Gilles Edan

Université de Rennes 2, Roazhon, Brittany, France

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Publications (213)1148.6 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To explore long-term effects of treatment and prognostic relevance of variables assessed at baseline and during the European secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) trial of interferon beta 1b (IFNB-1b). Methods: We assessed 362 patients (60% female; median age 41 years; Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS): 5.5; 51% randomized to IFNB-1b) for their EDSS and treatment history after 10 years. Non-parametric analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and multivariate linear regression models were applied. Results: Median EDSS was 6.0 at the end of the randomized controlled trial (RCT), in the IFNB-1b and placebo groups, and 7.0 in long-term follow-up patients (those receiving IFNB-1b in the RCT were 6.5 and those receiving placebo in the RCT were 7.0; p = 0.086). 24 patients (6.6%) were deceased. The EDSS at baseline and the EDSS change during the RCT were the most important predictors of the EDSS 10 years later (partial R(2): 0.47). The ability to predict changes in EDSS 10 years after the RCT was limited (R(2): 0.12). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures remained in the predictive models, but explained < 5% of the variability. Conclusions: The results from this analysis did not provide convincing evidence to support a favorable long-term outcome in those patients allocated IFNB-1b during the RCT, in our SPMS cohort. The progressive stage of the disease remains largely unpredictable by clinical and conventional MRI measures, so better prognostic markers are needed.
    Multiple Sclerosis 09/2015; DOI:10.1177/1352458515594440 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mitoxantrone has been approved for patients with worsening relapsing-remitting (RR) or secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS), but its long-term use is limited by its cardiotoxicity. Pixantrone (PIX) is an analog of mitoxantrone. The aim of this open-label, multicenter, noncomparative Phase I/II trial was to explore the immunosuppressive effect of PIX, its impact on clinical disease activity and cerebral gadolinium-enhanced (Gd(+)) lesions, and its safety. Eighteen patients with active RRMS and SPMS (⩾ 1 cerebral Gd(+) lesion) despite approved immunomodulatory therapy received four intravenous PIX injections every 21 days. A neurological examination, hematology, lymphocyte subsets, and biochemistry were performed at Day 1, Weeks 3, 6 and 9, and Months 3, 6, 9 and 12. Echocardiography was performed before each infusion, at Months 3, 6 and 12. Cerebral MRI was performed at baseline, and at Months 6 and 12. CD19+ cells were reduced by 95% at Month 3 and by 47% at Month 12. Gd+ lesions were reduced by 86% at Month 12 (p = 0.01). The annual relapse rate was reduced by 87% (p < 10(-4)). Two patients experienced a transient reduction in left ventricular fraction. These preliminary data indicate the efficacy of PIX in active RRMS and SPMS. © The Author(s), 2015.
    Multiple Sclerosis 08/2015; DOI:10.1177/1352458515601902 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies in multiple sclerosis (MS) showed longer survival times from clinical onset than older hospital-based series. However estimated median time ranges widely, from 24 to 45 years, which makes huge difference for patients as this neurological disease mainly starts around age 20 to 40. Precise and up-to-date reference data about mortality in MS are crucial for patients and neurologists, but unavailable yet in France. Estimate survival in MS patients and compare mortality with that of the French general population. We conducted a multicenter observational study involving clinical longitudinal data from 30,413 eligible patients, linked to the national deaths register. Inclusion criteria were definite MS diagnosis and clinical onset prior to January, 1st 2009 in order to get a minimum of 1-year disease duration. After removing between-center duplicates and applying inclusion criteria, the final population comprised 27,603 MS patients (F/M sex ratio 2.5, mean age at onset 33.0 years, 85.5% relapsing onset). During the follow-up period (mean 15.2 +/- 10.3 years), 1569 deaths (5.7%) were identified; half related to MS. Death rates were significantly higher in men, patients with later clinical onset, and in progressive MS. Overall excess mortality compared with the general population was moderate (Standardized Mortality Ratio 1.48, 95% confidence interval [1.41-1.55]), but increased considerably after 20 years of disease (2.20 [2.10-2.31]). This study revealed a moderate decrease in life expectancy in MS patients, and showed that the risk of dying is strongly correlated to disease duration and disability, highlighting the need for early actions that can slow disability progression.
    PLoS ONE 07/2015; 10(7):e0132033. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0132033 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Central nervous system bleeding is a rare complication of neurosarcoidosis: only 18 cases of spontaneous cerebral hematoma have been reported. We present the first recorded case of spinal cord hemorrhage in neurosarcoidosis. A 48-year-old Caucasian woman had relapsing neurosarcoidosis for 5 years, with inflammatory spinal and cerebral lesions. While on 20 mg corticosteroids, she experienced subacute paraparesia with right leg pain. A spine MRI revealed a low thoracic hematomyelia at the T10-T11 level. Despite high doses of corticosteroids, her condition continued to worsen. Surgical evacuation of the hematoma was performed 10 days after the onset of bleeding, and she partially recovered. This report highlights the possibility of spinal cord hemorrhage secondary to sarcoid vasculitis. The patient improved after surgical evacuation of the intramedullary hematoma. Immuno-modulating agents must be envisaged in severe neurosarcoidosis, to prevent complications.
    BMC Neurology 07/2015; 15(1):123. DOI:10.1186/s12883-015-0373-6 · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High doses of intravenous methylprednisolone are recommended to treat relapses in patients with multiple sclerosis, but can be inconvenient and expensive. We aimed to assess whether oral administration of high-dose methylprednisolone was non-inferior to intravenous administration. We did this multicentre, double-blind, randomised, controlled, non-inferiority trial at 13 centres for multiple sclerosis in France. We enrolled patients aged 18-55 years with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis who reported a relapse within the previous 15 days that caused an increase of at least one point in one or more scores on the Kurtzke Functional System Scale. With use of a computer-generated randomisation list and in blocks of four, we randomly assigned (1:1) patients to either oral or intravenous methylprednisolone, 1000 mg, once a day for 3 days. Patients, treating physicians and nurses, and data and outcome assessors were all masked to treatment allocation, which was achieved with the use of saline solution and placebo capsules. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who had improved by day 28 (decrease of at least one point in most affected score on Kurtzke Functional System Scale), without need for retreatment with corticosteroids, in the per-protocol population. The trial was powered to assess non-inferiority of oral compared with intravenous methylprednisolone with a predetermined non-inferiority margin of 15%. This trial is registered with, number NCT00984984. Between Jan 29, 2008, and June 14, 2013, we screened 200 patients and enrolled 199. We randomly assigned 100 patients to oral methylprednisolone and 99 patients to intravenous methylprednisolone with a mean time from relapse onset to treatment of 7·0 days (SD 3·6) and 7·4 days (3·9), respectively. In the per-protocol population, 66 (81%) of 82 patients in the oral group and 72 (80%) of 90 patients in the intravenous group achieved the primary endpoint (absolute treatment difference 0·5%, 90% CI -9·5 to 10·4). Rates of adverse events were similar, but insomnia was more frequently reported in the oral group (77 [77%]) than in the intravenous group (63 [64%]). Oral administration of high-dose methylprednisolone for 3 days was not inferior to intravenous administration for improvement of disability scores 1 month after treatment and had a similar safety profile. This finding could have implications for access to treatment, patient comfort, and cost, but indication should always be properly considered by clinicians. French Health Ministry, Ligue Française contre la SEP, Teva. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    The Lancet 06/2015; 386(9997). DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(15)61137-0 · 45.22 Impact Factor
  • Revue Neurologique 04/2015; 171:A75. DOI:10.1016/j.neurol.2015.01.167 · 0.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We propose a new algorithm for the voxelwise analysis of orientation distribution functions between one image and a group of reference images. It relies on a generic framework for the comparison of diffusion probabilities on the sphere, sampled from the underlying models. We demonstrate that this method, combined to dimensionality reduction through a principal component analysis, allows for more robust detection of lesions on simulated data when compared to classical tensor-based analysis. We then demonstrate the efficiency of this pipeline on the longitudinal comparison of multiple sclerosis patients at an early stage of the disease: right after their first clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and three months later. We demonstrate the predictive value of ODF-based scores for the early detection of lesions that will appear or heal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Medical image analysis 03/2015; 22(1). DOI:10.1016/ · 3.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our study aimed to describe safety and neurological impact of alemtuzumab as last-line rescue therapy in aggressive multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, previously treated by Mitoxantrone (MITOX). Between June 2004 and October 2013, 13 patients received alemtuzumab at 20 mg/day and 3 at 12 mg/day for 5 days. EDSS, relapses, secondary progression were prospectively assessed 12 and 6 months before treatment, at baseline and every 3 months. Mean follow-up was 6.2 years [1–10]. Mean age at alemtuzumab start was 40 years [26–49] for 8 Secondary Progressive (SP) and 30 years [26–35] for 8 Relapsing-Remitting (RR) patients. MS duration was 13.7 (±3) and 8.3 (±4) years, respectively. During the 12 months before alemtuzumab, annual relapse rate was 0.75 and 3.14, respectively and the 16 patients accumulated 2–30 new gadolinium enhancing lesions. 4 patients (suboptimal responders) received alemtuzumab during MITOX and 12 patients 1–7.8 years after MITOX. Out of 8 SPMS, 2 were disease free up to last visit (4.7 and 8 years), 5 improved or stabilized but only transiently and 1 worsened. Out of 8 RRMS, 1 remained stable up to last visit (8.7 years) despite 1 relapse and active MRI at 18 months and 7 improved (1–4 point EDSS): 4 remained disease free up to last visit (12, 24, 38 months and 7 years), 2 were successfully retreated at 25 and 33 months and 1 worsened progressively 24 months after alemtuzumab. 2 patients developed Grave’s disease and 1 hypothyroidism. Alemtuzumab controls aggressive RRMS despite previous use of MITOX.
    Journal of Neurology 02/2015; 262(4). DOI:10.1007/s00415-015-7653-3 · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The introduction of the McDonald criteria has enabled earlier diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, even with the 2010 revised criteria, nearly 50 % of patients remain classified as "possible MS" following the first MRI. The present study aimed to demonstrate that time to MS diagnosis could be shorter than 2010 revised criteria, and established after a single early MRI in most patients with the association of the symptomatic lesion and at least one suggestive asymptomatic lesion. We also evaluated the short-term predictive capacity of an individual suggestive lesion on disease activity. We analyzed initial MRI results from 146 patients with MS from a multicenter retrospective study. Visualization of the symptomatic lesion was used as a primary criterion. Secondary criteria included one suggestive lesion (SL) aspect or topography on MRI, or one non-specific lesion associated with positive CSF. The proposed criteria led to a positive diagnosis of MS in 100 % of cases, from information available from the time of the first MRI for 145 patients (99.3 %). At least one SL was observed for 143 patients (97.9 %), and positive CSF for the 3 others. Compared to the McDonald criteria, the proposed criteria had 100 % sensitivity, with a significantly shorter mean time to reach a positive diagnosis. Furthermore, the simultaneous presence of corpus callosum, temporal horn, and ovoid lesions was associated with radiological or clinical activity after a year of follow-up. The proposed diagnostic criteria are easy to apply, have a good sensitivity, and allow an earlier diagnosis than the 2010 McDonald criteria. Nevertheless, prospective studies are needed to establish specificity and to confirm these findings.
    Journal of Neurology 02/2015; 262(4). DOI:10.1007/s00415-015-7668-9 · 3.38 Impact Factor
  • Christian Sindic · Gilles Edan
    Multiple Sclerosis 02/2015; 21(5). DOI:10.1177/1352458515572242 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inherited white matter diseases are rare and heterogeneous disorders usually encountered in infancy. Adult-onset forms are increasingly recognized. Our objectives were to determine relative frequencies of genetic leukoencephalopathies in a cohort of adult-onset patients and to evaluate the effectiveness of a systematic diagnostic approach. Inclusion criteria of this retrospective study were: (i) symmetrical involvement of white matter on the first available brain MRI; (ii) age of onset above 16 years. Patients with acquired diseases were excluded. Magnetic resonance imaging analysis identified three groups (vascular, cavitary and non-vascular/non-cavitary) in which distinct genetic and/or biochemical testing were realized. One hundred and fifty-four patients (male/female = 60/94) with adult-onset leukoencephalopathies were identified. Mean age of onset was 38.6 years. In the vascular group, 41/55 patients (75%) finally had a diagnosis [including CADASIL (cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, n = 32) and COL4A1 mutation, n = 7]. In the cavitary group, 13/17 (76%) patients had a diagnosis of EIF2B-related disorder. In the third group (n = 82), a systematic biological screening allowed a diagnosis in 23 patients (28%) and oriented direct genetic screening identified 21 additional diseases (25.6%). Adult-onset genetic leukoencephalopathies are a rare but probably underestimated entity. Our study confirms the use of a magnetic resonance imaging-based classification with a final diagnosis rate of 64% (98/154) cases. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:
    Brain 12/2014; 138(2). DOI:10.1093/brain/awu353 · 9.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and purpose: Multiple sclerosis (MS) prognosis remains a challenge for both patients and physicians. Complementary to natural history studies, updated population-based data from the first event suggestive of MS, at the time of the first approved disease modifying drug (DMD), are needed. Our objective was to provide a 10-year history of MS from clinical onset at time of first approved DMDs in a population-based cohort. Methods: A population-based cohort of patients whose first clinical event suggestive of MS had occurred in Brittany between 2000 and 2001 was prospectively selected. History of relapses, treatments and disability up to 10 years after onset were collected. Results: In all, 278 patients with either attack-onset (n = 244) or progressive-onset (n = 34) were recruited. Amongst attack-onset patients, 30% remained as clinically isolated syndrome and 70% had a second relapse after a median time of 1.7 years (95% confidence interval 1.2-2.4). 80% of relapsing-remitting MS patients received DMDs for at least 6 months. 29% reached disability status scale (DSS) 3 and 8% DSS 6. Amongst progressive-onset patients, 100% reached DSS 3 and 59% DSS 6. Conclusion(s): Our population-based study reports a lower risk of disability progression at 10-year follow-up in the relapsing-remitting MS group than previously reported. This better prognosis was not observed in the progressive-onset MS group. This finding impacts the prognosis given to patients in clinical practice.
    European Journal of Neurology 12/2014; 22(3). DOI:10.1111/ene.12600 · 4.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The clinical impact of neutralizing antibodies against interferon-beta (NAb) is controversial. Their presence can lead to a decrease in interferon-beta (IFNß) efficacy. Fatigue reported in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) may be associated with an unfavorable clinical course. We conducted a prospective multicentre study to assess the association between response to IFNß, NAb and fatigue.Methods Patients with relapsing-remitting MS on IFNß treatment were included. During the second year of treatment, the patients were analyzed for NAb status and non-response criteria to IFNß (number of relapses ¿1 during the follow-up period, increase in the Expanded Disability Status Scale ¿0.5). The score on the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS pathological if score ¿35) was noted for each patient.ResultsOf the 176 patients included: 22.3% were NAb positive, 54.5% presented non-response criteria to IFNß, and 57.4% had a pathological MFIS score. Fatigue was increased in NAb¿+¿patients (p¿=¿0.0014) and they were more likely to present non-response criteria to IFNß (p¿=¿0.041) than NAb- patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of NAb was related to fatigue (p¿=¿0.0032) and denoted disease activity in these patients (p¿=¿0.026).Conclusions This study demonstrates the impact of NAb on the non-clinical response to IFNß. Fatigue assessment is an indicator of IFNß responsiveness and a predictive biomarker of deterioration on patient¿s neurological status.
    BMC Neurology 11/2014; 14(1):215. DOI:10.1186/s12883-014-0215-y · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To report on multiple sclerosis (MS) incidence in Brittany, north-western France.Materials & Methods From 2000, we set up a population-based register for patients presenting a putative incident MS (PIMS), that is first symptoms compatible with MS onset. We used 3 medical sources of case ascertainment (neurologists, CSF, regional MS-Clinic). Eligibility criteria required both clinical onset and being permanent resident of Brittany in 2000 or 2001. From 2010, all medical records were tracked, the 10-year follow-up allowing previously reported data to be updated.ResultsOf 313 eligible PIMS, there were 208 definite MS (both McDonald and Poser criteria), 41 CIS-probable MS (Poser criteria), 32 CIS-possible MS and 32 non-MS. Our incident cohort of 249 MS cases with definite/probable MS (sex ratio 2.95) gave a crude annual incidence of 4.28 per 100,000 inhabitants (6.22 for women, 2.23 for men), and age-standardized rates (adjustment to the European population) of 4.41 [3.32–5.51], 6.68 [4.75–8.60], and 2.21 [1.12–3.31], respectively. Age-specific rates by gender and initial course showed that attack onset MS peaked at 25–29 years and progressive onset MS at 40–44 years in women (20–24 years and 45–49 years in men, respectively).Conclusions Brittany is confirmed a high-risk region for MS. Our data show marked differences in sex-specific pattern of MS incidence by clinical course and point out 25- to 29-year-old women as having the highest MS risk. While temporal variations cannot be excluded, comparison with overall French data suggests that other factors rather than latitude may influence the MS risk in France.
    Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 10/2014; 131(5). DOI:10.1111/ane.12332 · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Some previous studies suggest modest to strong effects of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) on multiple sclerosis (MS) activity. The objective of this study was to explore the mechanistic rationale that may explain potential clinical effects of 25(OH)D.Methods This study measured serum 25(OH)D levels and global gene expression profiles over a course of up to 2 years in patients starting treatment with interferon beta-1b (IFNB-1b) after a clinically isolated syndrome. MS disease activity was assessed by the number of gadolinium-enhancing lesions present on repeated magnetic resonance imaging (MRIs).ResultsThe number of gadolinium-enhancing lesions was highly significantly associated with 25(OH)D levels. Conducting various systems-level analyses on the molecular level, multiple lines of evidence indicated that 25(OH)D regulates expression dynamics of a large gene–gene interaction system which primarily regulates immune modulatory processes modulating MS activity. The vitamin D response element was significantly enriched in this system, indicating a direct regulation of this gene interaction network through the vitamin D receptor. With increasing 25(OH)D levels, resulting regulation of this system was associated with a decrease in MS activity. Within the complex network of genes that are regulated by 25(OH)D, well-described targets of IFNB-1b and a regulator of sphingosine-1-phosphate bioavailability were found. The 25(OH)D effects on MS activity were additively enhanced by IFNB-1b.InterpretationHere, we provide mechanistic evidence that an unbalanced 25(OH)D gene expression system may affect MS activity. Our findings support a potential benefit of monitoring and managing vitamin D levels (e.g., through supplementation) in early MS patients treated with IFN-beta-1b.
    08/2014; 1(8). DOI:10.1002/acn3.91
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) has a major impact on quality of life (QoL). Coping strategies which may influence QoL have not been identified. Furthermore, there is no coping scale designed to measure coping in MS patients and concise enough for routine medical practice. We used 46 items and 7 coping dimensions; we successively reduced the minimum number of dimensions through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Rasch modelling. The resulting scale was submitted to psychometric validation via an independent cross-sectional analysis. After administration to 331 MS patients, we eliminated 10 of the 46 initial items; a CFA iterative algorithm identified a positive coping (PC) group and a negative coping (NC) group; an iterative reduction algorithm led to a final 10 items questionnaire, which was tested in an independent, new cross-sectional sample of 457 patients. Psychometric tests, including the Rasch model and CFA, successfully validated the scale, confirming the two dimensions and the absence of differential item functioning. The correlation between coping and QoL increased to 0.59 and 0.62 for NC and PC, respectively, compared with 0.33 found with existing scales. Our findings justify a one-dimensional overall coping scale (PC + NC). The effect of coping on QoL can be evaluated simply by adding together a positive and a negative coping strategy, for which we developed a short 10-item scale, which can be considered as an effective means of measuring the impact of coping on QoL and is ideal in routine medical practice.
    Neurological Sciences 07/2014; 36(1). DOI:10.1007/s10072-014-1900-8 · 1.45 Impact Factor
  • Joint Congress of European Neurology; 05/2014
  • Joint Congress of European Neurology; 05/2014
  • Journal of Neurology 04/2014; 261(6). DOI:10.1007/s00415-014-7320-0 · 3.38 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

11k Citations
1,148.60 Total Impact Points


  • 2005–2015
    • Université de Rennes 2
      Roazhon, Brittany, France
    • IRISA - Institut de Recherche en Informatique et Systèmes Aléatoires
      Roazhon, Brittany, France
    • Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nancy
      Nancy, Lorraine, France
  • 2013
    • Aix-Marseille Université
      Marsiglia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France
  • 2010–2013
    • Université de Rennes 1
      Roazhon, Brittany, France
  • 1999–2013
    • Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Rennes
      • Service de neurologie
      Roazhon, Brittany, France
    • Hôpital La Pitié Salpêtrière (Groupe Hospitalier "La Pitié Salpêtrière - Charles Foix")
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2011–2012
    • Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Limoges
      Limages, Limousin, France
  • 2010–2011
    • Unité Inserm U1077
      Caen, Lower Normandy, France
  • 2006
    • Centre Hospitalier de Bretagne Sud
      Lorient, Brittany, France
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2003
    • University of Porto
      • Department of Molecular Pahology and Immunology
      Oporto, Porto, Portugal
  • 2000
    • University of Nottingham
      • Division of Clinical Neurology
      Nottigham, England, United Kingdom
  • 1996
    • CHRU de Strasbourg
      Strasburg, Alsace, France