[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) improves survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in whom curative therapies are not suitable. The aim of this study was to assess survival differences in patients with hepatic cirrhosis and unresectable HCC treated by (131)I-lipiodol versus TACE or transarterial embolization (TAE).
A retrospective study was performed on a cohort of 124 patients undergoing treatment for unresectable HCC between 1997 and 2006. A total of 50 patients (44 men; mean age, 59 y) received (131)I-lipiodol (mean sessions per patient, 1.7), and 74 patients (63 men; mean age, 61 y) received TACE/TAE (mean sessions per patient, 1.8). Although no significant difference between the 2 treatment groups with respect to HCC size and clinical staging was observed, a higher proportion of patients with portal vein thrombosis (PVT) was treated with (131)I-lipiodol than with TACE/TAE (28% vs. 8%, P = 0.003).
Actuarial survival was not significantly different between patients treated with (131)I-lipiodol and patients treated with TACE/TAE. Survival at 6 mo, 1 y, 2 y, and 3 y was 86%, 69%, 54%, and 45%, respectively, after (131)I-lipiodol, compared with 77%, 62%, 47%, and 43%, respectively, after TACE/TAE. However, patients with PVT survived a mean of 454 d after (131)I-lipiodol, compared with a mean of 171 d after TACE/TAE (P = 0.025). In addition, patients with more advanced disease (Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage D) lived on average 363 d after (131)I-lipiodol, compared with 36 d after TACE/TAE (P = 0.014).
In patients with unresectable HCC, there was no difference in survival between (131)I-lipiodol therapy and TACE/TAE treatment. However, in the patients with advanced clinical staging or PVT, there was a significant survival advantage for those treated with (131)I-lipiodol.
Journal of Nuclear Medicine 06/2009; 50(6):871-7. · 5.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to describe the indications for and technique of transjugular renal biopsy (TJRB) and evaluate the efficacy and complications of this method. We performed a retrospective review of 59 patients who underwent TJRB using the Quick-core needle biopsy system (Cook, Letchworth, UK) over a 4-year period. The indications for obtaining renal biopsy included acute renal failure, chronic renal failure, nephrotic syndrome, and proteinuria with or without other associated disease. Indications for the transjugular approach included coagulopathy, biopsy of a solitary kidney or essentially single functioning kidney, simultaneous renal and hepatic biopsy, morbid obesity, and failed percutaneous biopsy. All but four cases were performed via the right internal jugular vein. The right, left, or both renal veins were cannulated in 41, 14, and 4 cases, respectively. Combined liver and renal biopsies were obtained in seven cases. Diagnostic biopsy specimens were obtained in 56 of 59 patients (95%). The number and size of tissue cores ranged from 1 to 9 mm and from 1 to 20 mm, respectively. The mean numbers of glomeruli per procedure on light microscopy and electron microscopy were 10.3 and 2.6, respectively. Specimens for immunohistology were acquired in 49 cases, of which 40 were adequate. Of the 56 successful TJRB procedures, 34 (61%) were associated with isolated capsular perforation (19), contained subcapsular leak (10), isolated collecting system puncture (1), and concurrent collecting system and capsular perforation (4). There was a significant increase in capsular perforation with six or more needle passes, although no significant correlation was seen between number of needle passes and complication. Six patients had minor complications defined as hematuria or loin pain. Seven patients developed major complications, of whom five received blood transfusion alone. Two required intervention: in one an arteriocalyceal fistula was embolized and the patient was temporarily dialyzed; the remaining patient required ureteric stenting. In conclusion, TJRB provides an adequate yield for diagnosis. Complication rates are relatively high, but patients are also at high risk from the conventional percutaneous approach. Patient selection and optimization are critical to avoid major complications.
CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology 03/2008; 31(5):906-18. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the complication rates of Hickman lines and Port-a-Caths in patients undergoing infusional chemotherapy for solid tumours.
A single institution retrospective analysis comparing complication rates for 30 Hickman lines and 33 Port-a-Caths inserted for chemotherapy in adults with solid tumours was carried out.
Patients were well matched in terms of primary site and chemotherapy regimen. In both cases, over 85% were inserted radiologically under local anaesthetic. The total time in situ for Hickman lines and Port-a-Caths was 3539 days (median 83, range 6-585) and 5783 days (median 158, range 20-456), respectively. The complication rate for Hickman lines was 5.09/1000 catheter days, almost five times that for Port-a-Caths, with 1.04/1000 catheter days, a relative risk of 4.9 (confidence interval: 1.9-15.1, P=0.0003). Most (73%) complications occurred within 4 weeks of insertion. However, some arose much later: the range of time to complication was 1-304 days for Hickman lines and 1-132 days for Port-a-Caths. Infection was the most common complication, accounting for nine of 18 Hickman line complications and five of six Port-a-Cath complications, giving an overall infection rate of 2.54/1000 catheter days and 0.86/1000 catheter days, respectively. Additionally, Hickman lines had a 26% leakage rate or displacement rate, which did not occur at all in the Port-a-Cath group. Complications required the removal of 16 Hickman lines and five Port-a-Caths. The rate of removal was five times higher for Hickman lines (Hickman lines=4.52/1000 catheter days, Port-a-Caths=0.86/1000 catheter days, P=0.0027). Overall, the cost of Port-a-Caths was less than that of Hickman lines.
In this study, Port-a-Caths were shown to be both safer and cheaper than Hickman lines for patients requiring infusional chemotherapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Late intrahepatic hematoma is a rare complication of the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) procedure. We describe a patient with Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS), who presented with a large inrahepatic hematoma 13 days after TIPS. Review of the literature reveals only two previous cases, both occurring in patients with BCS and presenting after a similar time interval. This potentially serious complication appears to be specific for TIPS in BCS.
CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology 04/2007; 30(5):1065-9. · 2.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemoembolization (TACE) improves survival in cirrhotic patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The optimal schedule, or whether embolization (TAE) alone gives the same survival advantage, is not known.
To evaluate whether specific patient characteristics and/or radiological transarterial techniques result in better outcomes.
A PubMed search was carried out for cohort and randomized trials (n = 175) testing transarterial therapies; meta-analysis was performed where appropriate.
Anticancer drugs were used as sole agent in 75% of cases (double 15% and triple 6%): doxorubicin (36%), cisplatin (31%), epirubicin (12%), mitoxantrone (8%), mitomycin (8%), and SMANCS (5%). Embolizing agents used were: gelatin sponge particles (71%), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles (8%), degradable starch microspheres (DSM) (4%), and embospheres (4%). Sessions per patient were 2.5 +/- 1.5 (interval: 2 months). Objective response was 40 +/- 20%; survival rates at 1, 2, 3, and 5 years were: 62 +/- 20%, 42 +/- 17%, 30 +/- 15%, and 19 +/- 16%, respectively, and survival time was 18 +/- 9.5 months. The post-TACE complications were: acute liver failure, 7.5% (range 0-49%); acute renal failure, 1.8% (0-13%); encephalopathy, 1.8% (0-16%); ascites, 8.3% (0-52%); upper gastrointestinal bleeding; 3% (0-22%); and hepatic or splenic abscess, 1.3% (0-2.5%). Treatment-related mortality was 2.4% (0-9.5%), mainly due to acute liver failure. Our meta-analysis of nine randomized controlled trials (RCTs) confirmed that TACE improves survival; but a meta-analysis of TACE versus TAE alone (3 RCTs, 412 patients) demonstrated no survival difference.
No chemotherapeutic agent appears better than any other. There is no evidence for benefit with lipiodol. Gelatin sponge is the most used embolic agent, but PVA particles may be better. TAE appears as effective as TACE. New strategies to reduce the risk of post-TACE complications are required.
CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology 01/2007; 30(1):6-25. · 2.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ascites is the most common complication of liver cirrhosis and when it develops mortality is 50% at 5 years, apart from liver transplantation. Large volume paracentesis has been the only option for ascites refractory to medical treatment. The role of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in the management of diuretic-resistant ascites has been evaluated in many cohort studies and five randomized trials up to now, clearly showing improvement in natriuresis and clinical efficacy. It, however, remains unclear how transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt affects survival and quality of life, because hospital admissions owing to worsening encephalopathy may counterbalance the reduced need of paracentesis. What is clear is that the patient selection is critical. About 30% of patients with ascites develop hepatorenal syndrome at 5 years, leading to high mortality in its severe and progressive form. As its main pathogenetic factor is derangement of circulatory function owing to portal hypertension, these patients may benefit from transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, but this has been shown only in small series, in which mortality remains very high, owing to the underlying poor liver function.
European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology 12/2006; 18(11):1143-50. · 1.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Portal vein embolisation (PVE) is an effective method of increasing future liver remnant (FLR) but may stimulate tumour growth. The effect of periprocedure chemotherapy has not been established. 15 consecutive patients underwent PVE prior to hepatic resection for colorectal liver metastases with a FLR <30% of tumour-free liver (TFL). Liver and tumour volumes pre-PVE and 6 weeks post-PVE were calculated by CT or MRI volumetry and correlated with the periprocedure chemotherapy regimen. PVE increased the FLR from 18+/-5% of TFL to 27+/-8% post-PVE (p<0.01). Post-PVE chemotherapy did not prevent hypertrophy of the FLR but the volume increase with chemotherapy (median 89 ml, range 7-149 ml) was significantly reduced (median 135 ml, range 110-254 ml without chemotherapy) (p = 0.016). Tumour volume (TV) decreased in those receiving post-PVE chemotherapy (median TV decrease 8 ml, range -77 ml to +450 ml) and increased without chemotherapy (median TV increase 39 ml, range -58 ml to +239 ml). Of the 15 patients, eight underwent resection; four were not resected due to disease progression and three due to insufficient hypertrophy of the FLR. PVE increased the FLR by an average of 9% allowing resection in 50% of patients. Periprocedure chemotherapy did not prevent but did reduce hypertrophy. A trend towards tumour regression was observed.
British Journal of Radiology 06/2006; 79(942):473-8. · 1.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder, with variable clinical manifestations and unpredictable course, associated with an increased incidence of various tumours. Plexiform neurofibromas are hallmark lesions of NF1; they are slow-growing tumours, which account for substantial morbidity, including disfigurement and functional impairment, and may even be life-threatening. Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs), a rare diverse group of neoplasms, are occasionally associated with neurofibromatosis. Pancreatic NETs are tumours with an incidence of less than 1/100 000 population/year and complex patterns of behaviour, which often need complicated strategies for optimal management. We present the case of a young adult with NF1, having a unique concurrence of plexiform neurofibroma involving the liver with an ampullary NET, and we discuss step by step the management in a specialist centre.
European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology 12/2005; 17(11):1229-32. · 1.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To prospectively evaluate the safety and effectiveness of hepatic intraarterial injection of yttrium 90 ((90)Y) tetraazacyclododecane tetraacetic acid (DOTA) lanreotide as a treatment for patients with progressive large-volume somatostatin receptor-positive liver metastases from neuroendocrine tumors.
The study was local ethics committee approved, and all patients gave informed consent. Twenty-three patients (13 men, 10 women; age range, 21-69 years; median age, 57 years) with histologically proved large-volume liver metastases from neuroendocrine cancers were treated. All patients had radiologic evidence of liver disease progression and high uptake of indium 111 ((111)In) pentetreotide at scintigraphy. Selective hepatic intraarterial injection of (90)Y-DOTA-lanreotide (total of 36 treatments; median activity per dose, 1 GBq) was administered with or without embolization. Treatment cycles were performed in 8-week intervals. Clinical, biologic, and radiologic tumor responses were assessed 8-12 weeks after each treatment cycle. Objective tumor response was classified according to World Health Organization response criteria as complete regression, partial response, stable disease, or disease progression. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to calculate 1-year survivals.
Partial response to treatment was achieved in three (16%) of 19 patients, and stable disease was achieved in 12 (63%). Four (21%) of 19 patients had continued disease progression. Clinical improvement was reported by 14 (61%) of the 23 patients, and a reduction in biologic marker levels was observed in nine (60%) of 15 patients. Reversible hematologic toxicity (National Cancer Institute common toxicity criteria grade > 2) occurred in three patients. The 1-year survival rate was 63% (median survival time, 15 months).
Hepatic intraarterial injection of (90)Y-DOTA-lanreotide is a safe and effective palliative treatment for patients with progressive large-volume somatostatin receptor-positive liver metastases from neuroendocrine tumors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE
To describe the indications for and technique of transjugular renal biopsy and to evaluate the efficacy and complications of this method.
METHOD AND MATERIALS
Over a four-year period, 44 consecutive patients underwent transjugular renal biopsy at our institution, a regional renal transplant and nephrology centre. Biopsy specimens were obtained using the Quick-core needle biopsy system (Cook UK). The indications included coagulopathy, uraemia, solitary kidney, simultaneous renal and hepatic biopsy and failed percutaneous biopsy.
All but 3 cases were performed via the right internal jugular vein. The right, left or both renal veins were cannulated in 31, 10 and 3 cases respectively. Combined liver and renal biopsies were obtained in 5 patients. Low dose sedation, with or without analgesia, was administered during the procedure. The procedural time varied between 25-105 minutes. Diagnostic biopsy specimens were obtained in 42/44 patients (95.5%). The number and size of tissue cores ranged from 1-7 and 1-20 mm, respectively. The number of glomeruli per case,on light microscopy, were 10-24. Electron microscopy was performed in 34 cases with glomeruli count ranging 1-7. Adequate specimens for immunofluorescence were acquired in 29 cases. Capsular leak was noted in 22 cases with no haemodynamic sequelae. One patient subsequently underwent a coil embolization procedure for an arterio-calyceal fistula. Clot retention, which required stenting, occurred in one patient. A patient with HIV infection developed septicaemia following combined liver and renal biopsies together with a central line insertion. A further patient developed renal vein thrombosis 5 days post biopsy. No causal link has been established between the biopsy procedure and the complications in the latter 2 cases.
Transjugular renal biopsy provides an adequate yield and carries an acceptable complication rate in patients deemed to be at high risk from a conventional percutaneous approach.
Radiological Society of North America 2004 Scientific Assembly and Annual Meeting; 12/2004
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: LEARNING OBJECTIVES
To present the typical and atypical imaging features of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours at a national referral centre.
Our institution is the largest tertiary referral centre in the UK for neuroendocrine tumours. Pancreatic islet cell tumours include insulinomas, gastrinomas, glucagonomas, non-functioning islet cell tumours, VIPomas and somatostatinomas. We present our centre�s experience of these relatively rare tumours and demonstrate the spectrum of morphological and endocrine imaging findings, including unusual and extrapancreatic manifestations. Knowledge of these findings is essential to allow an early diagnosis of these rare but treatable tumours.
Radiological Society of North America 2004 Scientific Assembly and Annual Meeting; 11/2004
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study compared the value of contrast-enhanced helical computed tomography (CT), CT during arterioportography (CTAP), and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for staging patients with colorectal liver metastases.
One hundred and twenty patients with known or suspected colorectal liver metastases were evaluated prospectively. MRI and CTAP were performed within 3 weeks of CT in patients with potentially resectable tumours. Results of imaging were compared with findings at surgery, intraoperative ultrasonography and histological examination.
Twenty patients were not considered for liver resection following CT. The remaining 100 patients underwent CT and CTAP, 85 of whom had CT, CTAP and MRI. The sensitivity and specificity were 73.0 and 96.5 per cent for CT, 87.1 and 89.3 per cent for CTAP, and 81.9 and 93.2 per cent for MRI. Positive predictive values were 89.7, 87.5 and 87.5 per cent respectively. Receiver-operator characteristic analysis gave an accuracy on a segment-by-segment analysis of 0.73 for CT, 0.87 for CTAP and 0.82 for MRI. Combining information from CT and CTAP, CT and MRI, or all three modalities, did not significantly increase the percentage of patients staged correctly (71, 72 and 76 per cent respectively).
The diagnostic accuracy of spiral CT, MRI and CTAP was similar. Combining modalities did not improve accuracy.
British Journal of Surgery 11/2004; 91(10):1361-9. · 4.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We systematically reviewed the evidence for determining the best radiological imaging for characterizing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in cirrhotic patients in 997 articles between 1995 and 2001. We selected only prospective and retrospective cohorts of patients, excluding both case reports and studies without separate data on HCC. Only 29 studies, comprising 918 patients, fulfilled the inclusion criteria: 10 used the explanted liver as the reference standard of diagnosis. All except one, either found no statistically significant difference between imaging modalities or had no direct comparison of sensitivity between different modalities of imaging; 16 studies evaluated HCC among cirrhotic patients and had biopsy or imaging as the reference standard for diagnosis. However, no one imaging technique was shown to be superior. In two studies, data of a HCC subgroup was derived from the studies evaluating different kinds of focal hepatic lesions. No conclusion could be drawn because of the small sample size. One study addressed the issue of therapeutic impact. The evidence for choosing the best modality of imaging for characterizing HCC in cirrhotic patients is inadequate. Large multicentre studies with defined reference standards for diagnosis, and studies evaluating therapeutic impact are needed.
British Journal of Radiology 09/2004; 77(920):633-40. · 1.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most previous studies demonstrating the feasibility of transjugular kidney biopsy have used a modified Colapinto aspiration biopsy needle. We present 25 high-risk patients, with contraindications to percutaneous renal biopsy, who underwent transjugular kidney biopsy using a transvenous side-cut needle. This technique is easier to learn and can be performed by an interventional radiologist with transjugular liver biopsy experience and equipment. The needle is designed for optimal cortical sampling but has a high incidence of capsular perforation. Elective coil embolization was used in selected patients to reduce the risk of bleeding.
We retrospectively reviewed the indications for obtaining renal histology, based on clinical presentation, and the specific indications for transjugular biopsy. Transjugular kidney biopsy was assessed for sampling effectiveness and adequacy, the impact of histology on patient management, and technique complication rates.
Renal tissue was obtained in 23 cases, with diagnostic biopsies in 21 of 23 (91.3%). A mean of 3.5 cores were obtained with 9.9 glomeruli per procedure for light microscopy (range, 0 to 32), 2.2 (range, 1 to 7) for electron microscopy, and adequate tissue for immunoflorescence available in 11 of 23 biopsies. Histology influenced patient management in all 23 cases. Capsular perforation was recorded in 73.9% (17 of 23) of cases with 6 undergoing elective coil embolization. Two major complications occurred, both in patients with multiple risk factors for bleeding. One required coil embolization of an arterio-calyseal system fistula. A further patient developed renal vein thrombosis 6 days after a failed transjugular kidney biopsy.
Transjugular kidney biopsy provides a histological diagnosis in high-risk patients, making an important contribution to patient management.
American Journal of Kidney Diseases 05/2004; 43(4):651-62. · 5.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In recent years, liver transplantation in patients with hepatocellular cancers and cirrhosis has been restricted to those with small cancers (<5 cm for solitary and <3 cm for multifocal HCC with <3 nodules). The selection of patients for liver transplantation is based on pre-operative imaging. The accuracy of imaging correlated with explant histology and the effect of tumour stage has not been evaluated in this selected population.
In this study, prospectively collected data for 30 patients who underwent orthotopic liver transplantation for cirrhosis complicated by small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at a single centre have been reviewed with the aim of correlating radiological findings, explant histology and patient outcome. Patients who underwent orthotopic liver transplantation between 1995 and 1999 had plain and contrast-enhanced dual-phase spiral CT (DCT) scans of the liver. Patients suspected of having HCC on CT scan or due to elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein underwent iodized oil CT (IOCT). Following transplantation, the explanted liver was serially sectioned at 10-mm intervals and examined by a pathologist blinded to the results of imaging. Data collected prospectively on imaging and histology were compared with outcome data. The median period of follow-up was 1,139 days (range 690-1,955 days) after transplantation. All patients were followed up by clinical assessment, assessment of serum alpha-protein levels and imaging when indicated.
All the patients transplanted fulfilled the selective criteria on the basis of imaging (solitary HCC <5 cm in diameter or multifocal HCC <3 cm in diameter with <3 nodules). Of the 30 patients transplanted, 46 HCCs were detected on explant histology with a median size of 24 mm (range 6-75 mm). Ten patients had multifocal disease (median number of lesions 2, range 2-4). No significant difference was observed between IOCT and DCT with regards to the sensitivity (67.4 vs. 68%) and specificity (78.97 vs. 88.6%) of detecting HCCs. IOCT had a positive predictive value of 78.9% as compared to 82.8% for DCT. IOCT had an overall sensitivity of 40% as compared to 30% for DCT in detecting multifocal disease (not significant). Histological assessment of the explanted livers showed that 8 patients had well-, 17 moderate and 5 poorly differentiated HCCs. Tumour size and the presence of multifocal disease did not influence survival in this study. Microvascular invasion was more common with larger tumours (from 38% with lesions less than 40 mm in diameter to 60% with lesions >40 mm in diameter; p < 0.01) and with moderately (29.4%) or poorly differentiated (60%) HCCs than well-differentiated HCC (12.5%) (p < 0.04 and 0.01 for well- vs. moderately and poorly differentiated HCC, respectively). Microvascular invasion on explant histology was associated with poor survival. Of the 17 transplant recipients without vascular invasion, 15 were alive at 1 and 2 years in comparison to 7 of 9 with microscopic vascular invasion (p < 0.01). Four patients died in the post-transplant period due to recurrent HCC. Overall survival [after excluding early post-transplant sepsis-induced deaths (n = 4)] at 1 year was 83.3%.
Selective criteria for transplantation of HCC in cirrhosis are associated with a 1-year and 3-year survival rate of 73.3% (including early post-transplant sepsis-induced deaths). IOCT and DCT are similar in their ability to detect unifocal or multifocal HCC. Tumour size and number are not predictive of recurrence with these selective criteria, but microscopic vascular invasion is a bad prognostic factor.
Digestive Surgery 01/2004; 21(2):152-9; discussion 159-60. · 1.47 Impact Factor