[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The U.S. Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009 requires updating of the existing text-only health warning labels on tobacco packaging with nine new warning statements accompanied by pictorial images. Survey and experimental research in the U.S. and other countries supports the effectiveness of pictorial health warning labels compared with text-only warnings for informing smokers about the risks of smoking and encouraging cessation. Yet very little research has examined differences in reactions to warning labels by race/ethnicity, education or income despite evidence that population subgroups may differ in their ability to process health information. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential impact of pictorial warning labels compared with text-only labels among U.S. adult smokers from diverse racial/ethnic and socioeconomic subgroups.
Participants were adult smokers recruited from two online research panels (n = 3,371) into a web-based experimental study to view either the new pictorial warnings or text-only warnings. Participants viewed the labels and reported their reactions. Adjusted regression models demonstrated significantly stronger reactions for the pictorial condition for each outcome salience (b = 0.62, p<.001); perceived impact (b = 0.44, p<.001); credibility (OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.22-1.62), and intention to quit (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.10-1.53). No significant results were found for interactions between condition and race/ethnicity, education, or income. The only exception concerned the intention to quit outcome, where the condition-by-education interaction was nearly significant (p = 0.057).
Findings suggest that the greater impact of the pictorial warning label compared to the text-only warning is consistent across diverse racial/ethnic and socioeconomic populations. Given their great reach, pictorial health warning labels may be one of the few tobacco control policies that have the potential to reduce communication inequalities across groups. Policies that establish strong pictorial warning labels on tobacco packaging may be instrumental in reducing the toll of the tobacco epidemic, particularly within vulnerable communities.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e52206. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0052206 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the efficacy of etanercept in improving the symptoms and underlying inflammation in patients with tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS).
Fifteen patients with TRAPS were enrolled in a prospective, open-label, dose-escalation study. Patients recorded attacks, symptom severity, and use of ancillary medications in a daily diary. Blood samples were collected during each period and measured for levels of acute-phase reactants. Between 7 years and 9 years after the conclusion of the initial study, patients completed a followup survey and were evaluated to determine the long-term outcome of etanercept treatment.
Etanercept treatment significantly attenuated the total symptom score and reduced the frequency of symptoms. Etanercept also reduced levels of acute-phase reactants, particularly during asymptomatic periods. During a 10-year followup period, patients continued to receive etanercept for a median of 3.3 years, with a number of patients switching to anti-interleukin-1β receptor therapy or not receiving biologic agents, most frequently citing injection site reactions and lack of efficacy as reasons for discontinuation. However, patients continuing to receive etanercept had reduced symptoms at followup.
Etanercept reduces symptoms and serum levels of inflammatory markers of TRAPS in a dose-dependent manner, but does not completely normalize symptoms or acute-phase reactant levels. Although long-term adherence to etanercept is poor, continuing to receive etanercept may provide continued symptomatic benefit.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous clinical trials showed that progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) may be slower in hemodialysis patients treated with sevelamer than those treated with calcium-based phosphate binders. Because sevelamer decreases low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, we hypothesized that intensive lowering of LDL-C levels with atorvastatin in hemodialysis patients treated with calcium acetate would result in CAC progression rates similar to those in sevelamer-treated patients.
Randomized, controlled, open-label, noninferiority trial with an upper bound for the noninferiority margin of 1.8.
203 prevalent hemodialysis patients at 26 dialysis centers with serum phosphorus levels greater than 5.5 mg/dL, LDL-C levels greater than 80 mg/dL, and baseline CAC scores of 30 to 7,000 units assessed by means of electron-beam computed tomography.
103 patients were randomly assigned to calcium acetate, and 100 patients to sevelamer for 12 months to achieve phosphorus levels of 3.5 to 5.5 mg/dL. Atorvastatin was added to achieve serum LDL-C levels less than 70 mg/dL in both groups.
The primary end point was change in CAC score assessed by means of electron-beam computed tomography.
After 12 months, mean serum LDL-C levels decreased to 68.8 +/- 22.0 mg/dL in the calcium-acetate group and 62.4 +/- 23.0 mg/dL in the sevelamer group (P = 0.3). Geometric mean increases in CAC scores were 35% in the calcium-acetate group and 39% in the sevelamer group, with a covariate-adjusted calcium acetate-sevelamer ratio of 0.994 (95% confidence interval, 0.851 to 1.161).
Treatment assignment was not blinded. The 1.8 a priori margin is large, CAC is a surrogate outcome, duration of treatment was short, and dropout rate was high.
With intensive lowering of LDL-C levels for 1 year, hemodialysis patients treated with either calcium acetate or sevelamer experienced similar progression of CAC.
American Journal of Kidney Diseases 06/2008; 51(6):952-65. DOI:10.1053/j.ajkd.2008.02.298 · 5.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperphosphatemia underlies development of hyperparathyroidism, osteodystrophy, extraosseous calcification, and is associated with increased mortality in hemodialysis patients.
To determine whether calcium acetate or sevelamer hydrochloride best achieves recently recommended treatment goals of phosphorus </=5.5 mg/dL and Ca x P product </=55 mg(2)/dL(2), we conducted an 8-week randomized, double-blind study in 100 hemodialysis patients.
Comparisons of time-averaged concentrations (weeks 1 to 8) demonstrated that calcium acetate recipients had lower serum phosphorus (1.08 mg/dL difference, P= 0.0006), higher serum calcium (0.63 mg/dL difference, P < 0.0001), and lower Ca x P (6.1 mg(2)/dL(2) difference, P= 0.022) than sevelamer recipients. At each week, calcium acetate recipients were 20% to 24% more likely to attain goal phosphorus [odds ratio (OR) 2.37, 95% CI 1.28-4.37, P= 0.0058], and 15% to 20% more likely to attain goal Ca x P (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.20-3.86, P= 0.0097). Transient hypercalcemia occurred in 8 of 48 (16.7%) calcium acetate recipients, all of whom received concomitant intravenous vitamin D. By regression analysis hypercalcemia was more likely with calcium acetate (OR 6.1, 95% CI 2.8-13.3, P < 0.0001). Week 8 intact PTH levels were not significantly different. Serum bicarbonate levels were significantly lower with sevelamer hydrochloride treatment (P < 0.0001).
Calcium acetate controls serum phosphorus and calcium-phosphate product more effectively than sevelamer hydrochloride. Cost-benefit analysis indicates that in the absence of hypercalcemia, calcium acetate should remain the treatment of choice for hyperphosphatemia in hemodialysis patients.
Kidney International 06/2004; 65(5):1914-26. DOI:10.1111/j.1523-1755.2004.00590.x · 8.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the relationship between educational attainment and drinking outcomes after discharge from inpatient treatment for alcohol dependence.
Between 1993 and 1996, we consecutively recruited 41 women and 60 men hospitalized for alcohol dependence and followed them up monthly for 1 year. We conducted structured interviews during hospitalization and at monthly intervals after discharge for 1 year. We examined the relationship between educational attainment before treatment and postdischarge drinking outcomes, including time to relapse.
After covariate adjustment, educational level was a significant predictor of drinking outcomes.
Lower levels of educational attainment before entry into treatment predicted shorter times to first drink and relapse in both women and men. The association of educational attainment and treatment outcome for alcohol dependence warrants further investigation.
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 09/2003; 27(8):1278-85. DOI:10.1097/01.ALC.0000080669.20979.F2 · 3.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little is known about the impact of sexual or physical abuse history on response to alcohol treatment. This prospective study investigated the relationships between sexual and physical abuse histories, participants' characteristics, and response to inpatient alcohol treatment. Forty-one women and 59 men were assessed monthly for 1 year following hospitalization for alcohol dependence. Survival analyses showed that sexual abuse history was associated with shorter times to first drink and relapse. Physical abuse history was not associated with poorer drinking outcomes. Although women were more likely than men to have a history of sexual abuse, no gender differences were found in drinking outcomes. Poorer drinking outcomes were found among participants who at baseline were not married, had less than a college education, were not employed full time, or carried a diagnosis of depression or other psychiatric disorder. When adjusted for these characteristics, the associations between sexual abuse history and times to first drink and relapse were no longer statistically significant. While sexual abuse history is a clinically meaningful predictor of return to drinking we note the importance of considering patients' background and clinical characteristics in examining the impact of sexual abuse history on drinking outcomes following treatment.
Drug and Alcohol Dependence 09/2002; 67(3):227-34. DOI:10.1016/S0376-8716(02)00072-8 · 3.42 Impact Factor