Theresa I Shireman

Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Michigan, United States

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Publications (57)162.68 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: Our understanding of the effectiveness of cardioprotective medications in maintenance dialysis patients is based upon drug exposures assessed at a single point in time. We employed a novel, time-dependent approach to modeling medication use over time to examine outcomes in a large national cohort. Methods: We linked Medicaid prescription claims with United States Renal Data System registry data and Medicare claims for 52,922 hypertensive maintenance dialysis patients. All-cause mortality and a combined cardiovascular disease (CVD)-endpoint were modeled as functions of exposure to cardioprotective antihypertensive medications (renin angiotensin system antagonists, β-adrenergic blockers, and calcium channel blockers) measured with three time-dependent covariates (weekly exposure status, proportion of prior weeks with exposure, and number of switches in exposure status) and with propensity adjustment. Results: Current cardioprotective medication exposure status as compared to not exposed was associated with lower adjusted hazard ratios (AHRs) for mortality, though the magnitude depended upon the proportion of prior weeks with medication (duration) and the number of switches between active and non-active use (switches) (AHR range 0.54-0.90). Combined CVD-endpoints depended upon the proportion of weeks on medication: AHR = 1.18 for 10% and AHR = 0.90 for 90% of weeks. Combined CVD-endpoint was also lower for patients with fewer switches. Conclusions: Effectiveness depends not only on having a drug available but is tempered by duration and stability of use, likely reflecting variation in clinical stability and patient behavior. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    American journal of nephrology. 08/2014; 40(2):113-122.
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    ABSTRACT: In rural America cigarette smoking is prevalent, few cessation services are available, and healthcare providers lack the time and resources to help smokers quit. This paper describes the design and participant characteristics of Connect2Quit (C2Q), a randomized control trial (RCT) that tests the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of integrated telemedicine counseling delivered by 2-way webcams mounted on desktop computers in participant's physician office examining rooms (ITM) versus quitline counseling delivered by telephone in participant's homes (Phone) for helping rural smokers quit. /Design C2Q was implemented in twenty primary care and safety net clinics. Integrated Telemedicine consisted of real-time video counseling, delivered to patients in their primary care physician's (PCP) office. Phone counseling, was delivered to patients in their homes. All participants received educational materials and guidance in selecting cessation medications. The 566 participants were predominantly Caucasian (92%); 9% were Latino. Most (65%) earned<200% of federal poverty level. One out of three lacked home internet access, 40% were not comfortable using computers, and only 4% had been seen by a doctor via telemedicine in the past. Hypertension, chronic lung disease, and diabetes were highly prevalent. Participants smoked nearly a pack a day and were highly motivated to quit. C2Q is reaching a rural low-income population, with comorbid chronic diseases, that would benefit greatly from quitting smoking. ITM is a good delivery model, which integrates care by holding counseling sessions in the patient's PCP office and keeps the primary care team updated on patients' progress. Trial registration Clinical Trials Registration: NCT00843505.
    Contemporary clinical trials 04/2014; · 1.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer recurrence and death. Women who reside in rural areas have higher obesity prevalence and suffer from breast cancer treatment-related disparities compared to urban women. The objective of this 5-year randomized controlled trial is to compare methods for delivering extended care for weight loss maintenance among rural breast cancer survivors. Group phone-based counseling via conference calls addresses access barriers, is more cost-effective than individual phone counseling, and provides group support which may be ideal for rural breast cancer survivors who are more likely to have unmet support needs. Women (n=210) diagnosed with Stage 0 to III breast cancer in the past 10years who are≥3months out from initial cancer treatments, have a BMI 27-45kg/m(2), and have physician clearance were enrolled from multiple cancer centers. During Phase I (months 0 to 6), all women receive a behavioral weight loss intervention delivered through group phone sessions. Women who successfully lose 5% of weight enter Phase II (months 6 to 18) and are randomized to one of two extended care arms: continued group phone-based treatment or a mail-based newsletter. During Phase III, no contact is made (months 18 to 24). The primary outcome is weight loss maintenance from 6 to 18months. Secondary outcomes include quality of life, serum biomarkers, and cost-effectiveness. This study will provide essential information in how to reach rural survivors in future efforts to establish weight loss support for breast cancer survivors as a standard of care.
    Contemporary clinical trials 01/2014; · 1.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Geographic variation in stroke rates is well established in the general population, with higher rates in the South than in other areas of the United States. A similar pattern of geographic variation in ischemic strokes has also recently been reported in patients undergoing long-term dialysis, but whether this is also the case for hemorrhagic stroke is unknown. Medicare claims from 2000 to 2005 were used to ascertain hemorrhagic stroke events in a large cohort of incident dialysis patients. A Poisson generalized linear mixed model was generated to determine factors associated with stroke and to ascertain state-by-state geographic variability in stroke rates by generating observed-to-expected (O/E) adjusted rate ratios (ARRs) for stroke. A total of 265,685 Medicare-eligible incident dialysis patients were studied. During a median follow-up of 15.5 months, 2397 (0.9%) patients sustained a hemorrhagic stroke. African Americans (ARR, 1.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30 to 1.57), Hispanics (ARR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.57 to 2.03), and individuals of other races (ARR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.26 to 1.80) had a significantly higher risk for hemorrhagic stroke compared with whites. In models adjusted for age and sex, four states had O/E ARRs for hemorrhagic stroke that were significantly greater than 1.0 (California, 1.15; Maryland, 1.25; North Carolina, 1.25; Texas, 1.19), while only 1 had an ARR less than 1.0 (Wisconsin, 0.79). However, after adjustment for race and ethnicity, no states had ARRs that varied significantly from 1.0. Race and ethnicity, or other factors that covary with these, appear to explain a substantial portion of state-by-state geographic variation in hemorrhagic stroke. This finding suggests that the factors underlying the high rate of hemorrhagic strokes in dialysis patients are likely to be system-wide and that further investigations into regional variations in clinical practices are unlikely to identify large opportunities for preventive interventions for this disorder.
    Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 01/2014; · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background States are increasingly turning to managed care arrangements to control costs in their Medicaid programs. Historically, such arrangements have excluded people with disabilities who use long-term services and supports (LTSS) due to their complex needs. Now, however, some states are also moving this population to managed care. Little is known about the experiences of people with disabilities during and after this transition. Objective To document experiences of Medicaid enrollees with disabilities using long-term services and supports during transition to Medicaid managed care in Kansas. Methods During the spring of 2013, 105 Kansans with disabilities using Medicaid long-term services and supports (LTSS) were surveyed via telephone or in-person as they transitioned to managed care. Qualitative data analysis of survey responses was conducted to learn more about the issues encountered by people with disabilities under Medicaid managed care. Results Respondents encountered numerous disability-related difficulties, particularly with transportation, durable medical equipment, care coordination, communication, increased out of pocket costs, and access to care. Conclusions As more states move people with disabilities to Medicaid managed care, it is critically important to address these identified issues for a population that often experiences substantial health disparities and a smaller margin of health. It is hoped that the early experiences reported here can inform policy-makers in other states as they contemplate and design similar programs.
    Disability and Health Journal. 01/2014;
  • James L Vacek, Suzanne L Hunt, Theresa Shireman
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    ABSTRACT: Adults with developmental disability (DD) have high prevalence of coronary artery disease risk factors, as well as impediments to optimal diagnosis and management. We analyzed antihypertensive medication (AM) use and adherence patterns in a Kansas Medicaid cohort. We studied adults (18-64 years) with DD and claims for HT from 7/1/05 to 8/31/06, with review of prescription records of AM use and adherence from 9/1/06 to 8/31/07. Adherence was calculated as proportion of days covered (PDC). Of 3079 eligible people, 280 (9%) had claims for HT: 51% male, mean age 42 ± 13, and 81% Caucasian. Of these, 280 (72%) had claims for at least 1 AM; 57% received ≥2 AM. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blockers were most commonly prescribed (65%) followed by diuretics (50%), beta blockers (34%), and calcium channel blockers (26%). Mean PDCs by class ranged from 0.622 to 0.693: 55% had a PDC ≥0.80, a common goal for adherence. Younger individuals were more likely to be adherent (p <0.05), but adherence was not significantly associated with comorbid conditions, gender, or race. Of our cohort of adults with DD, 9% had HT of whom 72% submitted claims for AMs. A substantial proportion of subjects had inconsistent AM use suggesting suboptimal therapy. The association between younger ages and higher adherence may reflect better community-based support for younger adults. Further work is needed to identify barriers to optimal care for this vulnerable population.
    Disability and Health Journal 10/2013; 6(4):297-302. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Geographic variation in stroke rates is well established in the general population, with higher rates in the South than in other areas of the United States. ESRD is a potent risk factor for stroke, but whether regional variations in stroke risk exist among dialysis patients is unknown. Medicare claims from 2000 to 2005 were used to ascertain ischemic stroke events in a large cohort of 265,685 incident dialysis patients. A Poisson generalized linear mixed model was generated to determine factors associated with stroke and to ascertain state-by-state geographic variability in stroke rates by generating observed-to-expected (O/E) adjusted rate ratios for stroke. Older age, female sex, African American race and Hispanic ethnicity, unemployed status, diabetes, hypertension, history of stroke, and permanent atrial fibrillation were positively associated with ischemic stroke, whereas body mass index >30 kg/m(2) was inversely associated with stroke (P<0.001 for each). After full multivariable adjustment, the three states with O/E rate ratios >1.0 were all in the South: North Carolina, Mississippi, and Oklahoma. Regional efforts to increase primary prevention in the "stroke belt" or to better educate dialysis patients on the signs of stroke so that they may promptly seek care may improve stroke care and outcomes in dialysis patients.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 08/2013; · 8.99 Impact Factor
  • Theresa I Shireman, Amanda Reichard, Suzanne L Hunt
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    ABSTRACT: State Medicaid programs provide critical health care access for persons with disabilities and older adults. Aged, Blind and Disabled (ABD) programs consist of important disability subgroups that Medicaid programs are not able to readily distinguish. The purpose of this project was to create an algorithm based principally on eligibility and claims data to distinguish disability subgroups and characterize differences in demographic characteristics, disease burden, and health care expenditures. We created an algorithm to distinguish Kansas Medicaid enrollees as adults with intellectual or developmental delays (IDD), physical disabilities (PD), severe mental illness (SMI), and older age. For fiscal year 2009, our algorithm separated 101,464 ABD enrollees into the following disability subgroups: persons with IDD (19.6%), persons with PD (21.0%), older adults (19.7%), persons with SMI (32.8%), and persons not otherwise classified (6.9%). The disease burden present in the IDD, PD, and SMI subgroups was higher than for older adults. Home- and community-based services expenditures were common and highest for persons with IDD and PD. Older adults and persons with SMI had their highest expenditures for long-term care. Mean Medicaid expenditures were consistently higher for adults with IDD followed by adults with PD. There are substantial differences between disability subgroups in the Kansas Medicaid ABD population with respect to demographics, disease burden, and health care expenditures. Through this algorithm, state Medicaid programs have the opportunity to collaborate with the most closely aligned service providers reflecting needed services for each disability subgroup.
    Disability and Health Journal 07/2013; 6(3):220-6. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To determine whether antipsychotic medication initiation is associated with subsequent fracture in nursing home residents, whether fracture rates differ between users of first- and second-generation antipsychotics, and whether fracture rates differ between users of haloperidol, risperidone, olanzapine, and quetiapine. DESIGN: Time-to-event analyses were conducted in a retrospective cohort using linked Medicaid; Medicare; Minimum Data Set; and Online Survey, Certification, and Reporting data sets. SETTING: Nursing homes in California, Florida, Missouri, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. PARTICIPANTS: Nursing home residents aged ≥ 65. MEASUREMENTS: Fracture outcomes (any fracture; hip fracture) in users of first- and second-generation anti-psychotic and specifically users of haloperidol, risperidone, olanzapine, and quetiapine. Comparisons incorporated propensity scores that included individual- (demographic characteristics, comorbidity, diagnoses, weight, fall history, concomitant medications, cognitive performance, physical function, aggressive behavior) and facility- (nursing home size, ownership factors, staffing levels) level variables. RESULTS: Of 8,262 subjects (in 4,131 pairs), 4.3% suffered any fracture during observation, with 1% having a hip fracture during an average follow-up period of 93 ± 71 days (range 1-293 days). Antipsychotic initiation was associated with any fracture (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.39, P = .004) and hip fracture (HR = 1.76, P = .02). The highest risk was found for hip fracture when antipsychotic use was adjusted for dose (HR = 2.96, P = .008), but no differences in time to fracture were found between first- and second-generation agents or between individual drugs. CONCLUSION: Antipsychotic initiation is associated with fracture in nursing home residents, but risk does not differ between commonly used antipsychotics.
    Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 04/2013; · 3.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The Liu Comorbidity Index uses the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) to quantify comorbidity in chronic dialysis patients, capturing baseline comorbidities from days 91 through 270 after dialysis initiation. The 270 day survival requirement results in sample size reductions and potential survivor bias. An earlier and shorter time-frame for data capture could be beneficial, if sufficiently similar comorbidity information could be ascertained. METHODS: USRDS data were used in a retrospective observational study of 70,114 Medicare- and Medicaid-eligible persons who initiated chronic dialysis during the years 2000--2005. The Liu index was modified by changing the baseline comorbidity capture period to days 1--90 after dialysis initiation for persons continuously enrolled in Medicare. The scores resulting from the original and the modified comorbidity indices were compared, and the impact on sample size was calculated. RESULTS: The original Liu comorbidity index could be calculated for 75% of the sample, but the remaining 25% did not survive to 270 days. Among 52,937 individuals for whom both scores could be calculated, the mean scores for the original and the modified index were 7.4 +/- 4.0 and 6.4 +/- 3.6 points, respectively, on a 24-point scale. The most commonly calculated difference between scores was zero, occurring in 44% of patients. Greater comorbidity was found in those who died before 270 days. CONCLUSIONS: A modified version of the Liu comorbidity index captures the majority of comorbidity in persons who are Medicare-enrolled at the time of chronic dialysis initiation. This modification reduces sample size losses and facilitates inclusion of a sicker portion of the population in whom early mortality is common.
    BMC Nephrology 02/2013; 14(1):51. · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Racial minorities typically have less exposure than non-minorities to antihypertensive medications across an array of cardiovascular conditions in the general population. However, cumulative exposure has not been investigated in dialysis patients. METHODS In a longitudinal analysis of 38,381 hypertensive dialysis patients, prescription drug data from Medicaid was linked to Medicare data contained in United States Renal Data System core data, creating a national cohort of dialysis patients dually eligible for Medicare and Medicaid services. The proportion of days covered (PDC) was calculated to determine cumulative exposure to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), β-blockers, and calcium-channel blockers (CCDs). The factors associated with use of these medications were modeled through weighted linear regression, with derivation of the adjusted odds ratios (AORs) for exposure. RESULTS Relative to non-Hispanic Caucasians, African-American, Hispanic, or Other race/ethnicity were significantly associated with less exposure to β-blockers (AOR 0.56-0.69, P < 0.001 in each case) and CCBs (AOR 0.84-0.85, P < 0.001 in each case); African-American race and Hispanic ethnicity had AORs of 0.78 and 0.73 for ACEIs and ARBs, respectively (P < 0.001 in both cases). Collectively, the odds of exposure to each class of medication for minorities was about three-quarters of that for Caucasians. CONCLUSIONS Given that dually Medicare-and-Medicaid-eligible dialysis patients have insurance coverage for prescription medications as well as regular contact with health care providers, differences by race in exposure to antihypertensive medications should with time be minimal among patients who are candidates for these drugs. The causes of differences by race in exposure to antihypertensive medications over the course of time should be further examined.
    American Journal of Hypertension 02/2013; 26(2):234-42. · 3.67 Impact Factor
  • Victoria Wangia, Theresa I Shireman
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: While understanding geography's role in healthcare has been an area of research for over 40 years, the application of geography-based analyses to prescription medication use is limited. The body of literature was reviewed to assess the current state of such studies to demonstrate the scale and scope of projects in order to highlight potential research opportunities. OBJECTIVE: To review systematically how researchers have applied geography-based analyses to medication use data. METHODS: Empiric, English language research articles were identified through PubMed and bibliographies. Original research articles were independently reviewed as to the medications or classes studied, data sources, measures of medication exposure, geographic units of analysis, geospatial measures, and statistical approaches. RESULTS: From 145 publications matching key search terms, forty publications met the inclusion criteria. Cardiovascular and psychotropic classes accounted for the largest proportion of studies. Prescription drug claims were the primary source, and medication exposure was frequently captured as period prevalence. Medication exposure was documented across a variety of geopolitical units such as countries, provinces, regions, states, and postal codes. Most results were descriptive and formal statistical modeling capitalizing on geospatial techniques was rare. CONCLUSION: Despite the extensive research on small area variation analysis in healthcare, there are a limited number of studies that have examined geographic variation in medication use. Clearly, there is opportunity to collaborate with geographers and GIS professionals to harness the power of GIS technologies and to strengthen future medication studies by applying more robust geospatial statistical methods.
    Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy 01/2013; · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Both stroke and chronic atrial fibrillation (AF) are common in dialysis patients, but uncertainty exists in the incidence of new strokes and the risk conferred by chronic AF. METHODS: A cohort of dually eligible (Medicare and Medicaid) incident dialysis patients was constructed. Medicare claims were used to determine the onset of chronic AF, which was specifically treated as a time-dependent covariate. Cox proportional hazards models were used to model time to stroke. RESULTS: Of 56,734 patients studied, 5629 (9.9%) developed chronic AF. There were 22.8 ischemic and 5.0 hemorrhagic strokes per 1000 patient-years, a ratio of approximately 4.5:1. Chronic AF was independently associated with time to ischemic (hazard ratio [HR], 1.26; 99% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.49; P = .0005), but not hemorrhagic, stroke. Race was strongly associated with hemorrhagic stroke: African Americans (HR, 1.46; 99% CI, 1.08-1.96), Hispanics (HR, 1.64; 99% CI, 1.16-2.31), and others (HR, 1.76; 99% CI, 1.16-2.78) had higher rates than did Caucasians (all P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Chronic AF has a significant, but modest, association with ischemic stroke. Race/ethnicity is strongly associated with hemorrhagic strokes. The proportion of strokes owing to hemorrhage is much higher than in the general population.
    Annals of epidemiology 01/2013; · 2.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Employee wellness programs (EWPs) have been used to implement worksite-based cancer prevention and control interventions. However, little is known about whether these programs result in improved adherence to cancer screening guidelines or how participants' characteristics affect subsequent screening. This study was conducted to describe cancer screening behaviors among participants in a state EWP and identify factors associated with screening adherence among those who were initially nonadherent. We identified employees and their dependents who completed health risk assessments (HRAs) as part of the Kansas state EWP in both 2008 and 2009. We examined baseline rates of adherence to cancer screening guidelines in 2008 and factors associated with adherence in 2009 among participants who were initially nonadherent. Of 53,095 eligible participants, 13,222 (25%) participated in the EWP in 2008 and 6,205 (12%) participated in both years. Among the multiyear participants, adherence was high at baseline to screening for breast (92.5%), cervical (91.8%), and colorectal cancer (72.7%). Of participants who were initially nonadherent in 2008, 52.4%, 41.3%, and 33.5%, respectively, became adherent in the following year to breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening. Suburban/urban residence and more frequent doctor visits predicted adherence to breast and colorectal cancer screening guidelines. The effectiveness of EWPs for increasing cancer screening is limited by low HRA participation rates, high rates of adherence to screening at baseline, and failure of nonadherent participants to get screening. Improving overall adherence to cancer screening guidelines among employees will require efforts to increase HRA participation, stronger interventions for nonadherent participants, and better access to screening for rural employees.
    Preventing chronic disease 01/2013; 10:E115. · 1.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Post-discharge support is a key component of effective treatment for hospitalized smokers, but few hospitals provide it. Many hospitals and care settings fax refer smokers to quitlines for follow up, however, less than half of fax-referred smokers are successfully contacted and enrolled in quitline services. "Warm handoff" is a novel approach to care transitions in which health care providers directly link patients with substance abuse problems with specialists, using face-to-face or phone transfer. Warm handoff achieves very high rates of treatment enrollment for these vulnerable groups. METHODS: The aim of this study--"EQUIP" (Enhancing Quitline Utilization among In-Patients)--is to determine the effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness, of warm handoff versus fax referral for linking hospitalized smokers with tobacco quitlines. This study employs a two-arm, individually randomized design. It is set in two large Kansas hospitals that have dedicated tobacco treatment interventionists on staff. At each site, smokers who wish to remain abstinent after discharge will be randomly assigned to groups. For patients in the fax group, staff will provide standard in-hospital intervention and will fax-refer patients to the state tobacco quitline for counseling post-discharge. For patients in the warm handoff group, staff will provide brief in-hospital intervention and immediate warm handoff: staff will call the state quitline, notify them that a warm handoff inpatient from Kansas is on the line, then transfer the call to the patients' mobile or bedside hospital phone for quitline enrollment and an initial counseling session. Following the quitline session, hospital staff provide a brief check-back visit. Costs are measured to support cost-effectiveness analyses. We hypothesize that warm handoff, compared to fax referral, will improve care transitions for tobacco treatment, enroll more participants in quitline services and lead to higher quit rates. We also hypothesize that warm handoff will be more cost-effective from a societal perspective. Outcome measures will be assessed at 1, 6, and 12-months post enrollment. DISCUSSION: If successful, this project offers a low-cost solution for more efficiently linking millions of hospitalized smokers with effective outpatient treatment--smokers that might otherwise be lost in the transition to outpatient care. Trial registration: Clinical Trials Registration NCT01305928 Key words: Tobacco use disorder, smoking cessation, hospital, randomized clinical trial.
    Trials 08/2012; 13(1):127. · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients on dialysis have high rates of cardiovascular disease and are frequently treated with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Given that these patients have insurance coverage for medications as well as regular contact with health care providers, differences by race in exposure to statins over time should be minimal among patients who are candidates for the drug. We created a cohort of incident dialysis patients who were dually eligible for Medicare and Medicaid services. We determined the proportion of days covered (or PDC, a marker of cumulative medication exposure) by a statin prescription over a mean of 2.0 ± 1.4 years. Ordinary least squares regression was used to determine the factors associated with cumulative drug exposure. Of the 18,727 patients who filled at least one prescription for a statin, mean PDC was 0.57 ± 0.32. The unadjusted PDC was higher for Caucasians (0.63 ± 0.31) than for African-Americans (0.51 ± 0.32), Hispanics (0.54 ± 0.31), and individuals of other race/ethnicity (0.58 ± 0.32). In multivariable modeling, Caucasian race was independently associated with greater exposure to statins. Relative to Caucasians, the adjusted odds ratios for the PDC for African-Americans was 0.47 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.43-0.50), for Hispanics 0.52 (0.48-0.56) and for others, 0.72 (0.64-0.81). Despite insurance coverage, regular contact with health care providers, and at least one prescription for a statin, there are large differences by race in statin exposure over time. The provider- and patient-associated factors related to this phenomenon should be further examined.
    American Journal of Nephrology 06/2012; 36(1):90-6. · 2.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite uncertainty about their effectiveness in chronic dialysis patients, statin use has increased in recent years. Little is known about the demographic, clinical, and geographic factors associated with statin exposure in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. To analyze the demographic, clinical, and geographic factors associated with use of statins among chronic dialysis patients. Cross-sectional analysis. Prevalent dialysis patients across the U.S. 55,573 chronic dialysis patients who were dually eligible for Medicaid and Medicare services during the last four months of 2005. Using Medicaid prescription drug claims and United States Renal Data System core data, we examined demographics, comorbid conditions, and state of residence using hierarchical logistic regression models to determine their associations with statin use. Prescription for a statin. Factors associated with a prescription for a statin. Statin exposure was significantly associated with older age, female sex, Caucasian (versus African-American) race, body mass index, use of self-care dialysis, diabetes, and comorbidity burden. Moreover, there was substantial state-by-state variation in statin use, with a greater than 2.3-fold difference in adjusted odds ratios between the highest- and lowest-prescribing states. Among publicly insured chronic dialysis patients, there were marked differences between states in the use of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors above and beyond patient characteristics. This suggests substantial clinical uncertainty about the utility of these medications. Understanding how such regional variations impact patient care in this high-risk population is an important focus for future work.
    Journal of General Internal Medicine 06/2012; 27(11):1475-83. · 3.28 Impact Factor
  • Revista Costarricense de Salud Pública. 06/2012; 21(1):03-08.
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    ABSTRACT: Similar to health disparities found among racial and ethnic minority groups, individuals with physical disabilities experience a greater risk for diabetes than those without disabilities. The purpose of this works was to assess Kansas Medicaid data to determine the quality of diabetic care and the level to which individuals with physical disabilities' prevention and diabetes management needs are being met. We selected a continuously eligible cohort of adults (ages 18 and older) with physical disabilities who had diabetes and received medical benefits through Kansas Medicaid. We examined their quality of care measures (screening for HbA1c/glucose, cholesterol, and eye exams; and, primary care visits) in the succeeding year. Using unconditional logistic regression, we assessed the measures for quality of care as they related to demographic variables and comorbid hypertension. Thirty-nine percent of the 9,532 adults with physical disabilities had diabetes. They had the following testing rates: HbA1c, 82.7%; cholesterol, 51.5%; and eye examinations, 86.8%. Females, those with dual eligibility, and those with comorbid hypertension had higher rates for all types of screenings and primary care visits. Those living in MUAs had a higher screening rate for cholesterol. Adults with physical disabilities supported by Kansas Medicaid received diabetes quality indicator screenings have better diabetes quality of care rates for 3 out of 4 measures than nationally published figures for Medicaid. These findings point to a strong quality of care programs in Kansas for this population; however an imperative next step is to determine how effectively this population is managing their blood sugar levels day-to-day.
    Disability and Health Journal 01/2012; 5(1):34-40. · 1.50 Impact Factor
  • American Journal of Health Education. 01/2012; 43(4):226-232.

Publication Stats

469 Citations
162.68 Total Impact Points


  • 2014
    • Vanderbilt University
      • Department of Psychology
      Nashville, Michigan, United States
  • 2010–2014
    • Kansas City VA Medical Center
      Kansas City, Missouri, United States
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • Department of Surgery
      Saint Louis, MO, United States
  • 2008–2014
    • Kansas City University of Medicine and Biosciences
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Kansas City, Missouri, United States
  • 2013
    • Fox Chase Cancer Center
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
    • Southwest Kidney Institute, PNC
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
  • 2002–2012
    • University of Kansas
      • • Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
      • • Division of General and Geriatric Medicine
      • • Center on Aging
      • • Department of Pharmacy Practice
      • • School of Pharmacy
      Lawrence, Kansas, United States
  • 2005
    • Hackensack University Medical Center
      Hackensack, New Jersey, United States