Charles A Owens

University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado, United States

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Publications (69)128.35 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The optimal treatment for patients with biliary obstruction varies depending on the underlying cause of the obstruction, the clinical condition of the patient, and anticipated long-term effects of the procedure performed. Endoscopic and image-guided procedures are usually the initial procedures performed for biliary obstructions. Various options are available for both the radiologist and endoscopist, and each should be considered for any individual patient with biliary obstruction. This article provides an overview of the current status of radiologic procedures performed in the setting of biliary obstruction and describes multiple clinical scenarios that may be treated by radiologic or other methods. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment.
    Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR 06/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess safety, efficacy, and clinical outcomes following transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) of acute gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-five patients (male:female ratio = 53:42, mean age 62 years) that underwent 95 TAEs for GI hemorrhage between 2002 and 2010 were retrospectively studied. Seventy-six of 95 (80 %) patients had upper GI bleeds and 19/95 (20 %) patients had lower GI bleeds. A mean of 7 (range 0-27) packed red blood cell units were transfused pre-procedure, and 90/95 (95 %) procedures were urgent or emergent. Twenty-seven of 95 (28 %) patients were hemodynamically unstable. Measured outcomes included procedure technical success, adverse events, and 30-day rebleeding and mortality rates. RESULTS: Bleeding etiology included peptic ulcer disease (45/95, 47 %), cancer (14/95, 15 %), diverticulosis (13/95, 14 %), and other (23/95, 24 %). Vessels embolized (n = 109) included gastroduodenal (42/109, 39 %), pancreaticoduodenal (22/109, 20 %), gastric (21/109, 19 %), superior mesenteric (12/109, 11 %), inferior mesenteric (8/109, 7 %), and splenic (4/109, 4 %) artery branches. Technical success with immediate hemostasis was achieved in 93/95 (98 %) cases. Most common embolic agents included coils (66/109, 61 %) and/or gelatin sponge (19/109, 17 %). Targeted versus empiric embolization were performed in 57/95 (60 %) and 38/95 (40 %) cases, respectively. Complications included bowel ischemia (4/95, 4 %) and coil migration in 3/95 (3 %). 30-day rebleeding rate was 23 % (22/95). Overall 30-day mortality rate was 18 % (16/89). Empiric embolization resulted in similar rebleeding (23 vs 24 %) but higher mortality (31 vs 9 %) rates compared to embolization for active extravasation. CONCLUSIONS: TAE controlled GI bleeding with high technical success, safety, and efficacy, and should be considered when endoscopic therapy is not feasible or unsuccessful.
    Digestive Diseases and Sciences 01/2013; · 2.26 Impact Factor
  • Journal of vascular and interventional radiology: JVIR 12/2012; 23(12):1603-12. · 1.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Management of hepatic malignancy is a challenging clinical problem involving several different medical and surgical disciplines. Because of the wide variety of potential therapies, treatment protocols for various malignancies continue to evolve. Consequently, development of appropriate therapeutic algorithms necessitates consideration of medical options, such as systemic chemotherapy; surgical options, such as resection or transplantation; and locoregional therapies, such as thermal ablation and transarterial embolization. The authors discuss treatment strategies for the 3 most common subtypes of hepatic malignancy treated with locoregional therapies: hepatocellular carcinoma, neuroendocrine metastases, and colorectal metastases. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria(®) are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment.
    Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR 12/2012; 9(12):919-25.
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The quantitative relationship between tumor morphology and malignant potential has not been explored in liver tumors. We designed a computer algorithm to analyze shape features of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and tested feasibility of morphologic analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional images from 118 patients diagnosed with HCC between 2007 and 2010 were extracted at the widest index tumor diameter. The tumor margins were outlined, and point coordinates were input into a MATLAB (Math- Works Inc., Natick, Massachusetts, USA) algorithm. Twelve shape descriptors were calculated per tumor: the compactness, the mean radial distance (MRD), the RD standard deviation (RDSD), the RD area ratio (RDAR), the zero crossings, entropy, the mean Feret diameter (MFD), the Feret ratio, the convex hull area (CHA) and perimeter (CHP) ratios, the elliptic compactness (EC), and the elliptic irregularity (EI). The parameters were correlated with the levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) as an indicator of tumor aggressiveness. RESULTS: The quantitative morphometric analysis was technically successful in all cases. The mean parameters were as follows: compactness 0.88±0.086, MRD 0.83±0.056, RDSD 0.087±0.037, RDAR 0.045±0.023, zero crossings 6±2.2, entropy 1.43±0.16, MFD 4.40±3.14 cm, Feret ratio 0.78±0.089, CHA 0.98±0.027, CHP 0.98±0.030, EC 0.95±0.043, and EI 0.95±0.023. MFD and RDAR provided the widest value range for the best shape discrimination. The larger tumors were less compact, more concave, and less ellipsoid than the smaller tumors (P < 0.0001). AFP-producing tumors displayed greater morphologic irregularity based on several parameters, including compactness, MRD, RDSD, RDAR, entropy, and EI (P < 0.05 for all). CONCLUSION: Computerized HCC image analysis using shape descriptors is technically feasible. Aggressively growing tumors have wider diameters and more irregular margins. Future studies will determine further clinical applications for this morphologic analysis.
    Diagnostic and interventional radiology (Ankara, Turkey) 11/2012; · 1.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: We aimed to assess the safety, efficacy, and clinical outcomes of splenic artery embolization (SAE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 50 patients (male:female, 33:17; mean age, 49 years) who underwent 50 SAEs between 1998 and 2011 were retrospectively studied. The procedure indications included aneurysm or pseudoaneurysm (n=15), gastric variceal hemorrhage (n=15), pre-operative reduction of surgical blood loss (n=9), or other (n=11). In total, 22 procedures were elective, and 28 procedures were urgent or emergent. The embolic agents included coils (n=50), gelatin sponges (n=15), and particles (n=4). The measured outcomes were the technical success of the procedure, efficacy, side effects, and the 30-day morbidity and mortality rates. RESULTS: All embolizations were technically successful. The procedure efficacy was 90%; five patients (10%) had a recurrent hemorrhage requiring a secondary intervention. Side effects included hydrothorax (n=26, 52%), thrombocytosis (n=16, 32%), thrombocytopenia (n=13, 26%), and post-embolization syndrome (n=11, 22%). Splenic infarcts occurred in 13 patients (26%). The overall and procedure-specific 30-day morbidity rates were 38% (19/50) and 14% (splenoportal thrombosis, 3/50; encapsulated bacterial infection, 1/50; splenic abscess, 1/50; femoral hematoma requiring surgery, 1/50; hydrothorax requiring drainage, 1/50). The overall and procedurespecific 30-day mortality rates were 8% (4/50) and 0%. The multivariate analysis showed that advanced patient age (P = 0.037), post-procedure thrombocytopenia (P = 0.008), postprocedure hydrothorax (P = 0.009), and the need for a secondary intervention (P = 0.004) predicted the 30-day morbidity, while renal insufficiency (P < 0.0001), pre-procedure hemodynamic instability (P = 0.044), and pre-procedure leukocytosis (P < 0.0001) were prognostic factors for the 30-day mortality. CONCLUSION: SAE was performed with high technical success and efficacy, but the outcomes showed non-trivial morbidity rates. Elderly patients with thrombocytopenia and hydrothorax after SAE, and patients who require secondary interventions, should be monitored for complications.
    Diagnostic and interventional radiology (Ankara, Turkey) 08/2012; · 1.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To assess the safety and efficacy of the StarClose SE Vascular Closure System (Abbott Vascular, Abbott Park IL, USA) in high-risk thrombocytopenic and coagulopathic interventional oncology (IO) patients.Methods: In this single institution retrospective study, 63 high-risk thrombocytopenic or coagulopathic IO patients (M:F=51:12, mean age 58 years, range 31-88 years) who underwent 83 common femoral arteriotomy closures using the StarClose device were identified among all IO patients (n=131) undergoing StarClose closure (n=177) between 2008-2011. High-risk thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy were defined as platelet count =100 103/mL and international normalized ratio (INR) =1.5. Procedures included chemoembolization (n=67), radioembolization (n=8), and hepatic arterial mapping with technetium-99m macroaggrated albumin administration (n=8) for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (n=79) or liver metastases (n=4). Measured outcomes included technical success of arterial closure and closure-related adverse events, graded according to the Society of Interventional Radiology classification. Results: In all cases, 5 French common femoral arterial access was used. Platelet count was =100 103/mL in 80/83 (96.4%) cases and INR was =1.5 in 35/83 (42.2%) cases. Mean pre-procedure platelet count was 71 (range 26-347) 103/mL and mean INR was 1.4 (range 1.0-2.1). The StarClose device effectively sealed the arteriotomy in 83/83 (100%) cases, 60/83 (72.3%) cases were first-time closures, and 20/83 (24.1%) cases were repeat closures. Small groin hematomas, graded as class A minor complications, developed in 3/83 (3.6%) cases. No other complications were encountered. Conclusions: The StarClose SE Vascular Closure System confers high technical success and safety in common femoral arteriotomy closure in high-risk IO patients.
    The journal of vascular access 03/2012; · 0.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the relationship between body mass index (BMI), subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat, liver density, and histopathologic hepatic steatosis. In this retrospective study, 143 patients (male/female, 67/76; mean age, 50 years) underwent a non-targeted transjugular (n = 125) or percutaneous (n = 18) liver biopsy between 2006 and 2010. The biopsy indications included chronic liver parenchymal disease staging (n = 88), elevated enzymes (n = 39), or other reasons (n = 16). The BMI and non-contrast liver computed tomography liver density were recorded for each patient. The thicknesses of the anterior, posterior, and posterolateral subcutaneous fat, along with the intra-abdominal fat, were measured. The values were then correlated with histopathologic steatosis. Of the patients, 47/143 (32%), 39/143 (28%), and 57/143 (40%) were normal weight, overweight, and obese, respectively. Steatosis was present in 13/47 (28%) of normal weight, 18/39 (46%) of overweight, and 38/57 (67%) of obese patients. Significant differences in BMI (26.7 kg/m(2) vs. 31.7 kg/ m2 vs. 35.0 kg/m(2), P < 0.001), liver density (52.8 HU vs. 54.4 HU vs. 42.0 HU, P < 0.001), anterior subcutaneous (1.8 cm vs. 2.4 cm vs. 2.9 cm, P < 0.001), posterolateral subcutaneous (2.8 cm vs. 3.2 cm vs. 4.4 cm, P < 0.004), posterior subcutaneous (1.9 cm vs. 2.5 cm vs. 3.4 cm, P < 0.001), and intra-abdominal fat thickness (1.1 cm vs. 1.3 cm vs. 1.4 cm, P < 0.013) were identified in patients with different degrees of steatosis (none, minimal to mild, moderate to severe, respectively). BMI (r = 0.37, P < 0.001) and the anterior subcutaneous fat (r = 0.30, P < 0.001) had a moderate correlation with the presence of liver steatosis. A combination of a BMI ≥ 32.0 kg/ m(2) and an anterior subcutaneous fat thickness ≥ 2.4 cm had a 40% sensitivity and 90% specificity for the identification of steatosis. Increase in the anthropomorphic metrics of obesity is associated with an increased frequency of liver steatosis.
    Diagnostic and interventional radiology (Ankara, Turkey) 01/2012; 18(3):282-7. · 1.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary and mediastinal masses represent a wide range of pathologic processes with very different treatment options. Although advances in imaging (such as PET and high-resolution CT) help in many cases with the differential diagnosis of thoracic pathology, tissue samples are frequently needed to determine the best management for patients presenting with thoracic masses. There are many options for obtaining tissue samples, each of which has its own set of benefits and drawbacks. The purposes of this report are to present the most current evidence regarding biopsies of thoracic nodules and masses and to present the most appropriate options for select common clinical scenarios. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria(®) are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment.
    Journal of the American College of Radiology 01/2012; 9(1):13-9. · 2.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess clinical outcomes of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) treatment of variceal hemorrhage. A total of 128 patients (82 men and 46 women; mean age, 52 y) with liver cirrhosis and refractory variceal hemorrhage underwent TIPS creation from 1998 to 2010. Mean Child-Pugh and Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores were 9 and 18, respectively. From 1998 to 2004, 12-mm Wallstents (n = 58) were used, whereas from 2004 to 2010, 10-mm VIATORR covered stent-grafts (n = 70) were used. Technical success, hemodynamic success, complications, shunt dysfunction, recurrent bleeding, and overall survival were assessed. Technical and hemodynamic success rates were 100% and 94%, respectively. Mean portosystemic gradient reduction was 13 mm Hg. Complications at 30 days included encephalopathy (14%), renal failure (5.5%), infection (1.6%), and liver failure (0.8%). Shunt patency rates were 93%, 82%, and 60% at 30 days, 1 year, and 2 years, respectively. Dysfunction, or loss of TIPS primary patency, occurred more with Wallstent versus VIATORR TIPSs (29% vs 11%; P = .009). Recurrent bleeding incidences were 9%, 22%, and 29% at 30 days, 1 year, and 2 years, respectively, and were similar between Wallstent and VIATORR TIPSs (19% vs 19%; P = .924). Variceal embolization significantly reduced recurrent bleeding rates (5% vs 25%; P = .013). Overall survival rates were 80%, 69%, and 65% at 30 days, 1 year, and 2 years, respectively, and were similar between Wallstent and VIATORR TIPSs (35% vs 26% mortality rate; P = .312). Advanced MELD score was associated with increased mortality on multivariate analysis. Wallstent and VIATORR TIPSs effectively treat variceal hemorrhage, particularly when accompanied by variceal embolization. Although TIPS with a VIATORR device showed improved shunt patency, patient survival is similar to that with Wallstent TIPS. These results further validate TIPS creation for refractory variceal bleeding.
    Journal of vascular and interventional radiology: JVIR 12/2011; 23(2):227-35. · 1.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the utility, safety, and efficacy of endovascular intervention for treating bleeding events after robotic pancreaticobiliary surgery. In this retrospective study, six patients (male/female, 3/3; mean age, 64 years) with histories of robotic pancreaticobiliary resection were referred for endovascular management of delayed postoperative intra-abdominal hemorrhage. Visceral angiography was performed, and the sites of suspected arterial hemorrhage were interrogated with selective microcatheter arteriography. The visualized bleeding sources were treated using catheter-directed embolotherapy with metallic coils, bare metal or covered stent insertion, or a combination of the two. The measured outcomes included the technical success of the angiographic occlusion, procedure safety, and procedure efficacy. Pseudoaneurysms resulted in bleeding in six cases (100%). The endovascular interventions included coil embolization in three cases (50%), covered stent exclusion in two cases (33%), and bare metal stent-assisted coil embolization in one case (17%). The technical success was 100%, with complete cessation of bleeding in all cases. No immediate or delayed procedure-related complications were encountered in any of the patients. The efficacy of the endovascular therapy was 100% in this series, with no recurrent hemorrhage during the mean clinical follow-up period of 262 days (range, 67-446 days). Endovascular therapy provides a minimally invasive, safe, and effective method for managing hemorrhagic events after complicated pancreaticobiliary surgery.
    Diagnostic and interventional radiology (Ankara, Turkey) 09/2011; 18(1):121-6. · 1.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Microwave ablation is a developing treatment option for unresectable lung cancer. Early experience suggests that it may have advantages over radiofrequency (RF) ablation with larger ablation zones, shorter heating times, less susceptibility to heat sink, effectiveness in charred lung, synergism with multiple applicators, no need for grounding pads, and similar survival benefit. Newer microwave ablation devices are being developed and as their use becomes more prevalent, a greater understanding of device limitations and complications are important. Herein we describe a microwave lung ablation complicated by bronchocutaneous fistula (BCF) and its treatment. BCF treatment options include close monitoring, surgical closure, percutaneous sealant injection, and endoscopic plug or sealant in those who are not surgical candidates.
    Seminars in Interventional Radiology 06/2011; 28(2):152-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatic lobar atrophy-hypertrophy complex formation is an uncommonly reported sequella of hepatic arterial embolotherapy procedures. Whereas radiation-induced hepatic lobar ablation has been described after intra-arterial therapy with yttrium-90 microspheres, this phenomenon has not been reported after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization. Here, we report a case of prominent hepatic lobar atrophy with contralateral lobar hypertrophy after chemoembolization and suggest a mechanism by which arterial embolization contributes to the volumetric response.
    Diagnostic and interventional radiology (Ankara, Turkey) 06/2011; 17(2):177-80. · 1.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has become an important tool in the armamentarium of interventional oncology, particularly in the treatment of primary hepatocellular carcinoma and metastatic tumors. This procedure has proven to be an effective adjunct in treating hepatic tumors as a bridge to liver transplantation, and has a low complication profile. Although adverse events are rare and usually minor, a notable negative outcome is dissemination and implantation of viable tumor cells into the route of applicator entry, or tract seeding. Counter to the goal of treating a patient's cancer, this results in metastatic disease. In this report, the authors present 2 cases of tract seeding after RFA, methods of detection, and means of reducing the incidence of this relatively rare, but significant, complication.
    Seminars in Interventional Radiology 06/2011; 28(2):187-92.
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    ABSTRACT: Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids) are the most common tumors in women of reproductive age and a cause of significant morbidity in this patient population. Depending on the fibroid location, they can be the cause of a variety of symptoms, such as abnormal uterine bleeding, constipation, urinary frequency, and pain. Historically, hysterectomy has been the primary treatment option, and uterine fibroids remain the leading cause for hysterectomy in the United States. However, women who do not wish to undergo hysterectomy now have a variety of less invasive options available, including uterine artery embolization. This article discusses uterine artery embolization as well as some of the other treatment strategies for symptomatic uterine fibroids. In many situations, there may be no single best treatment option but several viable alternatives. Each option is discussed with consideration of outcomes, complications, and, when possible, cost-effectiveness. The recommendations in this article are the result of evidence-based consensus of the ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Expert Panel on Interventional Radiology.
    Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR 04/2011; 8(4):228-34.
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The goal of this article is to describe potential technical complications related to transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) placement and to discuss strategies to avoid and manage complications if they arise. CONCLUSION: TIPS is an established interventional therapy for complications of portal hypertension. Although TIPS remains a relatively safe procedure, direct procedure-related morbidity rates are as high as 20%. The technical complexity of this intervention increases the risk for methodologic mishaps during all phases of TIPS placement, including venous access and imaging, transhepatic needle puncture, shunt insertion, and variceal embolization. Thus, interventional radiologists require a thorough stepwise understanding of TIPS insertion, possible adverse sequela, and technical tips and tricks to maximize the safety of this procedure.
    American Journal of Roentgenology 03/2011; 196(3):675-85. · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe our experience with the use of the "double-wire restraining" technique to assist in the removal of two retrievable inferior vena cava filters: one had been misplaced in the right brachiocephalic vein with apex perforation of the vessel wall, and the second filter had migrated cephalad to straddle across both renal veins. The "double-wire restraining" technique consists of two stiff-shaft Glidewires (Terumo, Somerset, NJ) placed through the same introducer sheath and positioned on opposite sides of the filter. Both wires restrain the filter at the tip of the sheath as the sheath is advanced, thus allowing the operator to reposition the filter. This report details how this technique was used to realign two malpositioned filters and reposition the filter apices from their extravascular location, thus exposing them for ensnarement.
    CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology 02/2011; 34 Suppl 2:S218-23. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thoracic duct embolization represents a safe and effective method to treat postsurgical chylothorax. Complications of this procedure are rare despite transabdominal puncture of lymphatic channels for thoracic duct access, and chylous ascites is unreported. Herein, we describe a case of chylous ascites formation after lymphatic puncture and attempted cannulation. Our management approach is also discussed.
    CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology 02/2011; 34 Suppl 2:S245-9. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To describe the nature, incidence, and therapeutic consequence of hepatic arterial changes seen following transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
    Artery Research 01/2011;
  • Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology - J VASC INTERVEN RADIOL. 01/2011; 22(3).

Publication Stats

296 Citations
451 Downloads
128.35 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • University of Colorado
      Denver, Colorado, United States
  • 1998–2013
    • University of Illinois at Chicago
      • Department of Radiology (Chicago)
      Chicago, IL, United States
  • 2012
    • Wake Forest School of Medicine
      Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States
  • 2011
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      North Carolina, United States
  • 2009
    • The University of Chicago Medical Center
      • Department of Radiology
      Chicago, IL, United States