[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A young Labrador Retriever was presented for treatment of severe distal hindlimb necrosis caused by bandage ischemia. During digit amputation at the metatarsophalangeal joints, the third and fourth digital pads were salvaged and transferred to the metatarsal stump to create a weight-bearing surface. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) was utilized for flap immobilization and to promote granulation tissue in the remaining wound defect. Sturdy adherence of the digital pads was achieved after only four days. The skin defect healed completely by second intention and the stump was epithelialized with a thin pad after three months. At the nine month follow-up examination, the stump had a thick hyperkeratinized pad. The dog walked and ran without any apparent signs of discomfort and compensated for the loss of limb length by extending the stifle and tarsocrural joints. Despite a challenging wound in a difficult anatomical location, digital pad flap transfer and NPWT proved successful in restoring long-term ambulation in an active large breed dog.
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology 12/2014; 28(1). · 1.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCS) have a high prevalence of Chiari-like malformation (CM). Herniation of the cerebellum into the foramen magnum is a key diagnostic feature for CM. Midsagittal MR images are the preferred technique for visualizing cerebellar herniation (CH).Objective
To investigate whether CT can be used to diagnose CH.AnimalsFifteen client-owned CKCS dogs referred for investigation of the brain and cranial cervical spine on MRI and CT.Methods
Two reviewers retrospectively analyzed midsagittal T1WSE and T2WSE MR images and midsagittal pre- and postcontrast 2D multiplanar reformatted CT images from each dog for the presence of CH. And, if present, the length (mm, CHL) of the herniation was measured. The results were analyzed statistically.ResultsThere was no significant difference between the different observers and techniques for the detection of CH and measurement of CHL. Overall, the CHL was longer on the CT images.Conclusion and Clinical ImportanceBoth techniques are useful for detecting CH and measuring CHL. Because CHL does not have a known direct impact on the clinical presentation of CM, CT can be used as a diagnostic tool in a routine clinical practice for CM in CKCS when MRI is not available. We emphasize that MRI is the standard screening technique in CKCS for breeding purposes to detect the presence of CM and SM and, at the current time, CT cannot replace MRI.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 11/2014; · 2.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Significantly higher BBB permeability for linear vs. cyclic enkephalin analogs.•Nanomolar μ-opioid receptor affinity for the four enkephalin analogs.•Significanlty higher antinociception for NMe- vs. S-enkephalin analogs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: • We investigate the influence of anesthesia/sedation on CEUS of the feline kidney• Butorphanol has no significant influence on the perfusion parameters• Propofol causes a significant increase in arrival time, time-to-peak and wash-in• The alterations in blood velocity parameters have to be taken into account
The Veterinary Journal 10/2014; · 2.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To gain insights into the working mechanism of morphine, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) patterns after morphine administration were assessed in dogs. In a randomized cross-over experimental study, rCBF was estimated with 99mTc-Ethylcysteinate Dimer single photon emission computed tomography in 8 dogs at baseline, at 30 minutes and at 120 minutes after a single bolus of morphine. Perfusion indices (PI) in the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital cortex and in the subcortical and cerebellar region were calculated. PI was significantly decreased 30 min after morphine compared to baseline in the right frontal cortex. The left parietal cortex and subcortical region showed a significantly increased PI 30 min after morphine compared to baseline. No significant differences were noted for the other regions or at other time points. In conclusion, a single bolus of morphine generated a changing rCBF pattern at different time points.
PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e109680. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prepubertal gonadectomy (PPG) is promoted for population control in cats, but concerns related to health and behavior still exist. From a behavioral point of view, in order for PPG to be an acceptable alternative for traditional age gonadectomy (TAG), the occurrence of undesirable behavior should be unaffected by age at gonadectomy. The aims of this study were to investigate (1) whether the average number of (potentially) undesirable behaviors in shelter kittens during 24 months after adoption was associated with the age at gonadectomy, and (2) whether social or environmental factors were related to the occurrence of commonly reported undesirable behaviors (inappropriate elimination, fearfulness, aggression and destruction).
Eight hundred healthy kittens between the estimated age of 8 to 12 weeks (0.7 and 1.4 kg) were recruited from animal shelters in Flanders, Belgium. Before adoption, kittens were randomly assigned to a PPG (gonadectomy upon assignment) and TAG group (gonadectomy between 6 to 8 months of age). Online short- and long-term follow-up were conducted using a 30-day diary immediately after adoption and surveys at 2, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after adoption.
Mean number of potentially undesirable behaviors per day during the first month after adoption was not significantly different between PPG (1.48 ± 0.957) and TAG (1.39 ± 0.899) kittens (P = 0.32), and neither was the evolution of the mean number of potentially undesirable behaviors and undesirable behaviors during the long-term follow-up (P = 0.0946 and P = 0.10 respectively). The occurrence of inappropriate elimination, fearful behavior, non-play related aggression and destruction was associated with other social and environmental variables (e.g. the use of punishment by the owner and friendliness toward a stranger).
In conclusion, this study in shelter cats did not demonstrate an effect of age at time of gonadectomy on the mean number of (potentially) undesirable behaviors during 24 months after adoption. Other factors seem to play a more dominating role in the development of such behaviors.
Journal of Veterinary Behavior Clinical Applications and Research 09/2014; · 1.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetics of dexmedetomidine and buprenorphine after oral transmucosal (OTM) and intramuscular (i.m.) administration of their combination in healthy adult cats were compared. According to a crossover protocol (1-month washout), a combination of dexmedetomidine (40 μg/kg) and buprenorphine (20 μg/kg) was given OTM (buccal cavity) or i.m. (quadriceps muscle) in six female neutered cats. Plasma samples were collected through a jugular catheter during a 24-h period. Plasma dexmedetomidine and buprenorphine concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Plasma concentration–time data were fitted to compartmental models. For dexmedetomidine and buprenorphine, the area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC) and the maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) were significantly lower following OTM than following i.m. administration. For buprenorphine, time to reach Cmax was also significantly longer after OTM administration than after i.m. injection. Data suggested that dexmedetomidine (40 μg/kg) combined with buprenorphine (20 μg/kg) is not as well absorbed from the buccal mucosa site as from the intramuscular injection site.
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 09/2014; · 1.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anaesthetic and analgesic effects of three different injectable anaesthetic combinations for prepubertal gonadectomy (PPG) in cats were studied. One anaesthetic protocol was compared with a similar one for gonadectomy at traditional age (TAG). Kittens were randomly assigned to PPG or TAG. For PPG, three different protocols were compared: (1) intramuscular (IM) administration of 60 μg/kg dexmedetomidine plus 20 μg/kg buprenorphine followed by an IM injection of the anaesthetic agent (20 mg/kg ketamine) (DB-IM protocol); (2) oral transmucosal (OTM) administration of 80 μg/kg dexmedetomidine plus 20 μg/kg buprenorphine followed by an IM injection of 20 mg/kg ketamine combined with 20 µg/kg dexmedetomidine (DB-OTM protocol); (3) IM injection of a 40 μg/kg medetomidine-20 μg/kg buprenorphine-20 mg/kg ketamine combination (MBK-IM protocol). For TAG, a DB-IM protocol was used, but with different doses for dexmedetomidine (40 μg/kg) and ketamine (5 mg/kg). All cats (PPG and TAG) received a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory before surgery. Anaesthetic and analgesic effects were assessed pre- and postoperatively (until 6 h). Cumulative logit, linear and logistic regression models were used for statistical analysis. Compared with the DB-OTM protocol, the DB-IM and MBK-IM protocols provided better anaesthesia with fewer adverse effects in PPG cats. Postoperative pain was not significantly different between anaesthetic protocols. PPG and TAG cats anaesthetised with the two DB-IM protocols differed significantly only for sedation and pain scores, but sedation and pain scores were generally low. Although there were no anaesthesia-related mortalities in the present study and all anaesthetic protocols for PPG in cats provided a surgical plane of anaesthesia and analgesia up to 6 h postoperatively, our findings were in favour of the intramuscular (DB-IM and MBK-IM) protocols.
Journal of Feline Medicine & Surgery 08/2014; · 1.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Septic peritonitis occurs relatively commonly in dogs. Secondary septic peritonitis is usually associated with perforation of intestines or infected viscera, such as the uterus in pyometra cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bacterial flora in the ovarian bursae of intact bitches as a potential source of contamination. One hundred forty dogs, clinically suspected of pyometra, were prospectively enrolled. The control group consisted of 26 dogs that underwent elective ovariohysterectomies and 18 dogs with mammary gland tumors that were neutered at the time of mastectomy. Bacteriology samples were taken aseptically at the time of surgery from the bursae and the uterus in all dogs. Twenty-two dogs that were clinically suspected of pyometra had sterile uterine content ("mucometra" cases); the remaining 118 had positive uterine cultures ("pyometra" cases) and septic peritoneal fluid was present in 10% of these cases. Of the 118 pyometra cases, 9 had unilateral and 15 had bilateral bacterial colonization of their ovarian bursae. However, the bacteria from the ovarian bursa were similar to those recovered from the uterine pus in only half of the cases. Furthermore, positive bursae were also seen in one mucometra dog (unilateral) and in four control dogs (two unilateral and two bilateral). The data illustrate that the canine ovarian bursa can harbor bacteria. The biological importance of these isolations remains unclear.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Down-stream neuronal alterations, including changes in the 5-HT-2A receptor system, play an important role in the etiology and treatment of depression. The present study examined the effect of prolonged opioid treatment on cerebral 5-HT2A receptors. Cerebral 5-HT2A receptor availability was estimated in seven healthy five-year-old female neutered Beagle dogs pre and post 10-day morphine treatment (oral sustained release morphine 20 mg twice daily for ten days) with 123I-R-91150, a 5-HT2A selective radioligand, and SPECT. 5-HT2A receptor binding indices (BI) for the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital cortex and the subcortical region were calculated. Statistical analysis was performed using a linear mixed-effect model with treatment as fixed effect and dog as random effect. Morphine treatment significantly (p≤0.05) lowered 5-HT2A BIs in the right and left frontal cortex, the right and left temporal cortex, the right and left parietal cortex, and the subcortical region. The decreased cerebral 5-HT2A receptor availability following prolonged morphine exposure provides further evidence for an interaction between the opioid and serotonergic system.
European neuropsychopharmacology: the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology 07/2014; · 3.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Feasibility, surgical time and complications of different surgical techniques for prepubertal gonadectomy (PPG; 8-12 weeks of age) in cats were studied and compared to gonadectomy at traditional age (TAG; 6-8 months of age). Kittens were randomly assigned to PPG or TAG. Ovarian pedicle haemostasis for PPG was achieved by ligatures (n=47), vascular clips (n=50), bipolar electrocoagulation (n=50), or pedicle tie (n=50); for TAG (n=34) ligatures were used. In male cats, PPG consisted of closed castration by spermatic cord knot (n=92) or ligature (n=91) while TAG (n=34) was an open castration by spermatic cord knot. A linear (surgical time) and a logistic regression (complications) model were designed. Significance was set at 0.05. For female PPG, clips and coagulation were the fastest procedures; placement of ligatures was most time-consuming. In male PPG, knot placement was significantly faster than ligation. In both sexes, very few intraoperative or wound complications were observed, irrespective of the surgical technique used. Surgical times in females (ligatures) as well as in males (knot) were significantly shorter for PPG than for TAG. PPG was as safe as TAG, yet took less time to perform and did not result in a greater rate of postoperative complications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thyroid carcinoma is a common endocrine tumor in the dog. Local invasive growth frequently precludes surgical excision and, in up to 38% of dogs, the tumor has already metastasized by the time of diagnosis. Therefore, it is important to investigate new treatment modalities that may be useful for the large number of dogs with inoperable tumors or metastatic disease.
To investigate the immunohistochemical expression of potential therapeutic targets in canine thyroid tumors.
74 dogs with thyroid neoplasia.
Immunohistochemistry was performed for thyroglobulin, calcitonin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), p53, cycloxygenase-2 (cox-2), and P-glycoprotein (P-gp).
Fifty-four (73%) tumors were classified as follicular cell thyroid carcinomas (FTCs) and 20 (27%) as medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTCs). Eighty percent of FTCs and all MTCs had a high percentage (76-100%) of neoplastic cells immunopositive for VEGF. Thirteen percent of FTCs and 50% of MTCs expressed cox-2. Seven percent of FTCs and 70% of MTCs expressed P-gp. No tumor was immunopositive for p53 expression. Expression of VEGF (P = .034), cox-2 (P = .013), and P-gp (P < .001) was significantly higher in MTCs compared to FTCs.
VEGF is a potential therapeutic target in both FTC and MTC in dogs. Cox-2 and P-gp may be useful molecular targets in canine MTC.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 02/2014; · 2.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infections by antibiotic-resistant bacteria are becoming a great risk for human health, leading to an urgent need for new efficient antibacterial therapies. The short, proline-rich antimicrobial peptides from insects gained a lot of interest as a potential antibacterial treatment, having a low toxicity profile and being mainly active against Gram-negative bacteria. To know whether these antimicrobial peptides can be used for the treatment of cerebral infections, the blood-brain barrier transport characteristics of these peptides were investigated. This study describes the results of the in vivo blood-brain barrier experiments in mice, as well as the in vitro metabolic stability in mouse plasma and brain of apidaecin Api137, oncocin, drosocin and drosocin Pro5Hyp. The four investigated peptides showed a significant influx into the brain with a Kin ranging between 0.37 and 0.86 µL/g × min and brain distribution volumes of 19.6 to 25.8 µL/g. Only for drosocin, a significant efflux was determined, with a kout of 0.22 min-1. After entering the brain, oncocin was for approximately 80% trapped in the endothelial cells, while the other peptides reached the brain parenchyma for about 70%. All peptides were stable in plasma and brain during the experiments, with estimated metabolic half-lives ranging between 47 min and 637 min. We conclude that the investigated short, proline-rich antimicrobial peptides show an influx into the brain, which make them a promising antibacterial treatment of cerebral infections.
Protein and Peptide Letters 01/2014; 21(4). · 1.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can be used to study the regional distribution of the cerebral blood flow in the feline brain without interference of anesthetics. When the tracer, 99mtechnetium-ethyl cysteinate dimer (99mTc-ECD), is injected in the awake animal, the acquisition can be performed afterward under general anesthesia, whereas the tracer distribution still represents the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the awake animal. The aim of this study was to look at the in vivo stability of 99mTc-ECD in the feline brain. For this purpose, 6 cats (n = 6) were used, and 3 serial acquisitions were performed starting at 40 (T40), 60 (T60), and 85 (T85) minutes after tracer injection. Total counts and perfusion indices (PIs), normalized to the total brain and to the cerebellum, were calculated. When T85 was compared with T40, total counts decreased, depending on the brain region, with 29% (left thalamus) to 51% (bulbus olfactorius). These regional differences in tracer clearance resulted in significantly altered PIs at T85 as compared with T40. This study shows that 99mTc-ECD SPECT can be used in cats for studying the rCBF and that the clearance of 99mTc-ECD in the feline brain is region dependent. As a result, the acquisition should be started between 40 and 60 minutes after tracer injection.
Journal of Veterinary Behavior Clinical Applications and Research 11/2013; 8(6):444–449. · 1.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare sedation and antinociception after oral transmucosal (OTM) and intramuscular (IM) administration of a dexmedetomidine-buprenorphine combination in healthy adult cats.
Randomized, 'blinded' crossover study, with 1 month washout between treatments.
Six healthy neutered female cats, weighing 5.3-7.5 kg.
A combination of dexmedetomidine (40 μg kg(-1) ) and buprenorphine (20 μg kg(-1) ) was administered by either the OTM (buccal cavity) or IM (quadriceps muscle) route. Sedation was measured using a numerical rating scale, at baseline and at various time points until 6 hours after treatment. At the same time points, analgesia was scored using a dynamic and interactive visual analogue scale, based on the response to an ear pinch, and by the cat's response to a mechanical stimulus exerted by a pressure rate onset device. Physiological and adverse effects were recorded, and oral pH measured. Signed rank tests were performed, with significance set at p < 0.05. Data are presented as median and range.
There were no differences in sedation or antinociception scores between OTM and IM dosing at any of the time points. Nociceptive thresholds increased after both treatments but without significant difference between groups. Buccal pH remained between 8 and 8.5. Salivation was noted after OTM administration (n = 2) and vomiting after both OTM (n = 4), and IM (n = 3) dosing.
In healthy adult cats, OTM administration of dexmedetomidine and buprenorphine resulted in comparable levels of sedation and antinociception to IM dosing. The OTM administration may offer an alternative route to administer this sedative-analgesic combination in cats.
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 08/2013; · 1.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective-To assess the agreement between CT and MRI for enabling detection of intracranial lesions in cats and dogs. Design-Evaluation study. Animals-51 dogs and 7 cats with suspected intracranial lesions. Procedures-During a 2-year-period, dogs and cats with suspected intracranial pathological changes underwent MRI and CT (single slice) of the head. Radiologists evaluated images produced with both techniques without awareness of subject identity. Agreement between methods was assessed for allowing detection of solitary or multiple lesions, selected lesion characteristics (via the Cohen κ statistic), and lesion dimensions (via Bland-Altman plots). Results-CT and MRI had substantial agreement for allowing detection of lesions and identification of whether the lesions were solitary or multiple. The techniques agreed almost perfectly for allowing identification of a mass effect and contrast medium enhancement, which were considered principal diagnostic imaging signs. A lower degree of agreement was attained for allowing identification of enhancement patterns and aspects of lesion margins. Agreement was substantial to almost perfect for lesion visualization in most anatomic brain regions but poor for identification of lesion dimensions. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Degrees of agreement between CT and MRI for allowing the detection and characterization of intracranial lesions ranged from poor to almost perfect, depending on the variable assessed. More investigation is needed into the relative analytic sensitivity and possible complementarities of CT and MRI in the detection of suspected intracranial lesions in dogs and cats.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 08/2013; 243(3):367-75. · 1.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Subanesthetic doses of ketamine can be used as a rapid-acting antidepressant in patients with treatment-resistant depression. Therefore, the brain kinetics of (123)I-5-I-R91150 (4-amino-N-[1-[3-(4-fluorophenyl)propyl]-4-methylpiperidin-4-yl]-5-iodo-2-methoxybenzamide) and the influence of ketamine on the postsynaptic serotonin-2A receptor (5-hydroxytryptamine-2A, or 5-HT2A) status were investigated in cats using micro-SPECT.
This study was conducted on 6 cats using the radioligand (123)I-5-I-R91150, a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, as the imaging probe. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with a continuous-rate infusion of propofol (8.4 ± 1.2 mg kg(-1) followed by 0.22 mg kg(-1) min(-1)) 75 min after tracer administration, and acquisition of the first image began 15 min after induction of anesthesia. After this first acquisition, propofol (0.22 mg kg(-1) min(-1)) was combined with ketamine (5 mg kg(-1) followed by 0.023 mg kg(-1) min(-1)), and the second acquisition began 15 min later. Semiquantification, with the cerebellum as a reference region, was performed to calculate the 5-HT2A receptor binding indices (parameter for available receptor density) in the frontal and temporal cortices. The binding indices were analyzed with Wilcoxon signed ranks statistics.
The addition of ketamine to the propofol continuous-rate infusion resulted in decreased binding indices in the right frontal cortex (1.25 ± 0.22 vs. 1.45 ± 0.16; P = 0.028), left frontal cortex (1.34 ± 0.15 vs. 1.49 ± 0.10; P = 0.028), right temporal cortex (1.30 ± 0.17 vs. 1.45 ± 0.09; P = 0.046), and left temporal cortex (1.41 ± 0.20 vs. 1.52 ± 0.20; P = 0.046).
This study showed that cats can be used as an animal model for studying alterations of the 5-HT2A receptor status with (123)I-5-I-R91150 micro-SPECT. Furthermore, an interaction between ketamine and the 5-HT2A receptors resulting in decreased binding of (123)I-5-I-R91150 in the frontal and temporal cortices was demonstrated. Whether the decreased radioligand binding resulted from a direct competition between ketamine and (123)I-5-I-R91150 or from a decreased affinity of the 5-HT2A receptor caused by ketamine remains to be elucidated.
Journal of Nuclear Medicine 07/2013; · 5.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: To report the characteristics of two types of flexor enthesopathy, primary and concomitant, based on different diagnostic techniques. Materials and methods: Over a period of three years a prospective study was performed on dogs admitted for the complaint of elbow lameness. Based on the radiographic findings a selection of dogs underwent a complete series of different imaging modalities. With each technique, pathology of the medial epicondyle and the presence of other elbow disorders were recorded. All joints with signs of flexor pathology apparent with at least three techniques were selected. A distinction was made between primary and concomitant flexor enthesopathy based on the absence or presence of other elbow disorders. Results: Primary flexor enthesopathy was diagnosed in 23 joints and concomitant flexor enthesopathy in 20 joints. In 43% of the joints with primary and in 75% of the joints with concomitant flexor enthesopathy, pathology at the medial epicondyle was demonstrated by all techniques. All joints with concomitant flexor enthesopathy had a diagnosis of medial coronoid disease, osteochondritis dissecans, or both. Clinical significance: Pathology at the medial epicondyle is a sign of flexor enthesopathy. It may be present as the only sign in a joint with primary flexor enthesopathy or concomitant with other elbow pathology. In both groups flexor lesions can be demonstrated with different imaging techniques. The distinction between the primary and concomitant form is based on the presence or absence of other elbow pathology, mainly medial coronoid disease. Recognizing both types is important for a correct treatment decision.
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology 06/2013; 26(6). · 1.03 Impact Factor