[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction of nasal septal deformity (NSD), including the contribution of septal spurs, with the severity of subjective symptoms, impairment of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and sinus mucosal hyperplasia in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). One hundred seventeen patients with CRS were assigned to three groups with mild, moderate or severe NSD, according to the measured nasal septal angle, including the presence of contact septal spurs. All CRS patients completed the visual analog scale (VAS) symptom severity score and the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22) questionnaire. Symptoms scores, SNOT-22 and Lund-Mackay (LM) scores among the three NSD groups were compared. Related anatomy from the study group was compared with 100 control patients. VAS score for postnasal discharge in CRS patients was significantly higher in patients with mild NSD. There was a significantly higher LM score in CRS patients with severe NSD, compared to those with mild (P = 0.001) or moderate NSD (P = 0.005). CRS patients with a contact spur demonstrated a significantly higher LM score (P = 0.006) compared to those without a contact spur, and no differences in VAS symptom scores or HRQoL scores. There was a similar prevalence of septal deformities in CRS patients and in the non-ENT population. Our results support the conclusion that in patients with CRS, associated NSD or contact septal spur do not contribute significantly to CRS symptom severity or HRQoL impairment, but may have an impact on sinus mucosal hyperplasia.
Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology 04/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00405-015-3615-8 · 1.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nasal polyps recur in approximately one-third of patients after surgical treatment. It would be beneficial to be able to predict the patients in whom we might expect recurrence and to predict the clinical outcome after surgery. The study included 30 patients operated for nasal polyps. Removed polyps were analyzed by immunohistochemical analysis for IL-5, IgE, vascular endothelial growth factor and eosinophilic infiltration. These parameters together with preoperative CT score were used as independent variables, and subjective score improvement after 2 years was used as a dependent variable in multiple linear regression analysis. Furthermore, the patients were divided into two groups: low and high polyp tissue immunoreactivity. The Chi-squared test was used to determine whether polyp immunoreactivity influences polyp recurrence and subjective score. Preoperative CT score had a slightly positive correlation with subjective score after 2 years. High eosinophil infiltration significantly predicted a higher risk for polyp recurrence. High IL-5 positivity was related to greater risk for polyp recurrence than low IL-5 reactivity but not significantly. IgE and VEGF reactivity in polyp specimens did not have any effect on polyp recurrence. High eosinophilic infiltration in polyps can predict worse outcome after surgical treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis. IgE and VEGF do not have prognostic significance to polyp recurrence after surgery. The preoperative extent of disease measured by CT score had a slightly positive correlation with worse outcome after surgery.
Archiv für Klinische und Experimentelle Ohren- Nasen- und Kehlkopfheilkunde 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00405-015-3519-7 · 1.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic stress exposure carries greater risk of onset of atopic respiratory disorders such as rhinitis and asthma. The interaction between depression, anxiety, and severity of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) has been suggested. We aimed to access the relationship between psychological
stress, severity of CRS, and atopy. Sixty-three consecutive patients referred with CRS were asked to score the severity of rhinosinusitis symptoms on a visual analog scale and to fill in questionnaires on the disease-specific quality of life and perceived stress—22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome
Test (SNOT-22) and measure of perceived stress (MPS) scale, respectively. Inclusion criteria for the study were a reliable allergy evaluation and a recent computerized tomography (CT) scan of the sinuses. Patients with nasal polyps (NPs), asthma, and previous surgery were excluded. The study
group consisted of 14 allergic and 18 nonallergic patients with CRS without NPs (CRSsNPs). Correlation between MPS and SNOT-22 scores in the study group was highly significant (Pearson r = 0.61; p = 0.001). Patients with higher stress scores had significantly stronger postnasal discharge,
thick discharge, cough, disturbed sleep, fatigue, and sadness. Postnasal drip was significantly stronger in patients with allergy. The correlation between SNOT-22 and CT scores was insignificant. The correlation between MPS and SNOT-22 scores suggests an interaction between severity of CRS
and chronic stress, but not with the extent of the disease on CT in CRSsNPs. Chronic psychological stress might be one of the factors that modifies the disease severity and may lead to uncontrolled disease in CRS patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ENT navigation has given new opportunities in performing Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (ESS) and improving surgical outcome of the patients` treatment. ESS assisted by a navigation system could be called Navigated Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (NESS). As it is generally accepted that the NESS should be performed only in cases of complex anatomy and pathology, it has not yet been established as a state-of-the-art procedure and thus not used on a daily basis. This paper presents an algorithm for use of a navigation system for basic ESS in the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). The algorithm includes five units that should be highlighted using a navigation system. They are as follows: 1) nasal vestibule unit, 2) OMC unit, 3) anterior ethmoid unit, 4) posterior ethmoid unit, and 5) sphenoid unit. Each unit has a shape of a triangular pyramid and consists of at least four reference points or landmarks. As many landmarks as possible should be marked when determining one of the five units. Navigated orientation in each unit should always precede any surgical intervention. The algorithm should improve the learning curve of trainees and enable surgeons to use the navigation system routinely and systematically.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rhinosinusitis is a prevalent disorder in the pediatric population. Unfortunately, during the past two decades, guidelines related to definitions, diagnostic procedures and management have been much more focused on adult than on pediatric rhinosinusitis. First consensus document on management of pediatric rhinosinusitis was published in 1998, followed by several documents related only to acute rhinosinusitis. The most extensive consensus document on rhinosinuistis, including pediatric rhinosinusitis, is European position paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps, EPOS, updated in 2012.
International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology 07/2013; 77(9). DOI:10.1016/j.ijporl.2013.06.014 · 1.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There has been a considerable increase in the diagnosis of allergic diseases over the last decades. Prevalence of allergies in high-income countries and urban areas appears higher than in rural environments. While environmental factors like pollution or nutrition can be important, it is more likely that in the end they have a small association with allergies. Childhood infections and exposure to certain microbial antigens on the other hand seem to present a strong negative correlation with allergies, and therefore the increase of the allergic burden in the Western world has been frequently related to a decline of childhood infections giving birth to the "Hygiene Hypothesis". We address the issue with emphasis on the associated pathophysiology tightrope walking between the skepticism of the critics, which cast doubt on it, and the pilgrims' belief of having discovered allergy's Holy Grail.
International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology 05/2013; 77(7). DOI:10.1016/j.ijporl.2013.04.036 · 1.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This Executive Summary of the EAACI Task Force document on Diagnostic Tools in Rhinology provides the readers with an over- view of the currently available tools for diagnosis of nasal and sino-nasal disease, published in full version in the first issue of Clini- cal and Translational Allergy. A panel of European experts in the field of Rhinology have contributed to this consensus document on Diagnostic Tools in Rhinology. Important issues related to history taking, clinical examination and additional investigative tools for evaluation of the severity of nasal and sinonasal disease are briefly highlighted in this executive summary.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Severity of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), measured by disease-specific health-related quality-of-life questionnaires, is expected to increase in patients who also suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Altered pain perception, sleep disorders, and fatigue may be associated with this comorbidity.
Severity of CRS was compared between a group of 28 patients with CRS and a group of 28 patients with CRS and concomitant PTSD using different disease-specific and generic instruments, such as visual analog scale (VAS), Short Form-36 test (SF-36), and Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-22 (SNOT 22).
SNOT-22 test showed significantly higher CRS severity in patients with CRS and PTSD, compared to patients with CRS without PTSD.
Patients with less severe CRS, measured by objective outcome measures, due to the impact of comorbid PTSP, are classified as having severe rhinosinusitis, and are exposed to the risk of unnecessary diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In patients with difficult-to-treat rhinosinusitis, diagnosis should be revised, and one item that should be evaluated is whether they suffer from PTSD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to present five surgical cases of recurrent sinonasal melanoma. We report the clinical course of this highly malignant disease and give a brief overview of the relevant literature. For the purpose of our presentation, inclusion criteria for all patients were initally negative surgical margins, surgery with curative intent without implementation of radiotherapy, and absence of distant metastatic spread at presentation (MO). They were diagnosed and treated at the same ENT/Head and Neck Surgery department and had clear surgical margins following first resection. The majority of five cases had local recurrences (average two) which were all amenable to at least one salvage operation. In conclusion, despite extensive disease at presentation, we recommend repeated attempts at local surgical salvage. However, this decision must be carefully considered, respecting postoperative quality of life, the estimated life expectancy as well as general socioeconomic issues in each particular case.
Collegium antropologicum 11/2012; 36 Suppl 2:179-84. · 0.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: State-of-the-art documents like ARIA and EPOS provide clinicians with evidence-based treatment algorithms for allergic rhinitis (AR) and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), respectively. The currently available medications can alleviate symptoms associated with AR and RS. In real life, a significant percentage of patients with AR and CRS continue to experience bothersome symptoms despite adequate treatment. This group with so-called severe chronic upper airway disease (SCUAD) represents a therapeutic challenge. The concept of control of disease has only recently been introduced in the field of AR and CRS. In case of poor control of symptoms despite guideline-directed pharmacotherapy, one needs to consider the presence of SCUAD but also treatment-related, diagnosis-related and/or patient-related factors. Treatment-related issues of uncontrolled upper airway disease are linked with the correct choice of treatment and route of administration, symptom-oriented treatment and the evaluation of the need for immunotherapy in allergic patients. The diagnosis of AR and CRS should be reconsidered in case of uncontrolled disease, excluding concomitant anatomic nasal deformities, global airway dysfunction and systemic diseases. Patient-related issues responsible for the lack of control in chronic upper airway inflammation are often but not always linked with adherence to the prescribed medication and education. This review is an initiative taken by the ENT section of the EAACI in conjunction with ARIA and EPOS experts who felt the need to provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of the art of control in upper airway inflammation and stressing the unmet needs in this domain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps 2012 is the update of similar evidence based position papers published in 2005 and 2007.The document contains chapters on definitions and classification, we now also proposed definitions for difficult to treat rhinosinusitis, control of disease and better definitions for rhinosinusitis in children. More emphasis is placed on the diagnosis and treatment of acute rhinosinusitis. Throughout the document the terms chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps are used to further point out differences in pathophysiology and treatment of these two entities. There are extensive chapters on epidemiology and predisposing factors, inflammatory mechanisms, (differential) diagnosis of facial pain, genetics, cystic fibrosis, aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease, immunodeficiencies, allergic fungal rhinosinusitis and the relationship between upper and lower airways. The chapters on paediatric acute and chronic rhinosinusitis are totally rewritten. Last but not least all available evidence for management of acute rhinosinusitis and chronic rhinosinusitis with or without nasal polyps in adults and children is analyzed and presented and management schemes based on the evidence are proposed.
Rhinology. Supplement 03/2012; 23(23):3 p preceding table of contents, 1-298.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps 2012 is the update of similar evidence based position papers published in 2005 and 2007. The document contains chapters on definitions and classification, we now also proposed definitions for difficult to treat rhinosinusitis, control of disease and better definitions for rhinosinusitis in children. More emphasis is placed on the diagnosis and treatment of acute rhinosinusitis. Throughout the document the terms chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) are used to further point out differences in pathophysiology and treatment of these two entities. There are extensive chapters on epidemiology and predisposing factors, inflammatory mechanisms, (differential) diagnosis of facial pain, genetics, cystic fibrosis, aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease, immunodeficiencies, allergic fungal rhinosinusitis and the relationship between upper and lower airways. The chapters on paediatric acute and chronic rhinosinusitis are totally rewritten. Last but not least all available evidence for management of acute rhinosinusitis and chronic rhinosinusitis with or without nasal polyps in adults and children is analyzed and presented and management schemes based on the evidence are proposed. This executive summary for otorhinolaryngologists focuses on the most important changes and issues for otorhinolaryngologists. The full document can be downloaded for free on the website of this journal: http://www.rhinologyjournal.com.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Olfaction is an essential chemosensory system in the living world. Although less appreciated in humans, smell impairment significantly affects many aspects of quality of life. Smell disorders may be caused by an impaired nasal airway or by lesions in the olfactory system, leading to reduced or distorted smell perception. The most common causes of smell disorders are aging, upper respiratory tract infection, sinonasal disease, and head trauma. Recovery is rarely complete. Counseling is important in progressive or severe smell loss. In patients with distorted smell perception, antidepressant medication is sometimes necessary. Best response to treatment is achieved for nasal obstruction and sinonasal inflammatory disease. Treatment of olfactory impairment caused by sinonasal disease includes medication with topical and systemic steroids, or surgery for refractory cases. Although there are reports that surgical resection of olfactory neurons may lead to reinnervation and recovery of smell, adequate treatment of the smell loss remains an unmet need.
Current Allergy and Asthma Reports 02/2012; 12(2). DOI:10.1007/s11882-012-0248-5 · 2.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tonsils are strategically located in the gateway of both alimentary and respiratory tracts representing the first contact point of food and aeroallergens with the immune system. Tonsillectomy removes only the palatine tonsils and sometimes adenoids. Lingual tonsil is anatomically big and remains lifelong intact.
The aim of this study was to demonstrate cellular and molecular mechanisms of oral tolerance induction to food and aeroallergens in human tonsils.
Tonsil allergen-specific FOXP3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), and myeloid dendritic cells were characterized by flow cytometry and suppressive assays. Intracellular staining, [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation, and carboxy-fluorescein succinimidyl ester dilution experiments were performed. Tonsil biopsies were analyzed by confocal microscopy.
CD4(+)FOXP3(+) Treg cells and pDCs constitute important T- and dendritic cell-compartments in palatine and lingual tonsils. Tonsil pDCs have the ability to generate functional CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127(-)FOXP3(+) Treg cells with suppressive property from naive T cells. CD4(+)FOXP3(+) Treg cells proliferate and colocalize with pDCs in vivo in T-cell areas of lingual and palatine tonsils. Tonsil T cells did not proliferate to common food and aeroallergens. Depletion of FOXP3(+) Treg cells enables the allergen-induced proliferation of tonsil T cells, indicating an active role of Treg cells in allergen-specific T-cell unresponsiveness. High numbers of major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1-specific CD4(+)FOXP3(+) Treg cells, are identified in human tonsils compared with peripheral blood. A positive correlation between the percentages of FOXP3(+) Treg cells and pDCs is observed in tonsils from nonatopic individuals.
Functional allergen-specific Treg cells are identified both in lingual and in palatine tonsils.
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 11/2011; 129(2):510-20, 520.e1-9. DOI:10.1016/j.jaci.2011.09.031 · 11.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In persistent chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), conventional treatment is often insufficient. Long-term, low-dose administration of macrolides has been suggested as a treatment option. The MACS (Macrolides in chronic rhinosinusitis) study is a randomized placebo-controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of azithromycin (AZM) in CRS.
We describe a group of patients with recalcitrant CRS with and without nasal polyps unresponsive to optimal medical and (in 92% also) surgical treatment. Patients were treated with AZM or placebo. AZM was given for 3 days at 500 mg during the first week, followed by 500 mg per week for the next 11 weeks. Patients were monitored until 3 months post-therapy. The assessments included Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-22 (SNOT-22), a Patient Response Rating Scale, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Short Form-36 (SF-36), rigid nasal endoscopy, peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF), Sniffin' Sticks smell tests and endoscopically guided middle meatus cultures.
Sixty patients with a median age of 49 years were included. Fifty per cent had asthma and 58% had undergone revision sinus surgery. In the SNOT-22, Patient Response Rating Scale, VAS scores and SF-36, no significant difference between the AZM and the placebo groups was demonstrated. Nasal endoscopic findings, PNIF results, smell tests and microbiology showed no relevant significant differences between the groups either.
At the investigated dose of AZM over 3 months, no significant benefit was found over placebo. Possible reasons could be disease severity in the investigated group, under-dosage of AZM and under-powering of the study. Therefore, more research is urgently required.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This EAACI Task Force document aims at providing the readers with a comprehensive and complete overview of the currently available tools for diagnosis of nasal and sino-nasal disease. We have tried to logically order the different important issues related to history taking, clinical examination and additional investigative tools for evaluation of the severity of sinonasal disease into a consensus document. A panel of European experts in the field of Rhinology has contributed to this consensus document on Diagnostic Tools in Rhinology.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic ibuprofen (0.4 g/kg intraperitoneally, once daily for 4 weeks) evidenced a series of pathologies, not previously reported in ibuprofen-dosed rats, namely hepatic encephalopathy, gastric lesions, hepatomegaly, increased AST and ALT serum values with prolonged sedation/unconsciousness, and weight loss. In particular, ibuprofen toxicity was brain edema, particularly in the cerebellum, with the white matter being more affected than in gray matter. In addition, damaged and red neurons, in the absence of anti-inflammatory reaction was observed, particularly in the cerebral cortex and cerebellar nuclei, but was also present although to a lesser extent in the hippocampus, dentate nucleus and Purkinje cells. An anti-ulcer peptide shown to have no toxicity, the stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, MW 1419, 10 μg, 10 ng/kg) inhibited the pathology seen with ibuprofen (i) when given intraperitoneally, immediately after ibuprofen daily or (ii) when given in drinking water (0.16 μg, 0.16 ng/ml). Counteracted were all adverse effects, such as hepatic encephalopathy, the gastric lesions, hepatomegaly, increased liver serum values. In addition, BPC 157 treated rats showed no behavioral disturbances and maintained normal weight gain. Thus, apart from efficacy in inflammatory bowel disease and various wound treatments, BPC 157 was also effective when given after ibuprofen.
European journal of pharmacology 05/2011; 667(1-3):322-9. DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2011.05.038 · 2.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rhinitis is a very common disorder caused by inflammation or irritation of nasal mucosa. Dominant symptoms are nasal obstruction; however, in some patients, runny nose, excessive sneezing or nasal itch may be the most bothersome symptoms. The most common causes of nasal inflammation are viral infections and allergic response to airborne allergens. Response to irritants may cause similar symptoms, although signs of inflammation may not always be present. Viral rhinitis is lasting up to 10 days and it is part of the common cold syndrome. In short-lived rhinitis, lasting for 7 to 10 days, sometimes it is not easy to differentiate between the potential causes of the disorder, if general symptoms of infection like fever and malaise are not present. In long-living rhinitis, it is important to differentiate between infectious, allergic, non-allergic non-infectious rhinitis, and chronic rhinosinusitis. Itch and ocular symptoms are more common in allergic rhinitis, while other symptoms like nasal obstruction, rhinorrhea and sneezing may affect patients with allergic and non-allergic rhinitis. Patients with allergic rhinitis often have symptoms after exposure to irritants, temperature and humidity changes, like patients with non-allergic rhinitis, and such exposure may sometimes cause more severe symptoms than exposure to allergens. Sensitivity to a non-specific trigger is usually called non-specific nasal hyperreactivity. Allergic rhinitis occurs due to immunoglobulin E (IgE) interaction with allergen in contact with nasal mucosa in a sensitized patient. Sensitization to certain airborne allergen, like pollens, dust, molds, animal dander, etc. usually occurs in families with allergy background, which is helpful in making diagnosis in patients who have rhinitis in a certain period of the year, or aggravation of nasal symptoms occurs in the environment typical of certain allergen. The diagnosis is clinically confirmed by proving sensitivity to certain allergen on skin prick test, and by proving specific antibody IgE in patient serum. Allergic rhinitis is categorized according to sensitivity to allergens that occur seasonally, like pollens, or to allergens that are present all year round, like house dust mite, molds and animal dander, into seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis. Allergy to pollens causes the same mechanism of inflammation in response to allergens, which is the result of allergen binding to specific IgE antibody; however, patients with pollen allergy usually complain more of sneezing and runny nose, whereas patients with allergy to perennial allergens more often complain of obstruction, with the episodes of sneezing and runny nose occurring only when exposed to higher concentrations of allergens (house cleaning, around pets). Treatment includes avoidance of allergens, medical treatment and immunotherapy (allergy vaccines, tablets with allergens). Avoidance of allergens means reduction of environmental allergen load to the respiratory system including workplace, which is not easy to accomplish. Medical treatment is usually necessary to control symptoms, and it includes antihistamines, nasal or in tablets, and nasal glucocorticoids (steroids). Antihistamines should be second generation, which do not cause sedation, and such treatment shows more efficacy on runny nose, sneezing and nasal itch than on nasal stuffiness. Nasal steroids are more potent in improving nasal patency than antihistamines, and are at least as potent in the control of all other nasal and ocular symptoms. Nasal patency may be improved by nasal or oral decongestants, but such treatment should be reduced to as short period as possible, since after several days of using nasal decongestants rebound congestion may occur and patients will need nasal decongestants to improve nasal airways even when allergens are not around anymore.
Acta medica Croatica: c̆asopis Hravatske akademije medicinskih znanosti 01/2011; 65(2):181-7.