[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a major cause of sudden cardiac death due to tachyarrhythmias. The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term prognosis in patients with ARVC and the incidence of rapid ventricular arrhythmias during follow-up.
Thirty ARVC patients (19 male, 63.3%, mean age 48 ± 15 years) fulfilling modified Task Force criteria 2010 were included. Of them, 13 patients (43.3%) received implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation. Rapid ventricular arrhythmia was defined as electrical storm or the occurrence of ventricular tachycardia (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF) with a cycle length of 240 ms or less that necessitate shock delivery to 2 or more times within a 24-hour period.
With a mean follow-up of 68 ± 10 months, 6 patients (20%) with ICD implantation had recurrent rapid VT/VF. One (3.3%) of them died of multiple shocks and SCD, and 5 (16.7%) had multiple ICD therapies due to VT/VF and electrical storm. The interval between the diagnosis of ARVC and occurrence of rapid VT/VF was 13.4 ± 4.9 months. Most (5/6, 83.3%) events of recurrent rapid VT/VF occurred within 2 years. Ablated patients who did not receive an ICD implant were totally free of rapid VT/VF.
For patients with ARVC, long-term prognosis is favorable. During a long-term follow-up, patients meeting the criteria for ICD implantation have a higher rate of rapid and potentially life-threatening arrhythmias. However, early and clustered recurrence of rapid VT/VF in patients with an ICD is common, whereas late occurrence of rapid VT/VF is very rare.
Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology 02/2012; 23(7):750-6. · 3.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heat shock protein (HSP) 27 is related to the pathogenesis of AF. However, the clinical relationship between HSP27 and AF is unclear. The present study was conducted to determine the clinical relationship between HSP27 and atrial fibrillation (AF).
A case-control study was conducted (AF, n=114; control, n=100). Serum HSP27 (HSP27S) levels were measured by ELISA, and its correlations with electrophysiological characteristics and catheter ablation outcomes were investigated. The patients with AF had a larger left atrial diameter (LAD), waist circumference, and body mass index, and a lower baseline HSP27S level, than controls. After logistic multivariate analysis, low baseline HSP27S was independently associated with AF. In patients with AF, those with paroxysmal AF (PAF) had higher baseline HSP27S levels compared with those without PAF. In patients with PAF, lower baseline HSP27S was associated with larger LAD, whereas baseline HSP27S was not correlated with LAD in controls. In PAF, low baseline HSP27S (≤3.85 ng/mL) was associated with low atrial voltage and nonpulmonary vein ectopies. In non-PAF, the mean fractionated interval had a good correlation with baseline HSP27S. After catheter ablation, a high baseline HSP27S level could predict sinus rhythm maintenance in the patients with PAF. Baseline HSP27S was also correlated with interleukin 10 and tumor necrosis factor-α levels. Analysis of buffy coat mRNA levels showed the same correlations.
The HSP27S levels were correlated with LAD, left atrial voltage, and fractionated intervals, and predicted AF recurrence after catheter ablation. The mechanisms could be related to inflammation.
Circulation Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology 02/2012; 5(2):334-40. · 5.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Late sodium currents and intracellular Ca(2+) (Ca(2+) (i)) dynamics play an important role in arrhythmogenesis of pulmonary vein (PV) and heart failure (HF). It is not clear whether HF enhances PV arrhythmogenesis through modulation of Ca(2+) homeostasis and increased late sodium currents. The aim of this study was to investigate the sodium and calcium homeostasis in PV cardiomyocytes with HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Whole-cell patch clamp was used to investigate the action potentials and ionic currents in isolated rabbit single PV cardiomyocytes with and without rapid pacing induced HF. The Ca(2+) (i) dynamics were evaluated through fluorescence and confocal microscopy. As compared to control PV cardiomyocytes (n = 18), HF PV cardiomyocytes (n = 13) had a higher incidence of delayed afterdepolarization (45% vs 13%, P < 0.05) and faster spontaneous activity (3.0 ± 0.2 vs 2.1 ± 0.2 Hz, P < 0.05). HF PV cardiomyocytes had increased late Na(+) currents, Na(+) /Ca(2+) exchanger currents, and transient inward currents, but had decreased Na(+) currents or L-type calcium currents. HF PV cardiomyocytes with pacemaker activity had larger Ca(2+) (i) transients (R410/485, 0.18 ± 0.04 vs 0.11 ± 0.02, P < 0.05), and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) stores. Moreover, HF PV cardiomyocytes with pacemaker activity (n = 18) had higher incidence (95% vs 70%, P < 0.05), frequency (7.8 ± 3.1 vs 2.3 ± 1.2 spark/mm/s, P < 0.05), amplitude (F/F(0) , 3.2 ± 0.8 vs 1.9 ± 0.5, P < 0.05), and longer decay time (65 ± 3 vs 48 ± 4 ms, P < 0.05) of Ca(2+) sparks than control PV cardiomyocytes with pacemaker activity (n = 18). CONCLUSIONS: Dysregulated sodium and calcium homeostasis, and enhanced calcium sparks promote arrhythmogenesis of PV cardiomyocytes in HF, which may play an important role in the development of atrial fibrillation.
Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology 12/2011; 22(12):1378-86. · 3.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The atrial substrate in chronic atrial fibrillation (AF) patients with a left atrial spontaneous echo contrast (LASEC) has not been previously reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the atrial substrate properties and long-term follow-up results in the patients who received catheter ablation of chronic AF.
Of 36 consecutive patients with chronic AF who received a stepwise ablation approach, 18 patients with an LASEC (group I) were compared with 18 age-gender-left atrial volume matched patients without an LASEC (group II). The atrial substrate properties including the weighted peak-to-peak voltage, total activation time during sinus rhythm (SR), dominant frequency (DF), and complex fractionated electrograms (CFEs) during AF in the bi-atria were evaluated.
The left atrial weighted bipolar peak-to-peak voltage (1.0 ± 0.6 vs 1.6 ± 0.7 mV, P = 0.04), total activation time (119 ± 20 vs 103 ± 13 ms, P < 0.001) and DF (7.3 ± 1.3 vs 6.6 ± 0.7 Hz, P < 0.001) differed between group I and group II, respectively. Those parameters did not differ in the right atrium. The bi-atrial CFEs (left atrium: 89 ± 24 vs 92 ± 25, P = 0.8; right atrium: 92 ± 25 vs 102 ± 3, P = 0.9) did not differ between group I and group II, respectively. After a mean follow-up of 30 ± 13 month, there were significant differences in the antiarrhythmic drugs (1.1 ± 0.3 vs 0.7 ± 0.5, P = 0.02) needed after ablation, and recurrence as persistent AF (92% vs 50%, P = 0.03) between group I and group II, respectively. After multiple procedures, there were more group II patients that remained in SR, when compared with group I (78% vs 44%, P = 0.04).
There was a poorer atrial substrate, lesser SR maintenance after catheter ablation and need for more antiarrhythmic drugs in the chronic AF patients with an LASEC when compared with those without an LASEC.
Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology 09/2011; 23(3):239-46. · 3.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal dysfunction was reported to be associated with a higher recurrence rate after electric cardioversion of atrial fibrillation (AF). The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between renal function, atrial substrate properties and outcome of catheter ablation in paroxysmal AF patients.
A total of 232 paroxysmal AF patients that underwent catheter ablation were enrolled in the study. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated using the Cockcroft-Gaut equation normalized by the body surface area, and the patients were divided into 3 groups according to their GFR (group 1: ≥ 90 ml·min⁻¹·1.73 m⁻², group 2: 60-90 ml·min⁻¹·1.73 m⁻² and group 3: < 60 ml·min⁻¹·1.73 m⁻²). The left atrial (LA) voltage became lower and the activation time longer when the GFR decreased from group 1 to group 3. During a follow up of 25.4 ± 13.3 months, 15.9% of the study population suffered from AF recurrences. The recurrence rates of those 3 groups were 6.9%, 14.5% and 38.9%, respectively. The LA dimension, LA voltage and groups of renal function were identified to be the independent predictors of an AF recurrence in the multivariate analysis.
A decreased GFR was associated with an abnormal LA substrate and high recurrence rate of catheter ablation in patients with paroxysmal AF.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate the impact of aging on electrophysiological characteristics in patients with atrioventricular nodal re-entrant tachycardia (AVNRT).
The 2,111 patients who underwent an electrophysiological study and radiofrequency (RF) catheter ablation of AVNRT were enrolled. The patients were divided into 4 groups according to age (group 1: < 20 years; group 2: 20-39 years; group 3: 40-59 years; and group 4: ≥ 60 years). The gender distribution differed with age. The atrio-Hisian interval, and effective refractory periods (ERP) of the right atrium, ventricle, antegrade slow pathway, retrograde slow pathway and fast pathway, and tachycardia cycle length all increased with age. However, a paradoxical change in the fast pathway ERP was noted. The fast pathway ERP was significantly longer in group 2 than in other groups, and was associated with the largest tachycardia window. The response to catecholamines was similar between different age groups. Procedure time, radiation time, and complications did not differ. However, the number of RF impulses was higher in group 2 compared with other groups (7.6 ± 9.3, P=0.04), which might imply a differing complexity during the ablation.
Paradoxical aging changes of AVN electrophysiological characteristics were associated with a different atrioventricular nodal conduction property and the number of RF impulses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pulmonary embolism is a common disease associated with a high mortality rate. The risk assessment and appropriate treatment selection of patients with acute pulmonary embolism remains a challenge.
This single center cohort study included a total of 150 patients (96 male, age = 71 ± 15 years) with acute pulmonary embolism confirmed by spiral-computed tomography or magnetic resonance image. The prognostic performance of the clinical characteristics and laboratory values were investigated to predict the in-hospital hemodynamically instable events and 30-day all-cause mortality.
The rate of in-hospital hemodynamic instability and 30-day all-cause mortality was 21% and 12%, respectively. A multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that a heart rate ≥ 110 bpm (odd ratio 4.26 [95% CI 1.42-12.77]), chronic pulmonary disease (6.47 [1.99-21.04]), WBC ≥ 11,000 mm(3) (3.78 [1.32-10.82]), and D-dimer level ≥ 4.0 μg/mL (3.68 [1.01-13.43]) independently predicted the 30-day fatal outcome. A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the categorization based on the number of risk factors was significantly associated with the likelihood of 30-day all-cause mortality (P<0.0001).
The initial presentation of tachycardia, presence of chronic pulmonary disease, elevated WBC and D-dimer on admission can be used to identify the risk for a short-term fatal outcome within 30 days in patients with acute pulmonary embolism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. Heart failure (HF) predisposes to atrial fibrillation (AF) as a result of substrate remodelling. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of HF on the electrical remodelling of the pulmonary veins (PV) and left atrium (LA). 2. The electrical activity was recorded in LA and PV from control rabbits and rabbits with rapid ventricular pacing-induced HF, using a multi-electrode array system and conventional microelectrodes. 3. Compared with the control-PV (n = 21), the HF-PV (n = 13) had a higher incidence and frequency of rapid pacing-induced spontaneous activity (85 vs 29%, P = 0.005; 3.5 ± 0.2 vs 1.7 ± 0.1 Hz, P < 0.001) and high-frequency irregular electrical activity (92 vs 38%, P = 0.01; 23 ± 1 vs 19 ± 1 Hz, P = 0.003), greater depolarized resting membrane potential (-59 ± 1 vs -70 ± 2 mV, P < 0.001), higher incidence of early afterdepolarizations (EAD; 69 vs 6%, P = 0.001) and delayed afterdepolarizations (DAD; 92 vs 25%, P = 0.001), and slower conduction velocity (38 ± 2 vs 63 ± 2 cm/s, P < 0.05). In comparison to the HF-LA, the HF-PV had a higher incidence of spontaneous activity and high-frequency irregular electrical activity (85 vs 39%, P = 0.04; 92 vs 46%, P = 0.03), and higher incidence of EAD and DAD, and those differences were not found between the control-LA and control-PV. The control-PV with high-frequency irregular electrical activity had a higher incidence of DAD and spontaneous activity as compared with those without it. 4. HF contributed to an increased automaticity, triggered activity and conduction disturbance in the PV. The PV possessed more arrhythmogenic properties, which might play an important role in the genesis of AF in HF.
Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 06/2011; 38(10):666-74. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is difficult to discriminate patients with and without paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF). The atrial electromechanical interval determined by the transthoracic echocardiogram is demonstrated to be a predictor of new onset AF. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the electromechanical interval is a useful parameter to identify patients with PAF.
A total of 297 patients (PAF group = 103; control group = 194) with mean age of 59.4 ± 12.4 years were enrolled. The electromechanical interval (PA-PDI) defined as the time interval from the initiation of the P-wave deflection to the peak of the mitral inflow A wave on the pulse-wave Doppler imaging was measured for every patient. Patients with PAF had significantly longer PA-PDI intervals compared with that of patients without it (152.7 ± 13.8 ms vs 133.4 ± 16.8 ms). The area under ROC curve based on the PA-PDI interval to diagnose PAF was 0.803 (95% confidence interval = 0.755-0.851, P < 0.001). At the cut-off value of 142 ms, the sensitivity and specificity in identifying PAF were 77.7% and 80.1%, respectively. In the PAF group, the PA-PDI interval was closely associated with the CHADS(2) score and inversely related with the peak velocity of left atrial appendage.
The PA-PDI interval may be a useful parameter to identify patients with PAF. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the usefulness of PA-PDI intervals in diagnosing PAF in addition to the current methods and tools.
Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology 06/2011; 22(12):1325-30. · 3.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Early restoration of sinus rhythm following ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) facilitates reverse atrial remodeling and improves the long-term outcome. The purpose of this study was to determine the predictors and outcome in patients with very early AF recurrences (< 2 days).
Ablation was performed in 339 consecutive AF patients (paroxysmal AF = 262). Biatrial voltage was mapped during sinus rhythm. If recurrent AF occurred within 2 days following the ablation, electrical cardioversion was performed to restore sinus rhythm. Very early recurrences of AF occurred in 39 (15%) patients with paroxysmal AF and 26 (34%) with nonparoxysmal AF. Patients with very early recurrence had a higher incidence of nonparoxysmal AF (40% vs 18.6%, P< 0.001), requirement of electrical cardioversion during procedure, larger left atrial (LA) diameter (43 ± 7 vs 39 ± 6 mm, P< 0.001), lower left ventricular ejection fraction (54 ± 10% vs 59 ± 7, P< 0.001), longer procedural time, and lower LA voltage (1.5 ± 0.7 vs 1.9 ± 0.8 mV, P< 0.001). A multivariate analysis revealed that the independent predictors of a very early recurrence were a longer procedural time and lower LA voltage. During a follow-up of 13 ± 5 months, a very early recurrence did not predict the long-term outcome of a single procedure recurrence in the patients with paroxysmal AF, but was associated with a late recurrence in the nonparoxysmal AF patients.
Very early recurrence occurred in patients with paroxysmal AF is not associated with long-term recurrence. Nonparoxysmal AF is an independent predictor of late recurrence of AF in patients with very early recurrence.
Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology 05/2011; 22(11):1193-8. · 3.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) contains ganglionated plexuses and adipocytes that can affect the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation (AF). The aim of this study was to quantify the EAT surrounding the left atrium (LA) and correlate it with occurrence of AF and outcome after catheter ablation. EAT was evaluated using 64-slice multidetector computed tomography in 68 patients with AF and 34 controls. EAT volume was acquired by semiautomatically tracing axial images from the pulmonary artery to the coronary sinus. Topographic distribution of EAT was assessed by dividing the periatrial space into 8 equal regions. EAT volume significantly increased in patients with AF than in controls (29.9 ± 12.1 vs 20.2 ± 6.5 cm(3), p <0.001). Most EAT was located in regions (1) within the superior vena cava, right pulmonary artery, and right-sided roof of the LA (29.8%), (2) within the aortic root, pulmonary trunk, and left atrial appendage (26.5%), and (3) between the left inferior pulmonary vein and left atrioventricular groove (18.1%). Baseline variables were analyzed in patients with (n = 24) and without (n = 44) AF recurrence after ablation. The recurrent group showed significantly increased EAT (35.2 ± 12.5 vs 26.8 ± 11.1 cm(3), p = 0.007). Multivariate analysis revealed that EAT was an independent predictor of AF recurrence after ablation (p = 0.038). In conclusion, EAT of LA was increased in patients with AF. Large clusters of EAT were observed adjacent to the anterior roof, left atrial appendage, and lateral mitral isthmus. Abundance of EAT was independently related to AF recurrence after ablation.
The American journal of cardiology 03/2011; 107(10):1498-503. · 3.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The CHADS₂ score (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age >75 years, diabetes, and previous stroke/transient ischemic attack) is used for the risk stratification of strokes in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF).
This study aimed to investigate the associations between the CHADS₂ score, atrial substrate, and outcome of catheter ablation in patients with paroxysmal AF.
A total of 247 paroxysmal AF patients who received catheter ablation were enrolled. The patients were divided into 3 groups according to their CHADS₂ score (group 1: score 0, group 2: score 1 to 2, and group 3: score 3 to 6). The bi-atrial substrate properties and outcome of catheter ablation were analyzed.
The CHADS₂ scores in these 3 groups were 0 (group 1), 1.24 ± 0.48 (group 2), and 3.60 ± 0.83 (group 3), respectively. The left atrial voltage became lower (group 1 vs. 2 vs. 3 = 2.08 ± 0.73 mV vs. 1.80 ± 0.81 mV vs. 1.06 ± 0.69 mV) and the activation time longer (group 1 vs. 2 vs. 3 = 93.4 ± 17.7 ms vs. 101.9 ± 21.2 ms vs. 112.2 ± 21.7 ms), whereas the CHADS₂ score increased. During a follow-up of 17.3 ± 7.0 months, 23.1% of the study population suffered from recurrences. The recurrence rates of these 3 groups were 13.0% (group 1), 27.6% (group 2), and 45.9% (group 3), respectively. The groups of different CHADS₂ scores remained as the independent predictor of recurrence in the multivariate analysis.
A high CHADS₂ score was associated with different left atrial substrate properties and a poor outcome after catheter ablation of paroxysmal AF.
Heart rhythm: the official journal of the Heart Rhythm Society 03/2011; 8(8):1155-9. · 4.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The atrial electromechanical (PA-PDI) interval was reported to be a useful predictor of new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) and the occurrence of AF after coronary artery bypass surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of the electromechanical interval with atrial substrate properties and the outcome of catheter ablation in paroxysmal AF patients.
132 paroxysmal AF patients who had received catheter ablation were enrolled. The electromechanical interval was determined as the time interval from the initiation of P-wave deflection to the peak of the mitral inflow A-wave on pulse-wave Doppler imaging. The left atrial voltage and total activation time were collected before pulmonary vein isolation. Every patient underwent standard follow-up after catheter ablation.
The PA-PDI interval was significantly correlated with the left atrial dimension (r=0.419, p=0.003), left atrial volume (r=0.827, p<0.001), left atrial voltage (r=-0.451, p<0.001) and left atrial activation time (r=0.547, p<0.001). During a follow-up of 23 ± 13 months, 36 patients (27% of the study population) had AF recurrence. The PA-PDI interval and left atrial volume were independent predictors of AF recurrence. At a cut-point of 160 ms, the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that a long PA-PDI interval significantly predicted AF recurrence.
The PA-PDI interval can reflect the process of left atrial remodelling, such as a left atrial enlargement, prolonged activation time and decreased voltage. It was a convenient parameter for predicting recurrence after catheter ablation of paroxysmal AF.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The biatrial substrate properties in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) originating from the pulmonary veins (PVs) and superior vena cava (SVC) are not available.
The purpose of this study is to characterize the differences of biatrial substrate properties in patients with different types of AF.
A total of 36 patients with paroxysmal AF originating from the PV (PV-AF) and 9 patients with paroxysmal AF initiating from the SVC (SVC-AF) were included. Regional electrogram voltage, conduction velocity (CV), and spectral analysis to identify the AF nest were performed to characterize the biatrial, PVs, and SVC substrate.
In the left atrial (LA) body, the bipolar voltage, total activation time, CV, and dominant frequency (DF) were similar between the PV-AF and SVC-AF. However, in the PV regions, the electrogram voltage, CV, and DF were decreased in the PV-AF. The proportions of AF nest in the LA body (72.2% vs. 22.2%, P = .008) and PV regions (100% vs. 22.2%, P <.001) were higher in PV-AF compared with SVC-AF, respectively. On the other hand, lower bipolar voltage, longer total activation time, and slower CV of RA body were recognized in the SVC-AF as compared with the PV-AF. In the SVC, lower bipolar voltage, slower CV, higher DF, and higher proportions of AF nest in SVC (16.7% vs. 66.7%, P = .002) were identified in SVC-AF.
These most-remodeled substrates in different types of paroxysmal AF indicated the importance of the atrial substrate in the vicinity of the arrhythmogenic thoracic veins.
Heart rhythm: the official journal of the Heart Rhythm Society 02/2011; 8(7):961-7. · 4.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple origins of focal atrial tachycardia (AT) located at the left lateral isthmus is a rare case. We present a case of a 31-year-old female with incessant AT. During radiofrequency ablation, 3 origins of AT located in the lateral mitral ishtmus from a lower to a higher position were identified with changes of the ECG morphology and earliest activation on 3D mapping. Ablation of the AT origins can terminate the tachycardia.
Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology 01/2011; 22(8):931-3. · 3.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atrial tachycardias (ATs) are commonly observed following catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF). The aim of this study was to identify ECG characteristics that differentiate focal from macroreentrant ATs after circumferential pulmonary vein isolation (CPVI).
One hundred and twenty ATs that occurred after CPVI were mapped using a 3-dimensional mapping system in 87 patients with AF. Further ablation was performed to eliminate the ATs. The surface ECGs of 68 ATs in 41 consecutive patients (Group 1) were analyzed retrospectively to create diagnostic algorithms. The algorithms were tested in the second 46 consecutive patients (Group 2). Patients with macroreentrant AT had lower left atrial (LA) voltage than those with focal AT (1.3 ± 0.3 vs 1.5 ± 0.2 mV, P = 0.01). Focal AT had a higher incidence of a positive polarity in V6 compared with macroreentrant AT (88% vs 55%, P = 0.03). The positive amplitude of the flutter/P waves in V6 was higher for focal AT than macroreentrant AT. The cycle lengths of the focal ATs were longer than those for macroreentrant AT (296 ± 107 vs 244 ± 25 ms, P < 0.001). Right atrial macroreentrant AT had a higher incidence of a negative polarity in at least 1 precordial lead compared with LA macroreentry. The positive flutter waves in V1 could differentiate roof/mitral isthmus dependent from non-roof/mitral isthmus dependent macroreentry. This algorithm correctly differentiated the focal from macroreentrant ATs with a sensitivity of 94%, specificity of 91%, and predictive accuracy of 92% in Group 2.
Different electrophysiological properties may facilitate the differentiation between macroreentrant and focal ATs after CPVI.
Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology 01/2011; 22(7):748-55. · 3.48 Impact Factor