Plastic Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery 08/2008; 61(7):799-806. DOI:10.1016/j.bjps.2007.08.021 · 1.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reconstruction for facial contour deformities is still a challenging process and treatment for most cases is achieved only by soft tissue augmentation. The use of free tissue transfer offers the advantage of one step vascularized soft tissue augmentation. This article summarized the authors' use of de-epithelialized free superficial circumflex iliac artery/superficial inferior epigastric artery flap for facial contour deformities. Of these patients, two had hemifacial microsomia, one depressed scar, and one had hemifacial progressive atrophy. Stable restoration of the facial contour was achieved in all patients. The advantages of this flap are numerous. Two surgical teams may work at the same time for flap harvesting and recipient area preparation. A wide flap may be planned for large contour deformity to achieve one single stage augmentation. Pedicle course of this flap allows primary de-fating without disturbing distal flap circulation when in need of a thin flap for mild contour deformity. Donor site may be closed with bikini (abdominoplasty) incision, which has excellent esthetic outcome compared to other flaps.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Five cases with microsurgical utilization of spare parts from unreplantable amputated segments are presented. Besides, nondigital composite tissue replantations are firstly reported in hand. They all resulted in satisfactory outcomes compared to alternative treatments without any donor site morbidity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Free groin flap donor skin is unequaled in generous skin supply and inconspicuousness. We reliably utilize this region by taking advantage of the dual blood supply from superficial circumlex iliac (SCIA) and superficial inferior epigastric (SIEA) arteries and name the flap "Free SCIA/SIEA skin flap." The arterial pedicle is selected between SCIA and SIEA according to vascular anatomy which is explored through an incision along the inguinal ligament prior to skin island planning. Among 57 free SCIA/SIEA skin flap transfers, two flap failures occurred; circulatory impairment was restored by taking the patient back to the operating room in four cases; major size discrepancy was noted in one end-to-end arterial anastomosis; and no vein grafts were required. Mostly an extended length of skin island is harvested irrespective of wound size in order to utilize the proximal skin as a vascular carrier that compensates for short pedicle. We conclude that, with the current microsurgical expertise, free SCIA/SIEA skin flap is versatile even when the skin quality is considered.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In microsurgical training, the femoral vein is used frequently for a microvenous anastomosis model. But the femoral vein in the rat does not completely simulate the human vein because of its thin wall, fragility, and tendency to collapse. These anatomic characteristics cause some difficulty in carrying out anastomoses in microsurgery training particularly for beginners. The authors propose the external jugular vein of the rat for microsurgical training in microvenous anastomoses. In 10 Wistar rats, the anatomy of the external jugular vein was studied by dissection and histology. Anatomic dissections demonstrate that the external jugular vein has an average diameter of 1.9 mm (range: 1.6 to 2.1 mm) without tendency to collapse. The vein is easily dissected without any accompanying anatomic structure for an average segment of 45 mm, allowing effortless approximator clamp placement. Comparison of its cross section with that of the femoral vein and other previously described models by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy reveals a larger diameter and much thicker vessel wall with a prominent tunica media and adventitia. Based on the anatomic findings in 20 rats, the external jugular vein was anastomosed with end-to-end standard microsurgical technique using 8-0 (n = 10) and 10-0 (n = 10) nylon sutures. Results indicate a 100 percent patency rate immediately after the anastomosis for the two subgroups and 100 percent and 90 percent patency rates 1 week after the procedure for the 10-0 and 8-0 nylon suture groups, respectively. This model presents some advantages: the vein is easily dissected with the naked eye without using the operating microscope because it is the largest vein among the superficially located veins in the rat, and has a thick vessel wall without tendency to collapse. The operative area allows for training inbilateral microsurgical anastomoses using a single skin incision and is safe from autocannibalization. The model simulates clinical microvenous anastomosis better because of its similarities to human large diameter flap veins.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Effects of the electromagnetic fields on living bodies, bones in particular, are among the relevant issues of contemporary life. In this study, we report the influences of 50 Hz and 0 Hz (static) electric fields (EF), on intact rat bones, as evaluated by dual energy X-ray absorbtion (DEXA) measurements on bone content and density when these animals (n = 27) are continuously exposed in utero and neonatally to EFs (10 kV/m) 14 days before and 14 days after their birth, for 28 days in total. Differences between 50 Hz EF and static EF groups are found to be significant (95% confidence level) for total bone mineral content (BMC), TBMC (P = .002). Differences between 50 Hz and control groups are found to be significant for total bone mineral density (BMD), TBMD (P = .002), lumbar BMC, LBMC (P = .023), and TBMC (P = .001). Differences between static EF and control groups are found to be significant for femoral BMD, FBMD (P = .009), TBMD (P = .002), LBMC (P = .001), and TBMC (P = .001). Note that TBMC parameters are jointly significant for all differences between the three groups of test animals. These results have shown that both static and 50 Hz EFs influence the early development of rat bones. However, the influence of static EFs is more pronounced than that of the 50 Hz field.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of power frequency electric field (EF) on nerve regeneration was investigated on a rat peroneal nerve crush injury model. The animals were assigned to three groups: 50 Hz EF and Static EF groups were exposed at 10 kV/m. The sham group was kept in the same setting without any EF applications. EF was uninterruptedly applied for 21 days postoperatively. Repeated measures analysis of daily walking tracks during EF exposure demonstrated lower toe spread recovery (TSR) in the 50 Hz EF group. Significant difference across the groups was found only at days 7, 8, 12, 16, 17, 20, and 21 when TSR was analyzed for each measurement time. Print length recovery and peroneal function index did not differ across the groups. Walking track parameters were found to recover to their baseline values by day 28 in all groups. Day 14 but not day 21 measurements revealed smaller nerve cross-sectional area, lower total regenerating axon area, and higher mean myelin debris area in 50 Hz EF group. Both day 14 and 21 measurements revealed higher total myelin debris area, lower EDL muscle weight, and lack of significant enlargement in nerve cross-section distal to the injury, compared to the normal counterpart in 50 Hz EF group. All differences were in keeping with lower rates of Wallerian degeneration and nerve regeneration in 50 Hz EF group. When walking track, histomorphometry and muscle weight are considered individually, their differences across the groups may appear to be subtle to derive a conclusion for a 50 Hz EF effect. However, their concordance with each other in direction of effect suggests that continuous 50 Hz EF exposure has a weak effect that is detrimental mostly to the rate of early nerve regeneration in this axonotmetic injury model. Recovery of walking tracks was not different between Static EF and Sham groups. This suggests that the surface charges that may indirectly affect walking behaviors of the rats, do not account for the lower recovery of TSR in 50 Hz EF group. Differences in nerve regeneration between 50 Hz EF and Static EF groups suggests that electric induction may be required for pure EF effects even though the estimated density of induced fields is not above the endogenous background level for the 50 Hz EF exposure in this study.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gorlin's syndrome is a genetic disorder of autosomal dominant inheritance with characterized primarily by five major findings: multiple basal cell carsinoma (BCC), jaw cysts, pits on the palms and soles, ectopic calcification of the falx cerebri and skeletal anomalies. BCC is the most frequently accompanied tumor with this syndrome. The risk of recurrent BCC with Gorlin's syndrome is higher than non-syndromic BCC. The authors present a 25-year-old man affected by recurrent basal cell carcinoma on the scalp. The patient was treated by excising the tumor and reconstructing latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap. The fascial component of the scalp forms an additional layer between the skin and the cranium. This structure creates an extra distance before the invasion into the cranium which needs to be penetrated by the skin tumor. Muscle tissue transformed in scalp reconstruction imitates the fascia layer in forming an additional layer against the invasion of skin tumors such as recurrent BCC into the cranium. Free flap reconstruction for recurrent scalp BCC can be best therapy model at Gorlin's syndrome.
Journal of Craniofacial Surgery 06/2006; 17(3):599-602. DOI:10.1097/00001665-200605000-00038 · 0.68 Impact Factor