N Koh

Nagoya University, Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken, Japan

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Publications (48)178.29 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The transition metal-catalyzed reaction is a major source of oxygen free radicals, which play an important role in vascular dysfunction leading to ischemia in diabetic tissues. The inhibition of polyol pathway hyperactivity has been reported to ameliorate neurovascular abnormalities in diabetic rats and has been proposed to improve the oxygen free radical scavenging capacity. The present study was conducted to compare the effect of a transition metal chelating agent, trientine (TRI), on diabetic neuropathy with that of an aldose reductase inhibitor, NZ-314 (NZ). Diabetic rats were divided into three groups: (1). untreated, (2). TRI-treated, and (3). NZ-treated. TRI (20 mg/kg) or NZ (100 mg/kg) was administered by gavage or chow containing NZ, respectively, for 8 weeks. Motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV), coefficient of variation of the R - R interval on electrocardiogram (CVr-r), sciatic nerve blood flow (SNBF), platelet aggregation activities, and serum concentrations of malondialdehyde were measured. Untreated diabetic rats showed delayed MNCV, decreased CV(R-R), and reduced SNBF compared to normal rats. TRI or NZ completely prevented these deficits. Platelet hyperaggregation activities in diabetic rats were prevented by NZ, but not by TRI. Increased concentrations of malondialdehyde in diabetic rats were partially but significantly ameliorated by either TRI or NZ. These observations suggest that increased free radical formation through the transition metal-catalyzed reaction plays an important role in the development of diabetic neuropathy and that the preventive effect of an aldose reductase inhibitor on diabetic neuropathy may also be mediated by decreasing oxygen free radicals.
    Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews 09/2002; 18(5):395-402. · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of an aldose reductase inhibitor, epalrestat, on autonomic and somatic neuropathy at an early stage in type 2 diabetic patients by assessing the pupillary light reflex and minimum latency of the F-wave. A total of 30 diabetic patients with subclinical or mild diabetic neuropathy were randomly allocated to a control group (n = 15) and epalrestat (150 mg/day) group (n = 15). After 24 weeks, the pupillary light reflex test, cardiovascular autonomic function tests, and nerve conduction study were performed. The beneficial effect of epalrestat on the pupillary light reflex was observed in the minimum diameter after light stimuli (P = 0.044), constriction ratio (P = 0.014), and maximum velocity of constriction (P = 0.008). Among cardiovascular autonomic nerve functions, the ratio of the longest expiratory R-R interval to the shortest inspiratory R-R interval during deep breathing was significantly improved by epalrestat (P = 0.037). Minimum latencies of F-wave of median and tibial motor nerves were significantly shortened by epalrestat (P = 0.002 and P = 0.001, respectively); however, no significant effects were observed in motor or sensory nerve conduction velocity. These observations suggest that epalrestat may have therapeutic value at the early stage of diabetic neuropathy and that the pupillary light reflex and minimum latency of F-wave may be useful indicators of diabetic neuropathy.
    Diabetes Care 07/2001; 24(6):1093-8. · 7.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the characteristic features of diabetic neuropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus, Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats, an animal model of human type 2 diabetes mellitus, and non-diabetic Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats were fed with or without sucrose and/or an aldose reductase inhibitor, [5-(3-thienyl) tetrazol-1-yl] acetic acid (TAT), for 24 weeks, and physiological, biochemical and morphological assessments were performed. Sucrose administration caused remarkable hyperglycemia in OLETF rats but not in LETO rats. Sucrose-fed OLETF rats demonstrated delayed nerve conduction velocity, decreased coefficient of variation of R-R interval, reduced sciatic nerve blood flow, increased platelet aggregation activity, a lower concentration of erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, and decreased Na+/K+-ATPase activity in sciatic nerves, compared with the non-sucrose-fed OLETF and LETO rats. TAT prevented all these deficits except hyperglycemia. Sorbitol and fructose accumulation and myo-inositol depletion in tail nerves of sucrose-fed OLETF rats were ameliorated by TAT. Myelinated fiber size and density in sural nerves of sucrose-fed OLETF rats were decreased and increased, respectively, compared with non-sucrose-fed OLETF and LETO rats. These morphological abnormalities were normalized by TAT. These observations suggest that the sucrose-fed OLETF rat developed diabetic neuropathy not only electrophysiologically but also histologically, and that an aldose reductase inhibitor, TAT, possesses therapeutic value for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy.
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 02/2001; 51(1):9-20. · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although increased polyol pathway activity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic microangiopathy, the relation with diabetic macroangiopathy remains unclear. Galactose feeding is known to stimulate the polyol pathway and to develop abnormalities similar to those in diabetic microangiopathy. Our study was conducted to investigate whether an activation of polyol pathway by long-term treatment with galactose produced morphological changes in coronary arteries of dogs and the effect of an aldose reductase inhibitor, epalrestat, was also studied. Dogs received either normal chow or chow containing 30% galactose with or without epalrestat given orally (20 or 50 mg x kg(-1)). After 44 months, morphometric analyses of coronary arteries were carried out and the galactitol contents in aortas were measured. The ratio of areas of the intimal layer to those of the medial layer, an indicator of intimal thickening, was statistically significantly increased in galactose-fed dogs compared with control dogs. Galactose-fed dogs had a remarkable accumulation of galactitol in their aortas. These morphological and biochemical deficits were reduced by treatment with epalrestat. This report morphologically shows diabetes-like macrovascular abnormalities in galactosaemic animals, suggesting that polyol pathway hyperactivity is closely related to the development of diabetic macroangiopathy, which could be prevented by aldose reductase inhibition.
    Diabetologia 01/2000; 42(12):1404-9. · 6.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increased protein kinase C (PKC) activity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy. However, the role of PKC in diabetic neuropathy remains unclear. The present study was conducted to compare the effect of PKC inhibition by a PKC-beta-selective inhibitor, LY333531 (LY), on diabetic nerve dysfunction with that of an aldose reductase inhibitor, NZ-314 (NZ). Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were treated with or without LY and/or NZ for 4 weeks, and motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV), coefficient of variation of R-R interval (CVR-R), sciatic nerve blood flow (SNBF), peak latencies of oscillatory potentials on electroretinogram, PKC activities in membranous and cytosolic fractions of sciatic nerves, and polyol contents in the tail nerves were measured. Untreated diabetic rats demonstrated delayed MNCV, decreased CVR-R, reduced SNBF, and prolonged peak latencies of oscillatory potentials. Treatment with LY as well as NZ prevented all these deficits in diabetic rats. There were no significant differences in PKC activities in membranous or cytosolic fractions of sciatic nerves between normal and diabetic rats. Treatment with neither LY nor NZ altered PKC activities. Nerve myo-inositol depletion in diabetic rats was ameliorated not only by NZ, but also by LY. These observations suggest that inhibition of PKC-beta by LY may have a beneficial effect in preventing the development of diabetic nerve dysfunction, and that this effect may be mediated through its action on the endoneurial micro-vasculature.
    Diabetes 11/1999; 48(10):2090-5. · 7.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the effect of vitamin E on the proliferation activity of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in diabetes mellitus, [3H]-thymidine incorporation was measured in cultured SMCs isolated from normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with or without vitamin E and/or allylamine. Untreated diabetic rats demonstrated significantly elevated concentrations of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and malondialdehyde (MDA). Allylamine caused a further increase in serum MDA. Treatment with vitamin E decreased the serum concentrations of triglycerides and MDA in both allylamine-treated and -untreated diabetic rats. [3H]-Thymidine incorporation in cultured SMCs from diabetic rats was significantly increased compared with that from normal rats. SMCs from allylamine-treated diabetic rats showed an enhanced increase in thymidine incorporation compared with that from untreated diabetic rats. The increase in thymidine incorporation in SMCs from untreated and allylamine-treated diabetic rats was significantly reduced by the treatment with vitamin E. These observations suggest that vitamin E has a preventive effect on the proliferation of vascular SMCs in diabetes, and that this effect may be mediated through an enhancement of free radical scavenging.
    Life Sciences 02/1999; 64(25):2317-25. · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the relationship between polyol pathway hyperactivity and altered carnitine metabolism in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy, the effects of an aldose reductase inhibitor, [5-(3-thienyl) tetrazol-1-yl]acetic acid (TAT), and a carnitine analog, acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC), on neural functions and biochemistry and hemodynamic factors were compared in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Significantly delayed motor nerve conduction velocity, decreased R-R interval variation, reduced sciatic nerve blood flow and decreased erythrocyte 2, 3-diphosphoglycerate concentrations in diabetic rats were all ameliorated by treatment with TAT (administered with rat chow containing 0.05% TAT, approximately 50 mg/kg/day) or ALC (by gavage, 300 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks. Platelet hyperaggregation activity in diabetic rats was diminished by TAT but not by ALC. TAT decreased sorbitol accumulation and prevented not only myo-inositol depletion but also free-carnitine deficiency in diabetic nerves. On the other hand, ALC also increased the myo-inositol as well as the free-carnitine content without affecting the sorbitol content. These observations suggest that there is a close relationship between increased polyol pathway activity and carnitine deficiency in the development of diabetic neuropathy and that an aldose reductase inhibitor, TAT, and a carnitine analog, ALC, have therapeutic potential for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 01/1999; 287(3):897-902. · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of orally administered propionyl-L-carnitine on cardiac dysfunction in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes were investigated. Wistar male rats were divided into four groups: untreated normal, propionyl-L-carnitine (daily for 4 weeks with 3 g/kg orally) -treated normal, untreated diabetic, propionyl-L-carnitine-treated diabetic. Four weeks after streptozotocin administration, plasma lipid levels were increased and myocardial carnitine content was decreased in untreated diabetic rats. These changes were significantly reversed by the propionyl-L-carnitine treatment. Assessment of cardiac function with isolated perfused working hearts revealed a depression of left ventricular developed pressure as well as both maximum positive and negative dP/dt in untreated diabetic as compared with that in normal hearts. Cardiac function at the higher left atrial filling pressures in the propionyl-L-carnitine-treated diabetic rats was improved significantly compared to that in untreated hearts. The data thus suggest that oral administration of propionyl-L-carnitine can reduce abnormalities of cardiac function, correlated with a significant increase in myocardial carnitine content and improved lipid metabolism in terms of lowered plasma lipids.
    European Journal of Pharmacology 10/1998; 357(2-3):185-91. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To clarify the influence of interindividual difference in the level of aldose reductase on the polyol pathway-related metabolism in diabetic patients. The enzyme protein content was determined by a two-site enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to recombinant human aldose reductase in erythrocytes from 35 diabetic patients and 11 healthy volunteers. Patients were stratified into two groups by the median of aldose reductase content, and the erythrocyte sorbitol level, the fructose level, and the lactate-to-pyruvate ratio were compared between the two groups. We also examined the correlation of the enzyme content with these metabolic parameters. The group of patients whose enzyme content was above the median showed a significant increase in the levels of sorbitol (34.7 +/- 4.9 vs. 20.4 +/- 2.0 nmol/g Hb, P < 0.05) and fructose (99.8 +/- 17.2 vs. 45.9 +/- 4.6 nmol/g Hb, P < 0.05), along with an elevated lactate-to-pyruvate ratio (28.6 +/- 6.1 vs. 11.7 +/- 1.2, P < 0.05), compared with patients with low enzyme levels. The aldose reductase content in erythrocytes was well correlated with its activity, and there was a significant correlation between the enzyme content and the erythrocyte sorbitol (r = 0.58, P < 0.001) or fructose (r = 0.57, P < 0.001) levels as well as between the enzyme level and the lactate-to-pyruvate ratio (r = 0.38, P < 0.05). These results suggest that the interindividual variability of aldose reductase content may contribute tangibly to the polyol-pathway flux and cytoplasmic redox alteration in diabetic patients.
    Diabetes Care 07/1998; 21(6):1014-8. · 7.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the role of increased polyol pathway activity and hemodynamic deficits in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats, an animal model of human NIDDM, were given water with or without 30% sucrose and some of them were fed laboratory chow containing 0.03% cilostazol, an anticoagulant, or 0.05% [5-(3-thienyl)tetrazol-1-yl] acetic acid monohydrate (TAT), an aldose reductase inhibitor, for 8 wk. Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats were used as nondiabetic controls. The peak latencies of oscillatory potentials of the electroretinogram in sucrose-fed OLETF rats were significantly prolonged compared with those in OLETF rats without sucrose feeding and LETO rats. There was a marked increase in platelet aggregability and a significant decrease in erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in sucrose-fed OLETF rats. Cilostazol significantly improved these parameters without changes in retinal levels of sorbitol and fructose. TAT, however, ameliorated all of these parameters. These findings confirm that the sucrose-fed OLETF rat is a useful animal model of retinopathy in human NIDDM and suggest that cilostazol improved diabetic retinopathy by modifying vascular factors, not by altering polyol pathway activity.
    The American journal of physiology 12/1997; 273(5 Pt 1):E965-71. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To clarify the effects of glycemic control on the level of 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG), a reactive dicarbonyl compound, in plasma from diabetic patients. Fasting plasma samples were collected from 15 healthy volunteers and 27 patients with NIDDM. Samples were collected from six poorly controlled patients before and after improved glycemic control for at least 2 months. Plasma 3-DG was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as a 2,3-diaminonaphthalene derivative. We observed the relationship of 3-DG levels with plasma glucose or HbA1c levels and examined changes in 3-DG levels after glycemic control in the six patients. Plasma 3-DG was significantly more increased in diabetic patients than in nondiabetic control subjects (31.8 +/- 11.3 vs. 12.8 +/- 5.2 ng/ml, means +/- SD, P < 0.001), but there was an approximately threefold difference in 3-DG levels among diabetic patients. 3-DG levels were well correlated with plasma glucose (r = 0.56, P < 0.005) and HbA1c levels (r = 0.74, P < 0.001) in diabetic patients. The improvement of hyperglycemia in six patients resulted in a significant decrease in 3-DG (35.2 +/- 13.2 vs. 21.3 +/- 3.4 ng/ml, P < 0.05). The results indicate that the plasma glucose level is a predominant determinant of the plasma 3-DG level in diabetic patients and good glycemic control would be important to reduce this reactive metabolite.
    Diabetes Care 09/1997; 20(9):1466-9. · 7.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of an aldose reductase inhibitor, [5-(3-thienyl) tetrazol-1-yl] acetic acid (TAT), on the electroretinogram was determined in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Laboratory chow containing 0.05% TAT was given to rats for 2 months, while other diabetic rats were untreated. Groups of TAT-treated and untreated normal rats were also studied. Treatment with TAT produced significant improvement of the electroretinogram. TAT shortened the peak latencies of the b-wave oscillatory potentials, which were significantly prolonged in untreated diabetic rats (P < 0.0001 vs. untreated normal rats). This was accompanied by a significant decrease in the retinal sorbitol and fructose concentrations (by 46.5% and 25.7%, respectively). TAT treatment of diabetic rats also markedly reduced ADP-induced platelet aggregation and significantly increased the red blood cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate level, accompanied by a marked reduction in sorbitol and fructose concentrations of platelet and red blood cells. There were significant correlations between the summed b-wave peak latencies and platelet aggregation or the 2,3-diphosphoglycerate level in diabetic rats. These findings suggest that an aldose reductase inhibitor, TAT, has therapeutic value for diabetic retinopathy.
    European Journal of Pharmacology 05/1997; 326(1):45-51. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the pathophysiological characteristics of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, alanine metabolism in isolated hepatocytes of male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) fatty rats (genetically obese and hyperglycemic) and their lean littermates was investigated. The effects of glucagon and the biguanides, metformin and buformin, on alanine metabolism were also studied by measuring alanine uptake and lipid synthesis from alanine. WKY fatty rats showed higher plasma insulin and lipid concentrations than lean rats at 5 as well as at 12 weeks of age. Alanine uptake into hepatocytes was increased in fatty rats only at 12 weeks of age compared with lean rats. Lipid synthesis from alanine in hepatocytes was increased in fatty rats at 5 and 12 weeks of age compared with lean rats. Glucagon increased alanine uptake into hepatocytes but did not affect lipid synthesis from alanine in both fatty and lean rats. Low concentrations (0.1 mM) of biguanides decreased lipid synthesis from alanine only in fatty rats without inhibiting alanine uptake into hepatocytes. These observations suggest that lipid synthesis from alanine in hepatocytes of WKY fatty rats is accelerated prior to the onset of diabetes mellitus, which might be associated with the development of diabetes, and that an inhibitory effect on increased lipid synthesis is one of the pharmacodynamic actions of biguanides.
    Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 04/1997; 75(3):179-84. · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In an animal model of human non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats were fed with sucrose for 8 weeks to obtain severe hyperglycemia. The effects of sucrose administration on peripheral nerve functions, motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) and coefficient of variance of R-R interval (CVR-R), were investigated with concomitant measuring of sciatic nerve blood flow (SNBF), ADP-induced platelet aggregation and polyol content in the sciatic nerves. The effects of an aldose reductase inhibitor, TAT, on these parameters were also studied. Administration of sucrose to OLETF rats caused significant body weight reduction and remarkable hyperglycemia. Sucrose-fed OLETF rats demonstrated significantly delayed MNCV, decreased CVR-R, reduced SNBF and increased platelet aggregation activity to ADP. Sorbitol and fructose accumulation, and myo-inositol depletion in sciatic nerves were observed only in sucrose-fed OLETF rats. These abnormalities were all ameliorated by the treatment with TAT. These observations suggest that the sucrose-fed OLETF rat is a useful animal model for studying the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy in human NIDDM, and that an aldose reductase inhibitor is a useful therapeutic agent for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy.
    Life Sciences 02/1997; 60(21):1847-57. · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To clarify roles of intermediate metabolites of the glycolytic pathway and the polyol pathway in nonenzymatic glycation under physiological conditions, we incubated bovine serum albumin with intermediates of both pathways in the micromolar range as well as with 20 mmol/l glucose, and observed the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). We found that triose phosphates, glyceraldehyde, and a novel polyol pathway-related metabolite, fructose 3-phosphate along with its breakdown product, 3-deoxyglucosone were extremely potent glycating agents that at nearly physiological concentrations on incubation with albumin produced substantial amounts of AGEs as early as 24 hours, while 20 mmol/l glucose afforded trace amounts of AGEs after two week incubation. The results along with the previous evidence of the increased level of intermediates in diabetic states may suggest that the intermediate metabolites rather than glucose contribute to enhanced glycation in diabetic tissues, inspite of the much lower concentrations compared with glucose.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/1996; 228(2):539-43. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats, an animal model of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and non-diabetic Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka rats were fed with or without sucrose and/or cilostazol, an anticoagulant, for 8 weeks. Sucrose-fed diabetic rats showed a delayed motor nerve conduction velocity, decreased R-R interval variability of electrocardiogram, reduced sciatic nerve blood flow, increased platelet aggregability and a decreased erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate concentration compared with non-sucrose-fed diabetic rats and non-diabetic rats. These abnormalities were significantly prevented by treatment with cilostazol without changes in the nerve tissue levels of polyols. These findings indicate that sucrose-fed Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats may be a useful animal model of neuropathy in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and that cilostazol may prevent the development of diabetic neuropathy by modifying vascular factors.
    European Journal of Pharmacology 11/1996; 313(3):201-9. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of propionyl-L-carnitine, an analogue of L-carnitine, and insulin on the oscillatory potentials of the electroretinogram was determined in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Propionyl-L-carnitine was administered at a daily dose of 0.5 g/kg by gavage for 4 weeks, while other rats were treated with subcutaneous injections of insulin (8-10 U/day). Both treatments shortened the peak latencies of the oscillatory potentials in the electroretinogram, which were significantly prolonged in untreated diabetic rats (O1, O2 and O3, and sigma (O1 + O2 + O3)) (P < 0.0001 vs. untreated normal rats). A significant decrease in the erythrocyte free carnitine level in diabetic rats was prevented by both treatments. Insulin produced a significant reduction of retinal glucose, sorbitol and fructose levels in diabetic rats, while propionyl-L-carnitine failed to do so. However, both treatments markedly reduced serum lipids levels in the diabetic rats. These findings provide information on the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy as well as suggesting the potential therapeutic value of propionyl-L-carnitine for retinopathy.
    European Journal of Pharmacology 10/1996; 311(2-3):199-206. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of a novel hypoglycemic agent, calcium(2s)-2-benzyl-3-(cis-hexahydro-2-isoindolinylcarbonyl) propionate dihydrate (KAD-1229), which is a benzyl succinate derivative, on liver metabolism were investigated using isolated hepatocytes from normal rats. In the presence of 10 mM glucose, KAD-1229 increased the L-lactate production (41.1 +/- 0.9 versus 60.9 +/- 2.6 mumol of lactate/g of cells/30 min; P < 0.05) and inhibited gluconeogenesis in hepatocytes (0.94 +/- 0.02 versus 0.70 +/- 0.03 mumol of [2-14C]-pyruvate converted to glucose/g of cells/20 min; P < 0.05). These effects by KAD-1229 were accompanied by an increase in the cellular content of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (F-2,6-P2), which is one of the important regulators of hepatic glucose metabolism, in a dose-dependent manner (0.05-2.5 mM). KAD-1229 also stimulated the oxidation of [2-14C]-pyruvate and [6-14C]-glucose in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (+18 and +31%, respectively), indicating that stimulation of tricarboxylic acid cycle activity and/or enhancement of the glycolytic flux rate had occurred. Moreover, KAD-1229 did not modify the activities of 6-phosphofructo 2-kinase or fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase, but increased significantly the accumulation of fructose 6-phosphate in hepatocytes. These results suggest that KAD-1229 has extrapancreatic effects on hepatic glucose metabolism, that its actions are mediated through the inhibition of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and stimulation of both the 6-phosphofructo 1-kinase reaction and tricarboxylic acid cycle activity by increasing the F-2,6-P2 content in hepatocytes, and that these multiple effects may account in part for the ability of KAD-1229 to reduce blood glucose levels in vivo.
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 09/1996; 34(1):13-22. · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the usefulness of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors in glycemic control of patients with NIDDM. The involvement of carbohydrate ingestion in manifestation of the effects of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors was also investigated. A total of 41 patients hospitalized with NIDDM (22 patients receiving sulfonylurea and 19 receiving insulin therapy) were given alpha-glucosidase inhibitors during the period when their blood glucose levels were well controlled. They were followed for 3 weeks as inpatients and for an additional 6 months as outpatients. They were retrospectively divided into two groups according to the percentage of carbohydrates in all sources of calories during outpatient management: the < 50% group and the > 50% group. Between these two groups, we compared circadian variation in blood glucose levels, HbA1c, and urine C-peptide. Treatment with alpha-glucosidase inhibitors during the hospital stay markedly improved circadian variation in blood glucose levels and HbA1c and decreased urine C-peptide in both groups. While HbA1c returned to its pretreatment level at 6 months after the treatment in the < 50% group, HbA1c had further improved in the > 50% group at 6 months. alpha-Glucosidase inhibitors are useful for glycemic control in patients with NIDDM and the percentage of carbohydrate in all calorie sources is an important factor for the expression of their effects.
    Diabetes Care 06/1996; 19(6):642-7. · 7.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of a prostacyclin analog, beraprost sodium, on the electroretinogram, motor nerve conduction velocity, and nerve blood flow was determined in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes and was compared with the effect of insulin. Beraprost sodium (0.01 mg x kg-1 x day-1 for 8 weeks) significantly shortened the peak latency of the electroretinogram b-wave, increased tail nerve conduction velocity, and increased sciatic nerve blood flow in diabetic rats (P < 0.0003, 0.0001, and 0.0001 vs. untreated diabetic rats, respectively). This was accompanied by a significant increase in the 6-keto-prostaglandin F1alpha content of the thoracic aorta and a marked increase in the cAMP content of the sciatic nerve. Beraprost sodium had no effect on the sorbitol and fructose contents of the sciatic nerve and retina, but insulin (8-10 U/day) significantly reduced both parameters. These findings suggest that beraprost sodium may be useful for prevention of vascular and neural dysfunction in the retina and peripheral nerve.
    Diabetes 03/1996; 45(3):361-366. · 7.90 Impact Factor