[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rotavirus infections are a major cause of diarrhea in children in both developed and developing countries. Rotavirus genetics, patient immunity, and environmental factors are thought to be related to the severity of acute diarrhea due to rotavirus in infants and young children. The objective of this study was to provide a correlation between rotavirus genotypes, clinical factors and degree of severity of acute diarrhea in children under 5 years old in Surabaya, Indonesia.
A cross-sectional study was conducted in children aged 1-60 months with acute diarrhea hospitalized in Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia from April to December 2013. Rotavirus in stool specimens was identified by ELISA and genotyping (G-type and P-type) using multiplex reverse transcription PCR. Severity was measured using the Ruuska and Vesikari scoring system. The clinical factors were investigated included patient's age (months), hydration, antibiotic administration, nutritional state, co-bacterial infection and co-viral infection.
A total of 88 children met the criteria; 80.7% were aged 6-24 months, watery diarrhea was the most common type (77.3%) and 73.6% of the subjects were co-infected with bacteria, of which pathogenic Escherichia coli was the most common (42.5%). The predominant VP7 genotyping (G-type) was G2 (31.8%) and that of VP4 genotyping (P-type) was P (31.8%). The predominant rotavirus genotype was G2P (19.3%); G1P and G9P were uncommon with a prevalence of 4.5%. There were significant differences between the common genotype and uncommon genotype with respect to the total severity score of diarrhea (p <0.05). G3, G4 and G9 were significantly correlated with severe diarrhea (p = 0.009) in multivariate analyses and with frequency of diarrhea (>10 times a day) (p = 0.045) in univariate analyses, but there was no significant correlation between P typing and severity of diarrhea. For combination genotyping of G and P, G2P was significantly correlated with severe diarrhea in multivariate analyses (p = 0.029).
There is a correlation between rotavirus genotype and severity of acute diarrhea in children. Genotype G2P has the highest prevalence. G3, G4, G9 and G2P combination genotype were found to be associated with severe diarrhea.
Gut Pathogens 12/2015; 7(1). DOI:10.1186/s13099-015-0048-2 · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prognostic significance of early tumor shrinkage following treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) has not been fully elucidated.
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of early tumor shrinkage induced by first-line TKIs on overall survival (OS) in mRCC patients.
This study retrospectively included 185 consecutive Japanese patients with mRCC treated with either sunitinib or sorafenib for at least 3 months as first-line molecular-targeted therapy between April 2011 and December 2014 at Kobe University Hospital and its affiliated institutions.
Median OS in the 185 patients was 33.6 months. At 12 weeks after the introduction of TKIs, 9 patients had achieved tumor shrinkage from -100 to -50 %, 43 from -49 to -25 %, 61 from -24 to 0 %, and the remaining 72 patients showed an increase in tumor size. The median OS stratified according to tumor shrinkage as shown above was 59.2, 39.1, 31.4, and 16.1 months, respectively. Univariate analysis identified prior nephrectomy, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) risk classification, C-reactive protein (CRP) level, liver metastasis, number of metastatic organs, histological subtype, sarcomatoid feature, and early tumor shrinkage as significant predictors of OS. Of these significant factors, only the MSKCC classification, CRP level, liver metastasis, and early tumor shrinkage were shown to be independently associated with OS on multivariate analysis.
Early tumor shrinkage could be a useful predictor of OS in mRCC patients receiving TKIs as a first-line molecular-targeted agent.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The objective of this study was to retrospectively review oncological outcomes in patients with stage I testicular germ cell tumor (GCT). Patients and Methods: This study included 265 consecutive Japanese men undergoing orchiectomy for stage I testicular GCT, and a retrospective review of their records was performed. Results: Of these 265 patients, 192 and 73 were pathologically classified with seminoma and nonseminoma, respectively. Prophylactic radiation and chemotherapy were performed in 62 patients with seminoma and 6 with nonseminoma, respectively. Disease recurrence occurred in 12 seminoma patients, of whom 11 had not received prophylactic radiation therapy; however, all 12 achieved a complete response to bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin therapy. Of the nonseminoma patients, 19 experienced disease recurrence and were then treated with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin followed additionally by the surgical resection of residual tumors and salvage chemotherapy in 7 and 4, respectively. There was no cancer-specific death in the 265 patients, and 5-year recurrence-free survival rates in patients with seminoma and nonseminoma were 92.6 and 72.8%, respectively. Furthermore, following factors appeared to be significantly associated with recurrence-free survival in these patients: age, T classification, microvascular invasion and adjuvant therapy for those with seminoma, and microvascular invasion for those with nonseminoma. Conclusions: Despite a generally favorable prognosis in Japanese men with stage I testicular GCT, intensive follow-up or prophylactic therapy should be considered for men with possible risk factors of disease recurrence.
Current Urology 07/2015; 8(2):84-90. DOI:10.1159/000365695
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: To analyze the diagnostic performance of 12-core biopsy in detecting significant prostate cancer (PCa). Patients and Methods: This study included 206 PCa patients who underwent transrectal 12-core biopsy followed by radical prostatectomy. Radical prostatectomy specimens were anatomically divided into 12 areas according to the sampling cores, and the existence of significant cancer, defined by a tumor volume > 0.5 ml, was investigated. The detection rate of significant cancer in each area was calculated as follows: the number of positive core biopsies/the number of areas containing significant cancer × 100. Results: The overall detection rate of significant cancer in all areas was 53.6%. The detection rate was significantly higher in the standard sextant cores than in the additional 6 cores in patients with prostate-specific antigen ≥ 10 ng/ml, clinical stage ≥ T2, or biopsy Gleason score ≥ 7, but not in those with prostate-specific antigen Conclusions: Approximately half of the significant cancers were not accurately detected, and the detection rates in biopsy cores other than the sextant cores appeared to be significantly lower in PCa patients with aggressive features.
Current Urology 07/2015; 8(2):91-95. DOI:10.1159/000365696
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyze the clinical outcomes of the irinotecan plus nedaplatin (IN) regimen in patients with advanced germ cell tumors (GCTs) refractory to cisplatin-based combination chemotherapies.
This study included a total of 20 consecutive advanced GCT patients who were categorized into intermediate- or poor-risk GCT groups according to the International Germ Cell Consensus Classification, and were judged to show refractory or relapsed disease after bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin and cisplatin, ifosfamide and paclitaxel therapies. All 20 patients subsequently received IN therapy (irinotecan 100 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 15; nedaplatin 100 mg/m(2) on day 1) every 4 weeks.
Following a median of 3 cycles of IN, 9 patients (45 %) achieved normalization of serum tumor markers. In addition, surgical resection of the residual tumors following IN was performed in 5 patients, of whom 4 were pathologically diagnosed with no viable cancer cells. At a median follow-up of 9 months, 11 patients (55 %) were alive, including 7 (35 %) with no evidence of disease, whereas the remaining 9 (45 %) died of disease progression. The median duration of overall survival after the introduction of IN to these 20 patients was 13.4 months. Severe hematological toxicities were observed in all patients, but were manageable. Although fatal treatment-related interstitial pneumonia occurred in 1 patient, other non-hematological toxicities were generally tolerable.
Considering the markedly unfavorable characteristics of the included patients with advanced GCT who were intensively treated with cisplatin-based combination chemotherapies, IN could be regarded as having promising therapeutic activity with an acceptable toxicity profile.
International Journal of Clinical Oncology 06/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10147-015-0861-0 · 2.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
To evaluate retrospectively the outcomes of microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) in men with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) and to identify the parameters predicting successful sperm retrieval in this cohort of patients.
After excluding patients with normal testicular volume and serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) level who received conventional TESE, this study included 329 consecutive NOA patients undergoing micro-TESE at our institution. The significance of several factors, including age, testicular volume, etiology and serum levels of FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH) and serum testosterone (T), as predictors of successful sperm retrieval, was evaluated.
Of the 329 men included in this series, 246 (74.8 %), 40 (12.2 %), and 43 (13.1 %) were pathologically diagnosed with Sertoli cell only, maturation arrest, and hypospermatogenesis, respectively. Spermatozoa were retrieved in 97 (29.5 %) of these 329 men by micro-TESE. Older age and non-idiopathic etiology were significantly associated with the probability of successful sperm retrieval; however, there were no significant effects of testicular volume as well as serum levels of FSH, LH, and T on sperm retrieval outcome. Furthermore, Johnsen score of the micro-TESE specimen showed a significant association with whether spermatozoa were successfully retrieved. Univariate analysis of preoperative parameters identified older age and non-idiopathic etiology as significant predictors of successful sperm retrieval, of which only etiology appeared to be independently related to successful sperm retrieval on multivariate analysis.
Spermatozoa are significantly less likely to be successfully retrieved by micro-TESE in men with idiopathic azoospermia.
Reproductive Medicine and Biology 06/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12522-015-0212-x
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to identify significant immune-system related for symptom of patients with prostatic inflammation in order to investigate the etiology of prostatic inflammation which may relate to potentially chronic prostatitis (CP). We investigated the expression of immune system-related biomarkers such as Interleukin (IL) -6 (humoral immunity), CD-3 (T-lymphocyte), and CD-163 (macrophage) in prostate biopsy (PBx) specimens from patients with prostatic inflammation (without cancer) which had been neither clinically diagnosed benign prostatic hyperplasia nor chronic prostatitis. We examined the correlation between these markers' expressions and the symptom scores using the National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI), International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS)/quality of life (QOL) which are the index for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Our results showed CD-163 (macrophage) reflected pain or discomfort on NIH-CPSI scores (P = 0.0389 and r = 0.3307) in the patients with prostatic inflammation; however, the control patients had no significant correlation between symptom scores and those immune-related markers' expression. These results suggest that pain or discomfort related to macrophages in the relationship between immune-system and the symptom of prostatic inflammation. In conclusion, CD-163, related to immune-system (macrophage), correlated with symptoms (pain or discomfort) of prostatic inflammation and might represent a significant immune-system related biomarker for pain or LUTS score in potentially CP.
International journal of clinical and experimental pathology 06/2015; 8(3):2408-14. · 1.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the oncological efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) as first-line molecular-targeted therapy for Japanese patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) in a routine clinical setting. This study included a total of 271 consecutive Japanese patients with TKI-naive mRCC, including 172 patients who received sorafenib and 99 who received sunitinib for ≥2 months as a first-line molecular-targeted agent. The prognostic outcomes of these patients were retrospectively assessed. During the observation period (median, 19 months), 126 patients (46.5%) succumbed to the disease and the median overall survival (OS) for the entire cohort was 33.1 months. The univariate analysis identified the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) classification, C-reactive protein (CRP) level, lymph node metastasis, bone metastasis, liver metastasis, histological subtype and sarcomatoid characteristics as significant predictors of OS. Of these factors, only the MSKCC classification, CRP level and liver metastasis were found to be independently associated with OS in the multivariate analysis. Furthermore, there were significant differences in OS according to the positivity for these 3 independent risk factors (i.e., negative for all factors vs. positive for a single factor vs. positive for 2 or 3 factors). These findings suggest that the introduction of TKIs as first-line molecular-targeted agents resulted in favorable cancer control outcomes in Japanese mRCC patients and that the prognosis of these patients may be stratified by 3 potential parameters, including the MSKCC classification, CRP level and liver metastasis.
Molecular and Clinical Oncology 05/2015; 3(3):601-606. DOI:10.3892/mco.2015.487
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
To assess the significance of performance status as a prognostic factor after radical cystectomy for urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.Methods
The present study included 730 consecutive patients with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder who underwent radical cystectomy. Clinicopathological outcomes in these patients were analyzed focusing on the impact of performance status, which was assessed using the Karnofsky Performance Status scale before surgery. Patients were classified into groups with Karnofsky Performance Status ≥90 and ≤80.ResultsA total of 561 (76.8%) and 169 (23.2%) patients were judged to have Karnofsky Performance Status ≥90 and ≤80, respectively. During a mean of 52.0 months, disease recurrence and mortality occurred in 257 (35.2%) and 249 (34.1%) patients, respectively, and the 5-year recurrence-free and overall survival rates were 64.1 and 65.3%, respectively. There were significant differences in age, hemoglobin, albumin, estimated glomerular filtration rate, pathological T stage and nodal involvement between the Karnofsky Performance Status ≥90 and ≤80 groups. Multivariate analysis showed independent impacts of Karnofsky Performance Status, pathological T stage, nodal involvement and lymphovascular invasion on recurrence-free survival, as well as independent impacts of Karnofsky Performance Status, age, body mass index, hemoglobin, pathological T stage, nodal involvement and lymphovascular invasion on overall survival.Conclusions
The results suggest a significant association between impaired performance status and unfavorable prognosis in patients with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder undergoing radical cystectomy.
International Journal of Urology 05/2015; 22(8). DOI:10.1111/iju.12804 · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the optimal dose of vancomycin (VCM) for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in the urological patients including renal dysfunction.
We had 143 sets of available data from the consecutive patients treated in the urological department for analysis in VCM dose, VCM trough and estimated glomerular filtration rate: eGFR at VCM trough examination. Patients were classified according to eGFR level, and we calculated the regression line between VCM dose and VCM trough accordingly.
Median VCM dose were 1000 (range 500-3500) mg per day, the VCM trough was 15.6 ± 7.89 μg/ml, and eGFR was 61.1 ± 27.2 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Our regression analysis (x axis: VCM dose (mg) and y axis: VCM trough (μg/ml) was statistically significant in the group with eGFR of 30-60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (y = 26.103x + 481.7; r (2) = 0.1291) and the group with eGFR of 60-90 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (y = 48.891x + 350.75; r (2) = 0.2561) in both with (p = 0.021 and 0.035, respectively) or without (p = 0.012 and 0.004, respectively) adjustments by body weight for VCM doses.
These data showed that the optimal dose of VCM varied according to the eGFR value in consecutive urological patients with various renal functions.
International Urology and Nephrology 04/2015; 47(6). DOI:10.1007/s11255-015-0973-5 · 1.52 Impact Factor