[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Few studies have demonstrated gene/environment interactions in cancer research. Using data on high-risk occupations
for 2258 case patients and 2410 control patients from two bladder cancer studies, we observed that three of 16 known
or candidate bladder cancer susceptibility variants displayed statistically significant and consistent evidence of additive
interactions; specifically, the GSTM1 deletion polymorphism (Pinteraction ≤ .001), rs11892031 (UGT1A, Pinteraction = .01), and
rs798766 (TMEM129-TACC3-FGFR3, Pinteraction = .03). There was limited evidence for multiplicative interactions. When we
examined detailed data on a prevalent occupational exposure associated with increased bladder cancer risk, straight
metalworking fluids, we also observed statistically significant additive interaction for rs798766 (TMEM129-TACC3-FGFR3,
Pinteraction = .02), with the interaction more apparent in patients with tumors positive for FGFR3 expression. All statistical
tests were two-sided. The interaction we observed for rs798766 (TMEM129-TACC3-FGFR3) with specific exposure to straight
metalworking fluids illustrates the value of integrating germline genetic variation, environmental exposures, and tumor
marker data to provide insight into the mechanisms of bladder carcinogenesis.
JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute 11/2015; 107(11). DOI:10.1093/jnci/djv223 · 12.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondria are sensitive to environmental toxicants due to their lack of repair capacity. Changes in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content may represent a biologically relevant intermediate outcome in mechanisms linking air pollution and fetal growth restriction.
We investigated whether placental mtDNA content is a possible mediator of the association between prenatal NO2 exposure and birth weight.
We used data from two independent European cohorts: INMA (n=376; Spain) and ENVIRONAGE (n=550; Belgium). Relative placental mtDNA content was determined as the ratio of two mitochondrial genes (MT-ND1 and MTF3212/R3319) to two control genes (RPLP0 and ACTB). Effect estimates for individual cohorts and the pooled dataset were calculated using multiple linear regression and mixed models. We also performed a mediation analysis.
Pooled estimates indicated that a 10µg/m(3) increment in average NO2 exposure during pregnancy was associated with a 4.9% decrease in placental mtDNA content (95% confidence interval (CI): -9.3, -0.3%). and a 48g decrease (95% CI: -87, -9g) in birth weight. However, the association with birth weight was significant for INMA (-66g; 95% CI: -111, -23g) but not for ENVIRONAGE (-20g; 95% CI: -101, 62g). Placental mtDNA content was associated with significantly higher mean birth weight (pooled analysis, IQR increase: 140g; 95% CI: 43, 237g). Mediation analysis estimates, which were derived for the INMA cohort only, suggested that 10% (95% CI: 6.6, 13.0g) of the association between prenatal NO2 and birth weight was mediated by changes in placental mtDNA content.
Our results suggest that mtDNA content can be one of the potential mediators of the association between prenatal air pollution exposure and birth weight.
Environmental Health Perspectives 08/2015; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1408981 · 7.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidemiologic and animal data indicate that night shift work might increase the risk for breast cancer. We evaluated the association of night work with different clinical types of breast cancer in a population based case-control study (MCC-Spain study) taking into account chronotype, an individual characteristic that may relate to night shift work adaptation. Lifetime occupational history was assessed by face-to-face interviews and shift work information was available for 1708 breast cancer cases and 1778 population controls from 10 Spanish regions, enrolled from 2008 to 2013. We evaluated three shift work domains, including shift work type (permanent vs rotating), lifetime cumulative duration and frequency. We estimated odds ratios (OR) for night work compared to day work using unconditional logistic regression models adjusting for confounders. Having ever worked permanent or rotating night shift was associated with an increased risk for breast cancer compared to day workers [odds ratio (OR) 1.18; 95 % CI 0.97, 1.43]. Chronotype was differentially associated with breast cancer depending on the duration of night shift work. Risk was higher in women with invasive tumors (OR 1.23; 95 % CI 1.00, 1.51) and for estrogen and progestagen positive tumors among premenopausal women (OR 1.44; 95 % CI 1.05, 1.99). Having ever performed night shift was associated with a small increased risk for breast cancer and especially in subgroups of women with particular hormone related characteristics.
European Journal of Epidemiology 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10654-015-0073-y · 5.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our aim was to investigate the relation between PBDEs and fetal growth or newborn anthropometry in a Spanish cohort (2003-2008). PBDE congeners (BDE-47, -99, -153, 154, and -209) were determined in serum of 670 mothers at gestational week 12 and in 534 umbilical cord samples. Abdominal circumference (AC), estimated fetal weight (EFW), femur length (FL), and biparietal diameter (BPD) during gestation were measured by ultrasounds. At birth, weight (BW), head circumference (HC), and length (BL) were also measured. We assessed growth in the intervals between 12-20 and 20-34 weeks of gestation and size at birth by standard deviation (SD)-scores adjusted for constitutional characteristics. We conducted multivariate linear regression analyses between PBDE congeners and their sum (ΣPBDEs) and outcomes. We found inverse associations between ΣPBDEs and AC, EFW, and BPD at weeks 20-34 and HC at birth. Regarding congeners, the association was clearer with BDE-99, inverse associations being found with AC, EFW, and BPD at weeks 20-34, and with BW and HC at delivery. These outcomes decreased between 1.3% and 3.5% for each 2-fold PBDE increase. Concerning matrices, we found statistically significant associations with BPD, HC, and BW when using maternal serum, and for AC and EFW with cord serum. In conclusion, PBDEs may impair fetal growth in late pregnancy and reduce birth size.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Working in mines and quarries has been associated with an elevated lung cancer risk but with inconsistent results for coal miners. This study aimed to estimate the smoking-adjusted lung cancer risk among coal miners and compare the risk pattern with lung cancer risks among ore miners and quarrymen.
We estimated lung cancer risks of coal and ore miners and quarrymen among 14 251 lung cancer cases and 17 267 controls from the SYNERGY pooled case-control study, controlling for smoking and employment in other at-risk occupations.
Ever working as miner or quarryman (690 cases, 436 controls) was associated with an elevated odds ratio (OR) of 1.55 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.34-1.79] for lung cancer. Ore miners (53 cases, 24 controls) had a higher OR (2.34, 95% CI 1.36-4.03) than quarrymen (67 cases, 39 controls; OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.21-3.05) and coal miners (442 cases, 297 controls; OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.18-1.67), but CI overlapped. We did not observe trends by duration of exposure or time since last exposure.
This pooled analysis of population-based studies demonstrated an excess lung cancer risk among miners and quarrymen that remained increased after adjustment for detailed smoking history and working in other at-risk occupations. The increase in risk among coal miners were less pronounced than for ore miners or quarrymen.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health 07/2015; 41(5). DOI:10.5271/sjweh.3513 · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Air pollution exposure during pregnancy has been associated with impaired fetal growth. However, few studies have measured fetal biometry longitudinally, remaining unclear as to whether there are windows of special vulnerability. The aim was to investigate the impact of NO2 exposure on fetal and neonatal biometry in the Spanish INMA study.
Biparietal diameter (BPD), femur length (FL), abdominal circumference (AC) and estimated fetal weight (EFW) were evaluated for up to 2478 fetuses in each trimester of pregnancy. Size at 12, 20 and 34 weeks of gestation, growth between these points, as well as anthropometry at birth, were assessed by SD scores derived using cohort-specific growth curves. Temporally adjusted land-use regression was used to estimate exposure to NO2 at home addresses for up to 2415 fetuses. Associations were investigated by linear regression in each cohort and subsequent meta-analysis.
A 10 μg/m(3) increase in average exposure to NO2 during weeks 0-12 was associated with reduced growth at weeks 0-12 in AC (-2.1% (95% CI: -3.7, -0.6)) and EFW (-1.6% (-1.6% (95% CI: 3.0, -0.3)). The same exposure was inversely associated with reduced growth at weeks 20-34 in BPD (-2.6% (95% CI: -3.9, -1.2)), AC (-1.8% (95% CI: -3.3, -0.2)), and EFW (-2.1% (95% CI: -3.7, -0.2)). A less consistent pattern of association was observed for FL. The negative association of this exposure with BPD and EFW was significantly stronger in smoking versus nonsmoking mothers.
Maternal exposure to NO2 in early pregnancy was associated with reduced fetal growth based on ultrasound measures of growth during pregnancy and measures of size at birth.
Environmental Health Perspectives 06/2015; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1409423 · 7.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to describe the degree of annoyance among pregnant women in a Spanish cohort and to examine associations with proximity to traffic, NO2 and benzene exposure. We included 2457 participants from the Spanish Childhood and Environment study. Individual exposures to outdoor NO2 and benzene were estimated, temporally adjusted for pregnancy. Interviews about sociodemographic variables, noise and air pollution were carried out. Levels of annoyance were assessed using a scale from 0 (none) to 10 (strong and unbearable); a level of 8 to 10 was considered high. The reported prevalence of high annoyance levels from air pollution was 11.2% and 15.0% from noise; the two variables were moderately correlated (0.606). Significant correlations between NO2 and annoyance from air pollution (0.154) and that from noise (0.181) were observed. Annoyance owing to noise and air pollution had a low prevalence in our Spanish population compared with other European populations. Both factors were associated with proximity to traffic. In multivariate models, annoyance from air pollution was related to NO2, building age, and country of birth; annoyance from noise was only related to the first two. The health burden of these exposures can be increased by stress caused by the perception of pollution sources.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 06/2015; 12(6):7044-7058. DOI:10.3390/ijerph120607044 · 2.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several studies have reported decreases in birth size associated to organochlorine compound (OC) exposure but uncertainties remain regarding the critical windows of prenatal exposure and the effects on fetal body segments.
To examine the relationship between prenatal OC concentrations and fetal anthropometry.
We measured 4,4´-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (4,4´-DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (138, 153 and 180) in 2369 maternal and 1140 cord serum samples in four Spanish cohorts (2003-2008). We used linear mixed models to obtain longitudinal growth curves for estimated fetal weight (EFW), abdominal circumference (AC), biparietal diameter (BPD), and femur length (FL) adjusted by parental and fetal characteristics. Standard deviation (SD) scores of growth at 0-12, 12-20, and 20-34 weeks of gestation, and size at gestational week 34 were calculated for the four parameters. We studied the association between OCs and the fetal outcomes by cohort-specific linear models and subsequent meta-analyses.
PCBs were associated to a reduction in AC up to mid-pregnancy, and BPD and FL from gestational week 20 onwards. An inverse association was also found between HCB and AC growth in early pregnancy. The reduction of these parameters ranged from -4% to -2% for a doubling in the OC concentrations. No association between 4,4´-DDE and fetal growth was observed.
To our knowledge, this is the first study to report an association between prenatal exposure to some PCBs and HCB and fetal growth: AC during the first two trimesters of pregnancy, and BPD and FL later in pregnancy.
Environmental Health Perspectives 06/2015; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1408907 · 7.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We assessed whether maternal employment during pregnancy - overall and in selected occupational sectors - is associated with birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA), term low birth weight (LBW), length of gestation, and preterm delivery in a population-based birth cohort design.
We used data from >200 000 mother-child pairs enrolled in 13 European birth cohorts and compared employed versus non-employed women. Among employees, we defined groups of occupations representing the main sectors of employment for women where potential reproductive hazards are considered to be present. The comparison group comprised all other employed women not included in the occupational sector being assessed. We performed meta-analyses of cohort-specific estimates and explored heterogeneity.
Employees had a lower risk of preterm delivery than non-employees [adjusted odds ratio (OR adj) 0.86, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.81-0.91]. Working in most of the occupational sectors studied was not associated with adverse birth outcomes. Being employed as a nurse was associated with lower risk SGA infants (OR adj0.91, 95% CI 0.84-0.99) whereas food industry workers had an increased risk of preterm delivery (OR adj1.50, 95% CI 1.12-2.02). There was little evidence for heterogeneity between cohorts.
This study suggests that, overall, employment during pregnancy is associated with a reduction in the risk of preterm birth and that work in certain occupations may affect pregnancy outcomes. This exploratory study provides an important platform on which to base further prospective studies focused on the potential consequences of maternal occupational exposures during pregnancy on child development.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health 05/2015; 41(4). DOI:10.5271/sjweh.3500 · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of diabetes and diabetes treatment with risk of postmenopausal breast cancer.
Histologically confirmed incident cases of postmenopausal breast (N = 916) cancer were recruited from 23 Spanish public hospitals. Population-based controls (N = 1094) were randomly selected from primary care center lists within the catchment areas of the participant hospitals. ORs (95 % CI) were estimated using mixed-effects logistic regression models, using the recruitment center as a random effect term. Breast tumors were classified into hormone receptor positive (ER+ or PR+), HER2+ and triple negative (TN).
Diabetes was not associated with the overall risk of breast cancer (OR 1.09; 95 % CI 0.82-1.45), and it was only linked to the risk of developing TN tumors: Among 91 women with TN tumors, 18.7 % were diabetic, while the corresponding figure among controls was 9.9 % (OR 2.25; 95 % CI 1.22-4.15). Regarding treatment, results showed that insulin use was more prevalent among diabetic cases (2.5 %) as compared to diabetic controls (0.7 %); OR 2.98; 95 % CI 1.26-7.01. They also showed that, among diabetics, the risk of developing HR+/HER2- tumors decreased with longer metformin use (ORper year 0.89; 95 % CI 0.81-0.99; based on 24 cases and 43 controls).
This study reinforces the need to correctly classify breast cancers when studying their association with diabetes. Given the low survival rates in women diagnosed with TN breast tumors and the potential impact of diabetes control on breast cancer prevention, more studies are needed to better characterize this association.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) has been suspected to cause chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) but previous data are inconsistent. We measured seroreactivities of 9 polyomaviruses (MCPyV, BKPyV, JCPyV, LPyV, KIPyV, WUPyV, HPyV-6, HPyV-7 and TSPyV) in 359 CLL cases and 370 controls using bead-based multiplex serology technology. We additionally tested two herpesviruses (HSV-1 and CMV). Associations between disease and viral seroreactivities were assessed using logistic regression. All human viruses showed high seroprevalences (69-99%) against structural proteins in controls but significant lower viral seroprevalences in cases (58-94%; OR range=0.21-0.70, p-value<0.05), except for MCPyV (OR=0.79, 95%CI=0.54-1.16). Lower seroreactivity levels were observed among CLL subjects, with significant differences already observed at early stages of diseases, unrelated to treatment status. Seroreactivities against polyomaviruses related oncoproteins were almost null. Our data suggest no association for MCPyV polyomavirus with CLL development and an unlikely association for other polyomaviruses tested.
Journal of General Virology 04/2015; 96(8). DOI:10.1099/vir.0.000167 · 3.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vitamin D status during prenatal brain development may influence risk of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in childhood. However, there are no prospective studies addressing this hypothesis. We aimed to examine whether maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy is associated with risk of ADHD-like symptoms in offspring.
We conducted a prospective study analyzing data from 1,650 mother-child pairs from five birth cohorts embedded in the INMA Project (Spain, 1997-2008). Maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy was estimated by measuring plasma concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] at 13 weeks of gestation. Children were assessed by teachers for ADHD-like symptoms at ages 4-5 years using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ADHD form list.
After adjustment, the number of total ADHD-like symptoms in children decreased by 11% per 10 ng/ml increment of maternal 25(OH)D3 concentration (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.80, 0.98). Similarly, the number of symptoms in the ADHD subscales decreased in relation to higher maternal 25(OH)D3 concentration (IRR per 10 ng/ml increment = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.79, 0.99 for the inattention scale; and IRR = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.78, 0.99 for the hyperactivity-impulsivity scale). Using diagnostic criteria, we found an association of increasing maternal 25(OH)D3 with a lower risk of ADHD DSM-IV (relative risk ratio per 10 ng/ml increment = 0.87; 95% CI = 0.72, 1.06) and ICD-10 hyperkinetic disorder (relative risk ratio = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.49, 1.04) in children.
Higher maternal circulating levels of 25(OH)D3 in pregnancy are associated with lower risk of developing ADHD-like symptoms in childhood.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Vitamin D status during prenatal brain development may influence risk of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in childhood. However, there are no prospective studies addressing this hypothesis. We aimed to examine whether maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy is associated with risk of ADHD-like symptoms in offspring.
METHODS: We conducted a prospective study analyzing data from 1,650 mother-child pairs from five birth cohorts embedded in the INMA Project (Spain, 1997-2008). Maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy was estimated by measuring plasma concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] at 13 weeks of gestation. Children were assessed by teachers for ADHD-like symptoms at ages 4-5 years using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ADHD form list.
RESULTS: After adjustment, the number of total ADHD-like symptoms in children decreased by 11% per 10 ng/ml increment of maternal 25(OH)D3 concentration (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.80, 0.98). Similarly, the number of symptoms in the ADHD subscales decreased in relation to higher maternal 25(OH)D3 concentration (IRR per 10 ng/ml increment = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.79, 0.99 for the inattention scale; and IRR = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.78, 0.99 for the hyperactivity-impulsivity scale). Using diagnostic criteria, we found an association of increasing maternal 25(OH)D3 with a lower risk of ADHD DSM-IV (relative risk ratio per 10 ng/ml increment = 0.87; 95% CI = 0.72, 1.06) and ICD-10 hyperkinetic disorder (relative risk ratio = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.49, 1.04) in children.
CONCLUSION: Higher maternal circulating levels of 25(OH)D3 in pregnancy are associated with lower risk of developing ADHD-like symptoms in childhood.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To assess nutrient intakes and compliance with nutritional recommendations in pregnant women according to selected sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyles.
METHODS: Cross-sectional study based on data from Spanish INMA cohort which recruited 2,585 pregnant women between 2003 and 2008 from four different regions of Spain. Sociodemographic information and anthropometry was collected and dietary intake was assessed through Food Frequency Questionnaires. The adequacy of food group intake was assessed considering current recommendations and from the Spanish Society of Nutrition. Moreover, intake of vitamin A, vitamin C and vitamin E, were compared with the Dietary Reference Intakes of the US Institute of Medicine.
RESULTS: Percentage of women that did not fulfil the recommendations for cereals and legumes (3-4 servings/day) was 70.0%, for fruit intake (2-3 servings/day) it was 39.2%, for vegetables (2-4 servings/day) 47.3% and for dairy (3-4 servings/day) it was 51.6%. Intake of fruit and vegetables increased with age, educational degree and with physical activity (p<0.05). Also non-Spanish achieved better the recommendations. Percentage of pregnant women that did not fulfil the requirements (DRI) of vitamins A and C was 13.2 % and 16.2 % respectively. More than 65% of the women did not met the recommended diary intake of vitamin E of 19 mg/day during the lactation period.
CONCLUSIONS: Maternal age, education, having healthy habits, as well as country of origin are factors strongly associated with the composition of the diet. Sedentary women and those with a low education are at risk for low vitamin and antioxidant intake and non-optimal food choices during pregnancy.
Nutricion hospitalaria: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral 04/2015; 31(4):1803-1812. DOI:10.3305/nh.2015.31.4.8293 · 1.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related malignancies harbour distinct serological responses to EBV antigens. We hypothesized that EBV serological patterns can be useful to identify different stages of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Information on 150 cases with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and 157 frequency-matched (by age, sex and region) population-based controls from a Spanish multicentre case-control study was obtained. EBV immunoglobulin G serostatus was evaluated through a peptide-based ELISA and further by immunoblot analysis to EBV early antigens (EA), nuclear antigen (EBNA1), VCA-p18, VCA-p40 and Zebra. Two independent individuals categorized the serological patterns of the western blot analysis. Patients with very high response and diversity in EBV-specific polypeptides, in particular with clear responses to EA-associated proteins, were categorized as having an abnormal reactive pattern (ab_EBV). Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using logistic regression models.
Almost all subjects were EBV-IgG positive (>95% of cases and controls) whereas ab_EBV patterns were detected in 23% of cases (N = 34) and 11% of controls (N = 17; OR: 2.44, 95% CI, 1.29 to 4.62; P = 0.006), particularly in intermediate/high risk patients. Although based on small numbers, the association was modified by smoking with a gradual reduction of ab_EBV-related OR for all Rai stages from never smokers to current smokers.
Highly distinct EBV antibody diversity patterns revealed by immunoblot analysis were detected in cases compared to controls, detectable at very early stages of the disease and particularly among non smokers. This study provides further evidence of an abnormal immunological response against EBV in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Infectious Agents and Cancer 02/2015; 10(1). DOI:10.1186/1750-9378-10-5 · 2.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Maternal clinical thyroid disorders can cause reproductive complications. However, the effects of mild thyroid dysfunctions are not yet well established. The aim was to evaluate the association of maternal thyroid function during the first half of pregnancy with birthweight and preterm delivery.Methods
We analysed data on 2170 pregnant women and their children from a prospective population-based cohort study in four Spanish areas. Mid-gestation maternal serum and urine samples were gathered to determine thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), and urinary iodine concentration (UIC). Thyroid status was defined according to percentile distribution as: euthyroid (TSH and fT4 >5th and <95th percentiles); hypothyroxinaemia (fT4 < 5th percentile and TSH normal), hypothyroidism (TSH > 95th percentile and fT4 normal or <5th percentile), hyperthyroxinaemia (fT4 > 95th percentile and TSH normal), and hyperthyroidism (TSH < 5th percentile and fT4 normal or >95th percentile). Response variables were birthweight, small and large for gestational age (SGA/LGA), and preterm delivery.ResultsAn inverse association of fT4 and TSH with birthweight was found, the former remaining when restricted to euthyroid women. High fT4 levels were also associated with an increased risk of SGA [odds ratio, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28 (95% CI 1.08, 1.51)]. Mean birthweight was higher in the hypothyroxinaemic group (β = 109, P < 0.01). Iodine intake and UIC were not associated with birth outcomes.Conclusions
High maternal fT4 levels during the first half of pregnancy were related to lower birthweight and increased risk of SGA newborns, suggesting that maternal thyroid function may affect fetal growth, even within the normal range.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the risk of lung cancer among cooks, while controlling for smoking habits.
We used data from the SYNERGY project including pooled information on lifetime work histories and smoking habits from 16 case-control studies conducted in Europe, Canada, New Zealand, and China.
Before adjustment for smoking, we observed an increased risk of lung cancer in male cooks, but not in female cooks. After adjusting, there was no increased risk and no significant exposure-response relationship. Nevertheless, subgroup analyses highlighted some possible excess risks of squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma in female cooks.
There is evidence that lung cancer risks among cooks may be confounded by smoking. After adjustment, cooks did not experience an increased risk of lung cancer overall. The subgroup analyses showing some excess risks among female cooks require cautious interpretation.
Journal of occupational and environmental medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 02/2015; 57(2):202-9. DOI:10.1097/JOM.0000000000000337 · 1.63 Impact Factor