[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
The knowledge of the basic principles of lymphatic function, still remains, to a large degree, rudimentary and will require significant research efforts. Recent studies of the physiology of the mesenteric lymphatic vessels (MLVs) suggested the presence of an endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) other than nitric oxide. In this study we tested the hypothesis that lymphatic endothelium-derived histamine relaxes MLVs.Methods
We measured and analyzed parameters of lymphatic contractility in isolated and pressurized rat mesenteric lymphatic vessels under control conditions and after pharmacological blockade of nitric oxide by Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME, 100 μM) or/and histamine production by α-methyl-DL-histidine dihydrochloride (α-MHD, 10 μM). Effectiveness of α-MHD was confirmed immunohistochemically. We also used immunohistochemical labeling and western blot analysis of the histamine-producing enzyme, histidine decarboxylase (HDC). Additionally we blocked HDC protein expression in MLVs by transient transfection with vivo-morpholino oligos.ResultsWe found that only combined pharmacological blockade of nitric oxide and histamine production completely eliminates flow-dependent relaxation of lymphatic vessels, thus confirming a role for histamine as an EDRF in MLVs. We also confirmed the presence of histidine decarboxylase and histamine inside lymphatic endothelial cells.Conclusions
Our study supports a role for histamine as an EDRF in MLVs.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Microcirculation (New York, N.Y.: 1994) 04/2014; · 2.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extracts of Russian Tarragon (RT) have been reported to produce anti-hyperglycemic effects and influence plasma creatine (Cr) levels while supplementing with creatine monohydrate (CrM). The purpose of this preliminary study was to determine if short-term, low-dose aqueous RT extract ingestion prior to CrM supplementation influences whole body Cr retention, muscle Cr or measures of anaerobic sprint performance.
In a double-blind, randomized, and crossover manner; 10 recreationally trained males (20 +/- 2 yrs; 179 +/- 9 cm; 91.3 +/- 34 kg) ingested 500 mg of aqueous RT extract (Finzelberg, Andernach, Germany) or 500 mg placebo 30-minutes prior to ingesting 5 g of CrM (Creapure(R), AlzChem AG, Germany) twice per day for 5-days then repeated after a 6-week wash-out period. Urine was collected at baseline and during each of the 5-days of supplementation to determine urine Cr content. Whole body Cr retention was estimated from urine samples. Muscle biopsies were obtained for determination of muscle free Cr content. Participants also performed two 30-second Wingate anaerobic capacity tests prior to and following supplementation for determination of peak power (PP), mean power (MP), and total work (TW). Data were analysed by repeated measures MANOVA.
Whole body daily Cr retention increased in both groups following supplementation (0.0 +/- 0.0; 8.2 +/- 1.4, 6.5 +/- 2.4, 5.6 +/- 3.2, 6.1 +/- 2.6, 4.8 +/- 3.2 g . d-1; p = 0.001) with no differences observed between groups (p = 0.59). After 3 and 5-days of supplementation, respectively, both supplementation protocols demonstrated a significant increase in muscle free Cr content from baseline (4.8 +/- 16.7, 15.5 +/- 23.6 mmol . kg-1 DW, p = 0.01) with no significant differences observed between groups (p = 0.34). Absolute change in MP (9 +/- 57, 35 +/- 57 W; p = 0.031), percent change in MP (2.5 +/- 10.5, 6.7 +/- 10.4%; p = 0.026), absolute change in TW (275 +/- 1,700, 1,031 +/- 1,721 J; p = 0.032), and percent change in TW (2.5 +/- 10.5, 6.6 +/- 10.4%; p = 0.027) increased over time in both groups with no differences observed between groups.
Short-term CrM supplementation (10 g . d-1 for 5-days) significantly increased whole body Cr retention and muscle free Cr content. However, ingesting 500 mg of RT 30-min prior to CrM supplementation did not affect whole body Cr retention, muscle free Cr content, or anaerobic sprint capacity in comparison to ingesting CrM with a placebo.
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 02/2014; 11(1):6. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Development of obesity in animals is affected by energy intake, dietary composition, and metabolism. Useful models for studying this metabolic problem are Sprague-Dawley rats fed low-fat (LF) or high-fat (HF) diets beginning at 28 days of age. Through experimental design, their dietary intakes of energy, protein, vitamins, and minerals per kg body weight (BW) do not differ in order to eliminate confounding factors in data interpretation. The 24-h energy expenditure of rats is measured using indirect calorimetry. A regression model is constructed to accurately predict BW gain based on diet, initial BW gain, and the principal component scores of respiratory quotient and heat production. Time-course data on metabolism (including energy expenditure) are analyzed using a mixed effect model that fits both fixed and random effects. Cluster analysis is employed to classify rats as normal-weight or obese. HF-fed rats are heavier than LF-fed rats, but rates of their heat production per kg non-fat mass do not differ. We conclude that metabolic conversion of dietary lipids into body fat primarily contributes to obesity in HF-fed rats.
Frontiers in bioscience (Landmark edition). 01/2014; 19:967-985.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cdc42 is a Ras-related GTPase that plays an important role in the regulation of a range of cellular functions, including cell migration, proliferation and survival. Consistent with its critical functions in vitro, the inactivation of Cdc42 in mice has been shown to result in embryonic lethality at E6.5 before blood vessel formation. To determine the role of Cdc42 in new blood vessel formation, we have generated vascular endothelial cell (EC)-specific Cdc42 knockout mice by crossing Cdc42/flox mice with Tie2-Cre mice. The deletion of Cdc42 in ECs caused embryonic lethality with vasculogenesis and angiogenesis defects. We observed that Cdc42 is critical for EC migration and survival but not for cell cycle progression. Moreover, we found that the inactivation of Cdc42 in ECs decreased the VEGFR2 protein level on the EC surface and promoted the production of a 75 kD membrane-associated C-terminal VEGFR2 fragment. Using cultured primary mouse ECs and human umbilical vein ECs, we have demonstrated that the deletion of Cdc42 increased ADAM17-mediated VEGFR2 shedding. Notably, inhibition of ADAM17 or overexpression VEGFR2 can partially rescue Cdc42 deletion-induced EC apoptosis. These data indicate that Cdc42 is essential for VEGFR2-mediated signal transduction in blood vessel formation.
Molecular and cellular biology 08/2013; · 6.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is constitutively expressed but dynamically regulated by a number of factors. Building our knowledge of this regulation is necessary to understand and modulate the bioavailability of nitric oxide, central to the cardiovascular complications of diabetes and other diseases. This review will focus on the eNOS substrate (L-arginine), its cofactor (tetrahydrobiopterin), and mechanisms related to the uncoupling of eNOS activity. RECENT FINDINGS: The global arginine bioavailability ratio has been proposed as a biomarker reflective of L-arginine availability, arginase activity, and citrulline cycling, as all of these processes impact eNOS activity. The failure of oral supplementation of tetrahydrobiopterin to recouple eNOS has emphasized the importance of the tetrahydrobiopterin to dihydrobiopterin ratio. Identification of transporters for biopterin species as well as signals that regulate endogenous arginine production have provided insight for alternative strategies to raise endothelial tetrahydrobiopterin levels while reducing dihydrobiopterin and alter eNOS activity. Finally, new information about redox regulation of eNOS itself may point to ways of controlling oxidative stress in the vasculature. SUMMARY: Restoring proper eNOS activity is key to ameliorating or preventing cardiovascular complications of diabetes. Continued investigation is needed to uncover new means for maintaining endothelial nitric oxide bioavailability.
Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care. 11/2012;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Creatine monohydrate (CrM) has been consistently reported to increase muscle creatine content and improve high-intensity exercise capacity. However, a number of different forms of creatine have been purported to be more efficacious than CrM. The purpose of this study was to determine if a buffered creatine monohydrate (KA) that has been purported to promote greater creatine retention and training adaptations with fewer side effects at lower doses is more efficacious than CrM supplementation in resistance-trained individuals.
In a double-blind manner, 36 resistance-trained participants (20.2 ± 2 years, 181 ± 7 cm, 82.1 ± 12 kg, and 14.7 ± 5% body fat) were randomly assigned to supplement their diet with CrM (Creapure® AlzChem AG, Trostberg, Germany) at normal loading (4 x 5 g/d for 7-days) and maintenance (5 g/d for 21-days) doses; KA (Kre-Alkalyn®, All American Pharmaceutical, Billings, MT, USA) at manufacturer's recommended doses (KA-L, 1.5 g/d for 28-days); or, KA with equivalent loading (4 x 5 g/d for 7-days) and maintenance (5 g/d) doses of CrM (KA-H). Participants were asked to maintain their current training programs and record all workouts. Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis, fasting blood samples, body weight, DEXA determined body composition, and Wingate Anaerobic Capacity (WAC) tests were performed at 0, 7, and 28-days while 1RM strength tests were performed at 0 and 28-days. Data were analyzed by a repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and are presented as mean ± SD changes from baseline after 7 and 28-days, respectively.
Muscle free creatine content obtained in a subgroup of 25 participants increased in all groups over time (1.4 ± 20.7 and 11.9 ± 24.0 mmol/kg DW, p = 0.03) after 7 and 28-days, respectively, with no significant differences among groups (KA-L -7.9 ± 22.3, 4.7 ± 27.0; KA-H 1.0 ± 12.8, 9.1 ± 23.2; CrM 11.3 ± 23.9, 22.3 ± 21.0 mmol/kg DW, p = 0.46). However, while no overall group differences were observed (p = 0.14), pairwise comparison between the KA-L and CrM groups revealed that changes in muscle creatine content tended to be greater in the CrM group (KA-L -1.1 ± 4.3, CrM 11.2 ± 4.3 mmol/kg DW, p = 0.053 [mean ± SEM]). Although some significant time effects were observed, no significant group x time interactions (p > 0.05) were observed in changes in body mass, fat free mass, fat mass, percent body fat, or total body water; bench press and leg press 1RM strength; WAC mean power, peak power, or total work; serum blood lipids, markers of catabolism and bone status, and serum electrolyte status; or, whole blood makers of lymphocytes and red cells. Serum creatinine levels increased in all groups (p < 0.001) with higher doses of creatine promoting greater increases in serum creatinine (p = 0.03) but the increases observed (0.1 - 0.2 mg/dl) were well within normal values for active individuals (i.e., <1.28 ± 0.2 mg/dl). Serum LDL was decreased to a greater degree following ingesting loading doses in the CrM group but returned to baseline during the maintenance phase. No side effects were reported.
Neither manufacturers recommended doses of KA (1.5 g/d) or KA with equivalent loading (20 g/d for 7-days) and maintenance doses (5 g/d for 21-days) of CrM promoted greater changes in muscle creatine content, body composition, strength, or anaerobic capacity than CrM (20 g/d for 7-days, 5 g/d for 21-days). There was no evidence that supplementing the diet with a buffered form of creatine resulted in fewer side effects than CrM. These findings do not support claims that consuming a buffered form of creatine is a more efficacious and/or safer form of creatine to consume than creatine monohydrate.
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 09/2012; 9(1):43. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endothelial adherens junction proteins constitute an important element in the control of microvascular permeability. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) increases permeability to macromolecules via translocation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) to cytosol and stimulation of eNOS-derived nitric oxide signaling cascade. The mechanisms by which nitric oxide signaling regulates permeability at adherens junctions are still incompletely understood.
We explored the hypothesis that PAF stimulates hyperpermeability via S-nitrosation (SNO) of adherens junction proteins.
We measured PAF-stimulated SNO of β-catenin and p120-catenin (p120) in 3 cell lines: ECV-eNOSGFP, EAhy926 (derived from human umbilical vein), and postcapillary venular endothelial cells (derived from bovine heart endothelium) and in the mouse cremaster muscle in vivo. SNO correlated with diminished abundance of β-catenin and p120 at the adherens junction and with hyperpermeability. Tumor necrosis factor-α increased nitric oxide production and caused similar increase in SNO as PAF. To ascertain the importance of eNOS subcellular location in this process, we used ECV-304 cells transfected with cytosolic eNOS (GFPeNOSG2A) and plasma membrane eNOS (GFPeNOSCAAX). PAF induced SNO of β-catenin and p120 and significantly diminished association between these proteins in cells with cytosolic eNOS but not in cells wherein eNOS is anchored to the cell membrane. Inhibitors of nitric oxide production and of SNO blocked PAF-induced SNO and hyperpermeability, whereas inhibition of the cGMP pathway had no effect. Mass spectrometry analysis of purified p120 identified cysteine 579 as the main S-nitrosated residue in the region that putatively interacts with vascular endothelial-cadherin.
Our results demonstrate that agonist-induced SNO contributes to junctional membrane protein changes that enhance endothelial permeability.
Circulation Research 07/2012; 111(5):553-63. · 11.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diminished vascular endothelial cell nitric oxide (NO) production is a major factor in the complex pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. In this report, we demonstrate that insulin not only maintains endothelial NO production through regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), but also via the regulation of argininosuccinate synthase (AS), which is the rate-limiting step of the citrulline-NO cycle. Using serum starved, cultured vascular endothelial cells, we show that insulin up-regulates AS and eNOS transcription to support NO production. Moreover, we show that insulin enhances NO production in response to physiological cues such as bradykinin. To translate these results to an in vivo model, we show that AS transcription is diminished in coronary endothelial cells isolated from rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Importantly, we demonstrate restoration of AS and eNOS transcription by insulin treatment in STZ-diabetic rats, and show that this restoration was accompanied by improved endothelial function as measured by endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. Overall, this report demonstrates, both in cell culture and whole animal studies, that insulin maintains vascular function, in part, through the maintenance of AS transcription, thus ensuring an adequate supply of arginine to maintain vascular endothelial response to physiological cues.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 03/2012; 421(1):9-14. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In several tumours the endogenous activity of histidine decarboxylase (HDC), the enzyme stimulating histamine synthesis, sustains the autocrine trophic effect of histamine on cancer progression. Cholangiocarcinoma is a biliary cancer with limited treatment options. Histamine interacts with four G-protein coupled receptors, H1-H4 histamine receptors (HRs).
To determine the effects of histamine stimulation and inhibition of histamine synthesis (by modulation of HDC) on cholangiocarcinoma growth.
In vitro studies were performed using multiple human cholangiocarcinoma lines. The expression levels of the histamine synthetic machinery and HRs were evaluated along with the effects of histamine stimulation and inhibition on cholangiocarcinoma proliferation. A xenograft tumour model was used to measure tumour volume after treatment with histamine or inhibition of histamine synthesis by manipulation of HDC. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression was measured in cholangiocarcinoma cells concomitant with the evaluation of the expression of CD31 in endothelial cells in the tumour microenvironment.
Cholangiocarcinoma cells display (1) enhanced HDC and decreased monoamine oxidase B expression resulting in increased histamine secretion; and (2) increased expression of H1-H4 HRs. Inhibition of HDC and antagonising H1HR decreased histamine secretion in Mz-ChA-1 cells. Long-term treatment with histamine increased proliferation and VEGF expression in cholangiocarcinoma that was blocked by HDC inhibitor and the H1HR antagonist. In nude mice, histamine increased tumour growth (up to 25%) and VEGF expression whereas inhibition of histamine synthesis (by reduction of HDC) ablated the autocrine stimulation of histamine on tumour growth (~80%) and VEGF expression. No changes in angiogenesis (evaluated by changes in CD31 immunoreactivity) were detected in the in vivo treatment groups.
The novel concept that an autocrine loop (consisting of enhanced histamine synthesis by HDC) sustains cholangiocarcinoma growth is proposed. Drug targeting of HDC may be important for treatment of patients with cholangiocarcinoma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NADPH oxidase, a source of superoxide anion (·O2(-)), can be stimulated by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL). We examined whether tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) could reduce OxLDL-induced ·O2(-) production by NADPH oxidase, increasing nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. Endothelial cells incubated with OxLDL produced more ·O2(-) (35-67%) than untreated cells, with the highest increase 1 hour after OxLDL addition. The elevated ·O2(-) production correlated with the translocation of the p47phox subunit of NADPH oxidase from the cytosol to the membrane. Cells exhibited a marked decrease in both BH4 (83 per cent) and NO (54 per cent) in the same hour following exposure to OxLDL. An NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin, or antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, substantially attenuated the reduction in both BH4 and NO. The ·O2(-) production was increased when cells were pretreated with an inhibitor of BH4 synthesis and decreased following pretreatment with a BH4 precursor, suggesting that NADPH oxidase-induced imbalance of endothelial NO and ·O2(-) production can be modulated by BH4 concentrations. BH4 may be critical in combating oxidative stress, restoring proper redox state, and reducing risk for cardiovascular disease including atherosclerosis.
Frontiers in bioscience (Scholar edition) 01/2011; 3:1263-72.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: L-Arginine is a conditionally essential amino acid for humans and plays an important role in the regulation of cardiovascular function and antioxidative defense. Previous studies have focused on the important role of L-arginine as a physiological precursor in the generation of nitric oxide and polyamines in endothelial cells (cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels). Because of the rapid development of high-throughput proteomics technology, there is now growing interest in studying roles for L-arginine in modulating endothelial-cell protein expression. Of particular interest, recent proteomics analysis has shown that treatment of coronary venular endothelial cells with a physiological level of L-arginine (e.g., 0.1 mM) increases expression of structural proteins (vimentin and tropomyosin) and cytochrome bc1 complex iii-chain A, while decreasing expression of stress-related proteins (PDZ domain containing-3), in these cells. These findings aid in elucidating the mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effect of physiological levels of L-arginine on the circulatory system.
Frontiers in bioscience (Scholar edition) 01/2011; 3:655-61.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to determine the role of calcium-activated, small (SK), intermediate (IK), and large (BK) conductance potassium channels in initiating the development of an anti-inflammatory phenotype elicited by preconditioning with an exogenous hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) donor, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS). Intravital microscopy was used to visualize rolling and firmly adherent leukocytes in vessels of the small intestine of mice preconditioned with NaHS (in the absence and presence of SK, IK, and BK channel inhibitors, apamin, TRAM-34, and paxilline, respectively) or SK/IK (NS-309) or BK channel activators (NS-1619) 24 h before ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). I/R induced marked increases in leukocyte rolling and adhesion, effects that were largely abolished by preconditioning with NaHS, NS-309, or NS-1619. The postischemic anti-inflammatory effects of NaHS-induced preconditioning were mitigated by BKB channel inhibitor treatment coincident with NaHS, but not by apamin or TRAM-34, 24 h before I/R. Confocal imaging and immunohistochemistry were used to demonstrate the presence of BKα subunit staining in both endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells of isolated, pressurized mesenteric venules. Using patch-clamp techniques, we found that BK channels in cultured endothelial cells were activated after exposure to NaHS. Bath application of the same concentration of NaHS used in preconditioning protocols led to a rapid increase in a whole cell K(+) current; specifically, the component of K(+) current blocked by the selective BK channel antagonist iberiotoxin. The activation of BK current by NaHS could also be demonstrated in single channel recording mode where it was independent of a change in intracellular Ca(+) concentration. Our data are consistent with the concept that H(2)S induces the development of an anti-adhesive state in I/R in part mediated by a BK channel-dependent mechanism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over the past 20 years, growing interest in the biochemistry, nutrition, and pharmacology of L-arginine has led to extensive studies to explore its nutritional and therapeutic roles in treating and preventing human metabolic disorders. Emerging evidence shows that dietary L-arginine supplementation reduces adiposity in genetically obese rats, diet-induced obese rats, finishing pigs, and obese human subjects with Type-2 diabetes mellitus. The mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects of L-arginine are likely complex, but ultimately involve altering the balance of energy intake and expenditure in favor of fat loss or reduced growth of white adipose tissue. Recent studies indicate that L-arginine supplementation stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis and brown adipose tissue development possibly through the enhanced synthesis of cell-signaling molecules (e.g., nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, polyamines, cGMP, and cAMP) as well as the increased expression of genes that promote whole-body oxidation of energy substrates (e.g., glucose and fatty acids) Thus, L-arginine holds great promise as a safe and cost-effective nutrient to reduce adiposity, increase muscle mass, and improve the metabolic profile in animals and humans.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BackgroundMast cells are recognized as diverse and highly complicated cells. Aside from their notorious role in allergic inflammatory reactions, mast cells are being implicated in numerous disease processes from heart disease to cancer. Mast cells have been implicated in liver pathogenesis including hepatitis and host allograft rejection after liver transplantation.AimsThe aim of this review is to discuss the traditional function of mast cells, their location and anatomy with regards to hepatic vasculature and the role of mast cells in hepatic diseases including liver regeneration and rejection. Finally, we will touch on the role of mast cells in liver cancer. In conclusion, we hope that the reader comes away with a better understanding of the diverse and potential role(s) that mast cells may play in liver pathologies.
Digestive and Liver Disease 04/2010; · 3.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To develop the techniques needed for the specific gene/protein targeting transfection experiments in isolated lymphatic vessels, we completed two major tasks: 1) optimize the experimental conditions to maintain the viability of isolated rat lymphatic vessels in culture for sufficiently long periods of time to permit knockdown or overexpression of selected proteins/genes and 2) develop effective transfection protocols for lymphatic muscle and endothelial cells in intact lymphatic vessels without nonspecific impairment of lymphatic contractile function due to the transfection protocol itself.Methods: Experimental protocols were developed for the maintenance of isolated lymphatic vessels under nonpressurized and pressurized conditions for 3–12 days in culture and for adenoviral gene transfection of the lymphatic muscle and endothelial cells.Results: The data demonstrate the effectiveness of the newly developed experimental protocols for the maintenance of isolated rat mesenteric lymphatic vessels and thoracic duct in culture up to 3–12 days without significant impairment of the parameters of their pumping and effective adenoviral/GFP transfection of lymphatic endothelial and muscle cells in isolated rat mesenteric lymphatic vessels.Conclusions: These experimental techniques will extend the set of the modern experimental tools available to researchers investigating the physiology of lymphatic function.
Microcirculation (New York, N.Y.: 1994) 01/2010; 16(7):615 - 628. · 2.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The molecular mechanisms of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) regulation of microvascular permeability remain unresolved. Agonist-induced internalization may have a role in this process. We demonstrate here that internalization of eNOS is required to deliver NO to subcellular locations to increase endothelial monolayer permeability to macromolecules. Using dominant-negative mutants of dynamin-2 (dyn2K44A) and caveolin-1 (cav1Y14F), we show that anchoring eNOS-containing caveolae to plasma membrane inhibits hyperpermeability induced by platelet-activating factor (PAF), VEGF in ECV-CD8eNOSGFP (ECV-304 transfected cells) and postcapillary venular endothelial cells (CVEC). We also observed that anchoring caveolar eNOS to the plasma membrane uncouples eNOS phosphorylation at Ser-1177 from NO production. This dissociation occurred in a mutant- and cell-dependent way. PAF induced Ser-1177-eNOS phosphorylation in ECV-CD8eNOSGFP and CVEC transfected with dyn2K44A, but it dephosphorylated eNOS at Ser-1177 in CVEC transfected with cav1Y14F. Interestingly, dyn2K44A eliminated NO production, whereas cav1Y14F caused reduction in NO production in CVEC. NO production by cav1Y14F-transfected CVEC occurred in caveolae bound to the plasma membrane, and was ineffective in causing an increase in permeability. Our study demonstrates that eNOS internalization is required for agonist-induced hyperpermeability, and suggests that a mechanism by which eNOS is activated by phosphorylation at the plasma membrane and its endocytosis is required to deliver NO to subcellular targets to cause hyperpermeability.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/2009; 106(16):6849-53. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dietary L-arginine (Arg) supplementation reduces white-fat gain in diet-induced obese rats but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that Arg treatment affects expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in adipose tissue. Four-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a low-fat (LF) or high-fat (HF) diet for 15 weeks. Thereafter, lean or obese rats continued to be fed their same respective diets and received drinking water containing 1.51% Arg-HCl or 2.55% L: -alanine (isonitrogenous control). After 12 weeks of Arg supplementation, rats were euthanized to obtain retroperitoneal adipose tissue for analyzing global changes in gene expression by microarray. The results were confirmed by RT-PCR analysis. HF feeding decreased mRNA levels for lipogenic enzymes, AMP-activated protein kinase, glucose transporters, heme oxygenase 3, glutathione synthetase, superoxide dismutase 3, peroxiredoxin 5, glutathione peroxidase 3, and stress-induced protein, while increasing expression of carboxypeptidase-A, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha, caspase 2, caveolin 3, and diacylglycerol kinase. In contrast, Arg supplementation reduced mRNA levels for fatty acid binding protein 1, glycogenin, protein phosphates 1B, caspases 1 and 2, and hepatic lipase, but increased expression of PPARgamma, heme oxygenase 3, glutathione synthetase, insulin-like growth factor II, sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor, and stress-induced protein. Biochemical analysis revealed oxidative stress in white adipose tissue of HF-fed rats, which was prevented by Arg supplementation. Collectively, these results indicate that HF diet and Arg supplementation differentially regulate gene expression to affect energy-substrate oxidation, redox state, fat accretion, and adipocyte differentiation in adipose tissue. Our findings provide a molecular mechanism to explain a beneficial effect of Arg on ameliorating diet-induced obesity in mammals.