[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In keratinocytes, the cyclin/CDK inhibitor p21(WAF1/Cip1) is a direct transcriptional target of Notch1 activation; loss of either the p21 or Notch1 genes expands stem cell populations and facilitates tumor development. The Notch1 tumor-suppressor function was associated with down-regulation of Wnt signaling. Here, we show that suppression of Wnt signaling by Notch1 activation is mediated, at least in part, by down-modulation of Wnts gene expression. p21 is a negative regulator of Wnts transcription downstream of Notch1 activation, independently of effects on the cell cycle. More specifically, expression of the Wnt4 gene is under negative control of endogenous p21 both in vitro and in vivo. p21 associates with the E2F-1 transcription factor at the Wnt4 promoter and causes curtailed recruitment of c-Myc and p300, and histone hypoacetylation at this promoter. Thus, p21 acts as a selective negative regulator of transcription and links the Notch and Wnt signaling pathways in keratinocyte growth control.
Genes & Development 07/2005; 19(12):1485-95. DOI:10.1101/gad.341405 · 10.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Notch and Calcineurin/NFAT pathways have both been implicated in control of keratinocyte differentiation. Induction of the p21(WAF1/Cip1) gene by Notch 1 activation in differentiating keratinocytes is associated with direct targeting of the RBP-Jkappa protein to the p21 promoter. We show here that Notch 1 activation functions also through a second Calcineurin-dependent mechanism acting on the p21 TATA box-proximal region. Increased Calcineurin/NFAT activity by Notch signaling involves downregulation of Calcipressin, an endogenous Calcineurin inhibitor, through a HES-1-dependent mechanism. Besides control of the p21 gene, Calcineurin contributes significantly to the transcriptional response of keratinocytes to Notch 1 activation, both in vitro and in vivo. In fact, deletion of the Calcineurin B1 gene in the skin results in a cyclic alopecia phenotype, associated with altered expression of Notch-responsive genes involved in hair follicle structure and/or adhesion to the surrounding mesenchyme. Thus, an important interconnection exists between Notch 1 and Calcineurin-NFAT pathways in keratinocyte growth/differentiation control.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TSG101 was discovered in a screen for tumor susceptibility genes and has since been shown to have a multiplicity of biological effects. However, the basis for TSG101's ability to regulate cell growth has not been elucidated. We report here that the TSG101 protein binds to the cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor (CKI) p21(Cip1/WAF1) and increases stability of the p21 protein in HEK293F cells and differentiating primary keratinocytes, suppressing differentiation in a p21-dependent manner. In proliferating keratinocytes where the p21 protein is relatively stable, TSG101 does not affect the stability or expression of p21 but shows p21-dependent recruitment to cyclin/CDK complexes, inhibits cyclin/CDK activity, and causes strong growth suppression to a much greater extent in p21+/+ than in p21-/- cells. Conversely, suppression of endogenous TSG101 expression by an antisense TSG101 cDNA causes doubling of the fraction of keratinocytes in the S phase of the cell cycle as occurs during p21 deficiency. Our results indicate that TSG101 has a direct role in the control of growth and differentiation in primary epithelial cells, and that p21 is an important mediator of these TSG101 functions.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/2002; 99(8):5430-5. DOI:10.1073/pnas.082123999 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Rho GTPase and Fyn tyrosine kinase have been implicated previously in positive control of keratinocyte cell-cell adhesion. Here, we show that Rho and Fyn operate along the same signaling pathway. Endogenous Rho activity increases in differentiating keratinocytes and is required for both Fyn kinase activation and increased tyrosine phosphorylation of beta- and gamma-catenin, which is associated with the establishment of keratinocyte cell-cell adhesion. Conversely, expression of constitutive active Rho is sufficient to promote cell-cell adhesion through a tyrosine kinase- and Fyn-dependent mechanism, trigger Fyn kinase activation, and induce tyrosine phosphorylation of beta- and gamma-catenin and p120ctn. The positive effects of activated Rho on cell-cell adhesion are not induced by an activated Rho mutant with defective binding to the serine/threonine PRK2/PKN kinases. Endogenous PRK2 kinase activity increases with keratinocyte differentiation, and, like activated Rho, increased PRK2 activity promotes keratinocyte cell-cell adhesion and induces tyrosine phosphorylation of beta- and gamma-catenin and Fyn kinase activation. Thus, these findings reveal a novel role of Fyn as a downstream mediator of Rho in control of keratinocyte cell-cell adhesion and implicate the PRK2 kinase, a direct Rho effector, as a link between Rho and Fyn activation.
The Journal of Cell Biology 02/2002; 156(1):137-48. DOI:10.1083/jcb.200105140 · 9.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of Notch signaling in growth/differentiation control of mammalian epithelial cells is still poorly defined. We show that keratinocyte-specific deletion of the Notch1 gene results in marked epidermal hyperplasia and deregulated expression of multiple differentiation markers. In differentiating primary keratinocytes in vitro endogenous Notch1 is required for induction of p21WAF1/Cip1 expression, and activated Notch1 causes growth suppression by inducing p21WAF1/Cip1 expression. Activated Notch1 also induces expression of 'early' differentiation markers, while suppressing the late markers. Induction of p21WAF1/Cip1 expression and early differentiation markers occur through two different mechanisms. The RBP-J protein binds directly to the endogenous p21 promoter and p21 expression is induced specifically by activated Notch1 through RBP-J-dependent transcription. Expression of early differentiation markers is RBP-J-independent and can be induced by both activated Notch1 and Notch2, as well as the highly conserved ankyrin repeat domain of the Notch1 cytoplasmic region. Thus, Notch signaling triggers two distinct pathways leading to keratinocyte growth arrest and differentiation.
The EMBO Journal 07/2001; 20(13):3427-3436. DOI:10.1093/emboj/20.13.3427 · 10.43 Impact Factor