Amelia M Albrett

University of Auckland, Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand

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Publications (7)32.54 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The first example of a diboryl corrole complex, [(BF2)2(Br8T(4-F-P)C)](-) (Br8T(4-F-P)C = trianion of 2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octabromo-5,10,15-tris(4-fluorophenyl)corrole), has been isolated using the strongly electron-withdrawing and sterically crowded triaryl octabromocorrole ligand. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that the hydrolysis reaction producing the partially hydrolyzed complexes [B2OF2(Cor)](-) is more favored for the less sterically crowded triaryl corrole complexes. Monoboryl complexes BF2(H2Cor) (Cor = trianions of 5,10,15-triphenylcorrole (TPC), 5,10,15-tris(4-methylphenyl)corrole (T(4-CH3-P)C), 5,10,15-tris(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)corrole (T(4-CF3-P)C), and 5,10,15-tris(pentafluorophenyl)corrole (TPFPC)) were prepared and characterized. The experimental data are consistent with an out-of-plane dipyrrin coordination mode for these complexes, and DFT optimizations suggest that internal BF···HN hydrogen bonding may be significant in stabilizing these complexes. Further examples of the anionic diboron corrole [B2OF2(Cor)](-) containing the electron-withdrawing 5,10,15-tris(pentafluorophenyl)corrole (TPFPC) and the sterically hindered 10-(4-methoxyphenyl)-5,15-dimesitylcorrole (Mes2(4-MeOP)C) trianions are reported.
    Inorganic Chemistry 03/2014; · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chlorine bleach, or hypochlorous acid, is the most reactive two-electron oxidant produced in appreciable amounts in our bodies. Neutrophils are the main source of hypochlorous acid. These champions of the innate immune system use it to fight infection but also direct it against host tissue in inflammatory diseases. Neutrophils contain a rich supply of the enzyme myeloperoxidase. It uses hydrogen peroxide to convert chloride to hypochlorous acid. We give a critical appraisal of the best methods to measure production of hypochlorous acid by purified peroxidases and isolated neutrophils. Robust ways of detecting it inside neutrophil phagosomes where bacteria are killed are also discussed. Special attention is focused on reaction-based fluorescent probes but their visual charm is tempered by stressing their current limitations. Finally, the strengths and weaknesses of biomarker assays that capture the footprints of chlorine in various pathologies are evaluated. Detection of hypochlorous acid by purified peroxidases and isolated neutrophils is best achieved by measuring accumulation of taurine chloramine. Formation of hypochlorous acid inside neutrophil phagosomes can be tracked using mass spectrometric analysis of 3-chlorotyrosine and methionine sulfoxide in bacterial proteins, or detection of chlorinated fluorescein on ingestible particles. Reaction-based fluorescent probes can also be used to monitor hypochlorous acid during phagocytosis. Specific biomarkers of its formation during inflammation include 3-chlorotyrosine, chlorinated products of plasmalogens, and glutathione sulfonamide. These methods should bring new insights into how chlorine bleach is produced by peroxidases, reacts within phagosomes to kill bacteria, and contributes to inflammation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Current methods to study reactive oxygen species - pros and cons.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 07/2013; · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A variety of inflammatory stimuli induces NETs. These structures consist of a network of chromatin strands associated with predominately granule proteins, including MPO. NETs exhibit antimicrobial activity, which is proposed to augment the more-established mechanism of phagosomal killing. They may also be detrimental to the host in situations such as chronic inflammation or severe sepsis. The objective of this study was to establish whether MPO associated with NETs is active and able to kill bacteria. Neutrophils were stimulated with PMA to release NETs. Peroxidase activity measurements were performed and showed that enzymatically active MPO was released from the neutrophils, 2-4 h after stimulation, concomitant with NET formation. Approximately 30% of the total cellular MPO was released, with the majority bound to the NETs. The bound enzyme retained its activity. Staphylococcus aureus were not killed when added to preformed NETs under our assay conditions. However, addition of H(2)O(2) to the bacteria in the presence of NETs resulted in MPO-dependent killing, which was observed with NETs in situ and with NETs when they were removed from the neutrophils by limited DNase digestion. Our results show that the enzymatic activity of MPO on NETs could contribute to antimicrobial activity or tissue injury when NETs are released from neutrophils at sites of infection or inflammation.
    Journal of leukocyte biology 11/2011; 91(3):369-76. · 4.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The reaction of PhBCl(2) with free base triarylcorroles results in a spontaneous reduction to give diboron corrole complexes (PhBHBPh)(Cor) in which a proton has been captured to form a bridging B-H-B group encapsulated within the corrole ligand. The proposed mechanism is supported by the reaction of PhBF(2) with H(3)Cor to give (PhBF)(BPh)(Cor) in which no reduction has occurred.
    Dalton Transactions 05/2010; 39(17):4032-4. · 3.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The structures of a number of mono- and diboron corrole complexes have been optimized using DFT methods in order to establish regio- and stereochemical preferences for bonding of one or two boron atoms to the corrole macrocycle. The formulations of the complexes were suggested either from preliminary experimental results (to be reported elsewhere) or by analogy with related diboron porphyrin compounds. The computational results suggest for the monoboron corroles BF(2)(H(2)corrole) and BPhH(H(2)corrole) that the regioisomer in which the boron is bound to a dipyrromethene site adjacent to the bipyrrole is preferred over the other possible regioisomers in which boron coordinates either in the bipyrrole or in the dipyrromethene site opposite the bipyrrole. In the N-substituted corrole complexes there are only two possiblities and, for each complex, the regioisomer with boron in the dipyrromethene site adjacent to the bipyrrole is lower in energy. For all four monoboron complexes the stereoisomers in which boron and both its substituents are displaced out of the mean N(4) plane are more stable than the boron in-plane stereoisomers. These regio- and stereochemical preferences are rationalised by an analysis of the deformations to the corrole macrocycle and the geometry at the boron atoms. The lowest energy structures in all cases correspond to the least strained configurations. In addition, all four complexes show significant BFHN hydrogen bonding and BHHN dihydrogen bonding interactions, which are maximised in the lowest energy configurations for each structure, indicating that these are important additional stabilising interactions. Three different regioisomers, each with cisoid or transoid stereochemistry were optimised for the diboron complex PhBOB(corrole) which contains a bridging BOB group. The dipyrromethene/dipyrromethene isomer is more stable than either of the dipyrromethene/bipyrrole isomers and cisoid stereochemistry is preferred over transoid. This contrasts with porphyrin complexes containing BOB groups for which both stereochemical possibilities are observed, and reflects the contracted size of the corrole macrocycle. Three further diboron corroles were investigated, the diboranyl cation [B(2)(corrole)](+) and its one- and two-electron reduced derivatives B(2)(corrole) and [B(2)(corrole)](-). These calculations were undertaken to determine whether the site of reduction of [B(2)(corrole)](+) is likely to be the diboron moiety or the macrocycle. The B-B bond lengths do not shorten upon reduction and an analysis of the molecular orbitals of each species indicates that reduction will be most likely to occur at the macrocycle, offering a potential route to an example of the two-electron reduced corrole ligand, an analogue of the 20-electron isophlorin ligand observed in the corresponding reduced porphyrin complex B(2)(porphine).
    Dalton Transactions 10/2008; · 3.81 Impact Factor
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society 04/2008; 130(10):2888-9. · 10.68 Impact Factor
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    Amelia Albrett
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    ABSTRACT: Boron complexes of porphyrin analogues are rare and typically difficult to prepare. The possibility of extending this chemistry further to include corroles was intriguing and provided the main motivation for this work. The coordination chemistry of boron with corroles was explored. The aim was to see whether boron could be coordinated within the corrole N4 core and if so whether novel or similar structural types resulted, relative to the closely related porphyrin system. Boron halides and aryl halides were reacted with free base corroles in the presence of diisopropylethylamine. The methodology employed was similar to that used for boron porphyrin systems. As well as free base corrole, an N-methyl corrole and trilithiated corrole were also used as starting materials. Several boron corrole structural types were obtained. The reaction of free base corrole with boron trifluoroetherate led to the first structurally characterised corrole with boron bound within the N4 core, B2OF2(corrole). From this reagent a mono-boron species, BF2(corrole) was also obtained. With dichlorophenylborane, several boron corrole complexes were prepared including PhB2O(corrole), PhB2(corrole) and B2Ph2H(corrole). The latter species was structurally characterised and the bridging hydride is proposed to form through a reductive coupling process. Use of N-methyl corrole effectively blocked one boron binding site and subsequently mono-boron corroles BF2(N-methyl- corrole), BPh(OH)(N-methyl corrole) and BPhF(N-methyl corrole) were prepared in good yields. The reaction of lithiated corrole and dichloroplenylborane afforded B2Ph2Cl(corrole). Overall, several new boron corrole species were prepared, significantly extending the library of known boron complexes with ligands related to the porphyrin system.